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Eurocode 7 and New Design Challenges

A Wee Scottish Bridge

Stuart Pennington
19 March 2013
UCL

E d Rd

Challenges with pile design

Introduction
New cable stayed bridge
Specimen design

Typically piers on pile groups, central tower on spread foundation


Piles 3.0m diameter

Introduction

Made ground
Beach
Alluvium
Raised beach
Till
Fluvio-glacial
SST/XST/MST
Dolerite
Tuff
Limestone
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Effects of Actions
Challenges
Combinations and factors (y, g): numerous

Set C (GEO Design Approach 1 Combination 2): forgotten


Structural and geotechnical engineers: interaction

Effects of Actions - factors

ULS

SLS

Effects of Actions - factors

Effects of Actions
Challenges
Combinations and factors (y, g): numerous

Set C (GEO Design Approach 1 Combination 2): forgotten


Structural and geotechnical engineers: interaction

Effects of Actions - interaction


STRUCTURES

Defines:
- characteristic actions
- combinations of actions
- partial factors (g)
- factors (y)
- construction tolerances
- serviceability criteria

Designs:
- structure

GEOTECHNICS

Calculates:
- design actions
Defines:
- construction tolerances
- serviceability criteria

Calculates:
- design resistances
- effects of actions
- global stability
- movement
Designs:
- geotechnical elements

Earth
Loading

Resistance
Challenges
Partial factors for accidental loading: not given

Large diameter piles: calculation model


Model factor: 1.2 or 1.4?

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Resistance - factors for accidental loading


Rc;d = Rb;k / gb + Rs;k / gs
Rt;d = Rt;k / gs;t

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Resistance - factors for accidental loading


Maintain level of reliability
Raccidental gACC-EN1992 / gPERM/TRAN-EN1992 . R4

Resistance

Symbol

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R4 with
ver. SLS

Raccidental

Base

gb

1.7

1.5

Shaft

gs

1.4

1.2

1.7

1.5

Shaft (tension) gs;t

Others

Set

Resistance
Challenges
Partial factors for accidental loading: not given

Large diameter piles: calculation model


Model factor: 1.2 or 1.4?

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Resistance - large diameter piles


Typical rock socket design:
-

generally empirical

socket friction (fs) = func{UCS}

limited to diameter 1500mm

For piles > 1500mm fs reduces with increasing diameter


Rocket analyses:
-

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fs = func{c'i, f'i, fb, n, a, shi, Em}

Resistance - large diameter piles


Reasonable agreement at 1.0m

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Resistance - large diameter piles


Sensitivity analyses:
-

socket friction influenced by several variables

not possible to confirm influence of diameter from published data

GI cant directly determine socket roughness

Hence:

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Resistance
Challenges
Partial factors for accidental loading: not given

Large diameter piles: confidence in design


Model factor: 1.2 or 1.4?

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Resistance - model factors

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Resistance - model factors

pile

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Outcomes
Manage geotechnical/structural interaction early on
Complete simple checks - its easy to get lost in partial factors and combinations

New partial factors ok but remember reliability


Check your calculation model
Be clear on what your pile test is testing

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Outcomes