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INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Carl Zweben, PhD


Life Fellow ASME
Fellow SAMPE and ASM
Associate Fellow, AIAA
Composites & Thermal Materials Consultant
62 Arlington Road
Devon, PA 19333-1538
Phone: 610-688-1772
E-mail: c.h.zweben@usa.net
http://sites.google.com/site/zwebenconsulting

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 1

The information in these slides is part of a short


course on composite materials that is presented
publicly and in-house
Contact author for information

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 2

OUTLINE
Introduction
Key fibers and composites
Status of PMCs, MMCs, CAMCs, CMCs
Applications
Appendix

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 3

INTRODUCTION

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 4

COMPOSITE MATERIAL
1. Two or more materials bonded together
(Anthony Kelly)
Distinguishes composites from alloys
2. A material consisting of any combination of
fibers, whiskers and particles in a common
matrix

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 5

WHY COMPOSITES?
High specific strength (strength/density)
High specific modulus (modulus/density)
Fatigue resistance
Creep and creep rupture resistance
Low, tailorable coefficient of thermal expansion
High temperature capability
Wear resistance
Corrosion resistance
Tailorable electrical conductivity
Very low to very high
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 6

WHY COMPOSITES? (continued)


Tailorable thermal conductivity
very low to extremely high
Tailorable mechanical and thermal properties
Unique combinations of properties
Great design flexibility
Formable to complex shapes
Low cost (some)
Enabling technology for many applications, e.g.
Lightweight vehicle and aerospace structures
High-performance thermal management
Lightweight optical systems
Infrastructure repair
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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DESIGN FLEXIBILITY

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Slide 8

CLASSES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS


REINFORCEMENT
Polymer

Metal

Ceramic Carbon

Polymer

Metal

Ceramic

Carbon

MATRIX

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)


Metal Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC)
Carbon Matrix Composites (CAMCs)
Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCCs)
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 9

REINFORCEMENTS

Continuous Fibers

Discontinuous Fibers,
Whiskers

Particles

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Fabrics, Braids, etc.

Slide 10

TERMINOLOGY
Advanced composite: composite with properties
superior to those of glass fiber-reinforced
polymer (GFRP)
Specific property
Absolute property divided by density (or
specific gravity, which is dimensionless)

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 11

BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPOSITES


Straw--reinforced mud cited in Old Testament
Organic fiber-reinforced CMC
GFRP well established by 1950s
R&D on advanced composites: CCCs, PMCs,
MMCs and CMCs started 1960s-1970s
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs)
became dominant advanced composites in 1970s
CCCs established for thermal protection ~ 1970s
MMCs used in specialty applications
Automobile engines
Electronics thermal management
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 12

BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPOSITES (continued)


CMCs used in specialty applications
GFRP most widely used composite, by far
CFRP dominates high-performance applications
Composites now baseline in numerous aerospace
and commercial applications
Industrial applications now largest sector
Everything except aerospace and sports
Wind turbine blades, infrastructure, etc.

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 13

COMMONTYPES
TYPESOF
OFLAMINATES
LAMINATES
COMMON

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KEY FIBERS AND COMPOSITES

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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KEY FIBERS
Glass
E-glass most widely used fiber by orders of
magnitude
Others: high-strength, chemical-resistant
Carbon
Workhorse high-performance fibers
Many types: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch,
CVD, etc.)
Boron
Silicon carbide-based
Alumina-based
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 16

KEY FIBERS (continued)


High-modulus synthetic organics
Aramid (aromatic polyamide)
High density polyethylene
PBO
M5 PIPD
Natural organic fibers, e.g.
Flax, jute, hemp and kenaf, wood, etc.
Basalt

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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CARBON FIBER IMPROVEMENTS 1965 - 2005


1965**

2005

Max modulus, GPa (MSI)

380 (55)

965 (140)

Max tens str, GPa (KSI)

2.3 (330)

6.9 (1000)

No. of PAN-based fibers

Dozens

No. of pitch-based fibers

Many

Max therm cond, W/m.K

30

2000

Max fiber length

1m

Continuous

Minimum cost

$2000/Kg

$16/Kg

** Carbon fibers were experimental in 1965


Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 18

ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

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Specific Tensile Strength (GPa)

SPECIFIC TENSILE STRENGTH vs SPECIFIC MODULUS


(Tensile strength/density vs. Modulus/density)
2500

Unidirectional
Quasi-Isotropic

UHS PAN C/Ep

2000 E-Glass/Ep

Aramid/Ep

Aluminum, Steel,
Titanium,
Magnesium

SM PAN C/Ep

1500

1000

UHM PAN C/Ep

Boron/Ep
500

SiCp/Al

0
0

UHM Pitch C/Ep

Be

100

200

300

Specific Modulus (MPa)


Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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MAXIMUM USE TEMPERATURE vs. DENSITY

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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CONTINUOUS FIBERS MAKE CERAMICS AND CARBON


USEFUL STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

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COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL
EXPANSION (ppm/K)

CTE OF SILICON-CARBIDE-PARTICLE-REINFORCED
ALUMINUM (Al/SiC) vs PARTICLE VOLUME FRACTION
25

Aluminum

Powder Metallurgy
Infiltration

20
Copper
E-glass PCB

15

Beryllium

10

NEW MATERIAL

Titanium, Steel
Alumina

Silicon

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

PARTICLE VOLUME FRACTION (%)


Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 23

Si, GaAs, Silica, Alumina, Beryllia,


Aluminum Nitride, LTCC

1200

600
HOPG
(1700)

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (W/mK)

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY vs CTE FOR


PACKAGING MATERIALS

500

Diamond-Particle-Reinforced Metals
and Ceramics
C/Cu

400

Silver

C/C

Copper
SiC/Cu

300

C/Ep

C/Al
Aluminum

200

Cu/W

SiC/Al (Al/SiC)
Si-Al

100
Invar

Kovar

E-glass PCB

0
-5

10

15

20

25

COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION (ppm/K)


Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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APPLICATIONS

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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STATUS OF COMPOSITES
PMCs workhorse materials for structures
Wide range of commercial and aerospace
applications
E-glass and carbon key fibers
Thermosets key resins
Increasing use of thermoplastics
Natural fibers in automotive secondary parts
Nanoclay/thermoplastics in automobiles
Carbon matrix composites
CCCs well established for thermal protection
SiC/carbon in aircraft engine parts

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 26

STATUS OF COMPOSITES (cont.)


CMCs
Challenging CAMCs
Limited, but significant use
MMCs
Cermets (ceramic/metal) widely used
E.g. tungsten carbide cutting tools
Used in Honda and Toyota auto engines
Limited use of fiber- and particle-reinforced
materials in structures and machine parts
Transmission lines in early production
Widely used in electronic packaging

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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KEY ADVANCED COMPOSITES APPLICATIONS


Aerospace & defense structures
Aircraft
Spacecraft
Missiles and launch vehicles
Ships
Optical systems
Aircraft engines
Sports equipment
Natural gas vehicle fuel tanks
Wind turbine blades

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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KEY ADVANCED COMPOSITES APPLICATIONS


(cont)

Infrastructure
Biomedical equipment
Precision machinery
Oil exploration and production
Automobile engines
High-end automobile structures and brakes
Machinery
Electronics and photonics thermal management

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 29

COMPOSITES ARE THE MATERIALS OF


THE HERE AND NOW

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 30

APPENDIX 1
PROPERTIES OF SELECTED
COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 31

PROPERTIES OF SELECTED COMPOSITES

Thousands of different materials in production


Polymer matrix composites
Metal matrix composites
Carbon matrix composites
Carbon/carbon composites
Ceramic matrix composites

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 32

PROPERTIES OF UNIDIRECTIONAL ULTRAHIGHSTRENGTH PAN CARBON/ POLYMER


Axial extensional modulus = 25 MSI (170 GPa)
Transverse extensional modulus = 1.5 MSI (10 GPa)
Axial shear modulus = 0.6 MSI (4.1 GPa)
Axial Poissons ratio = 0.25
Axial tensile strength = 510 KSI (3530 MPa)
Transverse tensile strength = 6 KSI (41 MPa)
Axial compression strength = 200 KSI (1380 MPa)
Transverse compression strength = 25 KSI (170 MPa)
Axial CTE = 0.3 PPM/F (0.5 PPM/K)
Transverse CTE = 15 PPM/F (27 PPM/K)
Axial Thermal Conductivity = 6 BTU/h-ft-F (10 W/mK)
Transverse Thermal Cond = 0.3 BTU/h-ft-F (0.5 W/mK)
Density = 0.058 PCI (1.61g/cm3)
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 33

PROPERTIES OF QUASI-ISOTROPIC ULTRAHIGHSTRENGTH PAN CARBON/ POLYMER


Extensional modulus = 9.1 MSI (63 GPa)
Shear modulus = 3 MSI (21 GPa)
Poissons ratio = 0.32
Tensile strength = 200 KSI (1350 MPa)
Compression strength = 84 KSI (580 MPa)
Inplane CTE = 1.3 PPM/F (2.3 PPM/K)
Inplane thermal cond = 3 BTU/h-ft-F (6 W/mK)
Density = 0.058 PCI (1.61 g/cm3)

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 34

PROPERTIES OF UNIDIRECTIONAL ULTRAHIGHMODULUS PITCH CARBON/POLYMER


Axial extensional modulus = 70 MSI (480 GPa)
Transverse extensional modulus = 1.5 MSI (10 GPa)
Axial shear modulus = 0.6 MSI (4.1 GPa)
Axial Poissons ratio = 0.25
Axial tensile strength = 130 KSI (900 MPa)
Transverse tensile strength = 3 KSI (20 MPa)
Axial compression strength = 40 KSI (280 MPa)
Transverse compression strength = 15 KSI (100 MPa)
Inplane shear strength = 6 KSI (41 MPa)
Axial CTE = - 0.6 PPM/F (-1.1 PPM/K)
Transverse CTE = 15 PPM/F (27 PPM/K)
Axial Thermal Conductivity = 380 BTU/h-ft-F (660 W/mK)
Transverse Thermal Cond = 6 BTU/h-ft-F (10 W/mK)
Density = 0.065 PCI (1.8 g/cm3)
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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PROPERTIES OF QUASI-ISOTROPIC ULTRAHIGH


MODULUS PITCH CARBON/ POLYMER
Extensional modulus = 24 MSI (165 GPa)
Shear modulus = 9.2 MSI (9.2 GPa)
Poissons ratio = 0.32
Tensile strength = 45 KSI (310 MPa)
Compression strength = 14 KSI (96 MPa)
Inplane CTE = - 0.2 PPM/F (-0.4 PPM/K)
Inplane therm cond = 195 BTU/h-ft-F (335 W/mK)
Density = 0.065 PCI (1.80 g/cm3)

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 36

PROPERTIES OF SELECTED UNIDIRECTIONAL MMCs


Fiber

Matrix

Density
g/cm3

Axial
Mod
GPa
(Msi)

Trans
Mod
GPa
(Msi)

Axial
Tens
Str
MPa
(Msi)

Trans
Tens
Str
MPa
(Ksi)

Axial
Comp
Str
MPa
(Ksi)

UHM Carb
(pitch)

Al

2.4

450
(65)

15
(5)

690
(100)

15
(5)

340
(50)

Boron

Al

2.6

210
(30)

140
(20)

1240
(180)

140
(20)

1720
(250)

Alumina

Al

3.2

240
(35)

130
(19)

1700
(250)

120
(17)

1800
(260)

SiC

Ti

3.6

260
(38)

170
(25)

1700
(250)

340
(50)

2760
(400)

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM, TITANIUM AND


SILICON CARBIDE-PARTICLE REINFORCED ALUMINUM
Aluminum Titanium
(6061-T6) (6Al-4V)
Property
Modulus, GPa
Tens yield, MPa
Tens Ult, Mpa
Elongation, %
Cond, W/m-K
CTE, PPM/K
Density (g/cm3)

69
275
310
15
180
23
2.77

100
1000
1100
5
6.7
9
4.43

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Composite
Particle Vf (%)
25
55
70
114 186
265
400 495
485 530
225
3.8
0.6
0.1
~200 ~200 ~200
16.4 10.4
6.2
2.88 2.96 3.00
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TITANIUM CARBIDE PARTICLE-REINFORCED


STEEL (FERRO-TIC)
Tool Steel

Ferro-TiC

Density, g/cm3

7.9

6.60

Elastic modulus, GPa

200

290

Modulus/density, GPa

25

44

Tensile strength, GPa

0.6-2.0

1.5

3.6

Comp strength, GPa

Source: Alloy Technology


Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 39

ULTRAHIGH-THERMAL-CONDUCTIVITY MATERIALS
k
CTE
Specific
k/SG
MATERIAL
(W/m-K)
(ppm/K)
Gravity (W/m-K)
Copper
400
17
8.9
45
Diamond/Al
325-600
7-9
3-4
93-171
Diamond/Cu
400-1200
5-7.7.7
5.5-7
62-185
Diamond/Co
>600
3.0
4.1
>146
Diamond/Ag
550-650
5-8
6-7
85-100
Diamond/SiC
600-680
1.8
3.3
182-206
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Diamond/Si
525
4.5
Diamond/Mg
575
5.5
Diamond+SiC/Al
575
5
Materials below line are experimental

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 2D ACC-4


ADVANCED CARBON/CARBON (0/90)
PROPERTY
Tensile modulus
Compression modulus
Inplane shear modulus
Interlaminar tensile modulus
Tensile strength
Compression strength
Inplane shear strength
Interlaminar shear strength
Interlaminar tensile strength

103 GPa
103 GPa
17 GPa
10 GPa
276 MPa
165 MPa
41 MPa
10 MPa
10 MPa

15 Msi
15 Msi
2.5 Msi
1.5 Msi
40 Ksi
24 Ksi
2.5 Ksi
1.5 Ksi
0.9 Ksi

Source: H.G. Maahs, Carbon-Carbon Composites, Flight Vehicle Materials, Structures and
Dynamics, vol. 3, ASME, New York, 1992

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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PROPERTIES OF ENHANCED SiC/SiC


Reinforcement: CG Nicalon plain weave fabric
Process: chemical vapor infiltration
Proprietary materials added to matrix to protect fibers
Density: 2.30 g/cm3 (0.083 lb/in3)
Axial tensile modulus, GPa (Msi): 140 (20)
Inplane shear modulus, GPa (Ksi)
: 70 (10)
Tensile strength, MPa (Ksi): 225 (33)
Compressive strength, MPa (Ksi): 500 (73)
Inplane shear strength MPa, (Ksi)
: 180 (26)
Through-thickness tensile strength, MPa (Ksi): >13 (>1.9)
Interlam. shear strength, MPa (Ksi): 30 (4.3)
Source: AlliedSignal/Honeywell Advanced Composites/GE
Power Systems

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 42

APPENDIX 2
ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMINOLOGY

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 43

TERMINOLOGY
Homogeneous
Properties constant throughout material
Heterogeneous
Properties vary throughout material
E.g. different in matrix and reinforcement
Composites always heterogeneous
Isotropic
Properties the same in every direction
Particulate composites can be isotropic

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 44

TERMINOLOGY (continued)
Anisotropic
Properties vary with direction
Fiber-reinforced materials typically anisotropic
May be inplane isotropic (transversely
isotropic)
Specific property
Absolute property divided by density (or
specific gravity, which is dimensionless)

Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

Slide 45

KEY ABBREVIATIONS

PMC: polymer matrix composite


CMC: ceramic matrix composite
MMC: metal matrix composite
CAMC: carbon matrix composite
CCC: carbon/carbon composite
CFRP: carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
GFRP: glass fiber-reinforced polymer
AFRP: aramid fiber-reinforced polymer
C: carbon
CNT: carbon nanotube
PAN: polyacrylonitrile
Ep: epoxy
BMI: bismaleimide
PI: polyimide
DRA: discontinuously reinforced aluminum USAF
SiC particle-reinforced aluminum
Called Al/SiC in electronic packaging industry
Copyright Carl Zweben 2010

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