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• GPS technology concepts
• GPS and GNSS overview
• Assisted GPS (A-GPS)

• Basic tests required for GPS receiver verification
• Test solutions
• Signal creation for GPS receiver test
• A-GPS test systems

© 2010 Agilent Technologies

Typical Tests for GPS Receiver Verification
Time To First Fix (TTFF)
Cold, warm, hot start conditions

Acquisition sensitivity
Tracking sensitivity

Location Accuracy
Absolute and relative accuracy
Moving GPS receiver accuracy
Satellite tracking accuracy

© 2010 Agilent Technologies

Time to First Fix (TTFF) Time To First Fix (TTFF) For cold. valid almanac and ephemeris (typical TTFF 1-5 sec) • Need to specify satellite power level when testing TTFF  Test requires a multi-satellite GPS signal with valid navigational messages © 2010 Agilent Technologies Sensitivity Sensitivity Acquisition sensitivity Tracking sensitivity Sensitivityminimum = -174dBm/Hz + C/Nominimum + NFreceiver • Minimum level of signal that allows GPS receiver to acquire or track the GPS signal (may also be specified in terms of C/No) – Acquisition sensitivity: minimum level to successfully perform TTFF under cold start (typically around -140 to -150 dBm) – Tracking sensitivity: minimum level to maintain location fix once it has been attained (typically -150 to -160 dBm)  Test requires multi-satellite GPS signal with valid navigational messages for TTFF. valid almanac. and real-time satellite power control to reduce power levels to test sensitivity © 2010 Agilent Technologies . no valid ephemeris data (typical TTFF 30-40 sec) – Hot start: Time and last position known. may be up to several minutes) – Warm start: Last position and approximate time known. hot start conditions • Time between start of GPS signal and the acquisition of a location fix by the GPS receiver • May be tested under different conditions or states of the GPS receiver: – Cold start: Receiver does not have time or position information. warm. no valid ephemeris (or almanac) data (typical TTFF 30-50 sec.

Location Accuracy Location Accuracy Absolute and relative accuracy Moving GPS receiver accuracy Satellite tracking accuracy • Absolute location accuracy: Closeness of the receiver’s calculated location fix to the ideal (simulated) location • Relative location accuracy: Compares location fixes between tests • May be tested for both stationary and moving GPS receivers • Satellite tracking accuracy: Track location of single satellite  Tests require multi-satellite GPS signal for location fix. moving GPS receiver scenarios. repeatable test scenarios. and ability to vary power and other satellite parameters to test tracking © 2010 Agilent Technologies Secondary GPS Verification Tests Calculate reacquisition time • Time required to resume location fix following loss of signal RF interference measurements • Measures the ability of the GPS receiver to operate in the presence of interfering (jamming) signals (second RF source required) © 2010 Agilent Technologies .

15 allows you to reproduce all satellites visible from any location.Why You Need GPS Simulation GPS simulation offers the following advantages over “live” satellite signals: • Repeatability – Ensure exact replication of the signal conditions for each test • Flexibility – Use different scenarios to simulate different locations and times. time. or location TTFF Sensitivity Accuracy . known impairments © 2010 Agilent Technologies Requirements for GPS Test Signals GPS Signal Simulation Feature Test Challenges Met Multiple channels to simulate multiple satellites (4 to 15) Minimum of 4 for TTFF. Stationary and moving GPS receiver scenarios Test more realistic case of moving GPS receiver as well as simple stationary case Real-time satellite power adjustments. with different satellites and orbits • Control – Use standard test scenarios throughout your process • Stress Testing – Turn individual satellites on/off and change satellite power – Reduce satellite visibility – Introduce specific. ability to reacquire satellite signals Custom scenario generation capability Flexibility to create scenarios for any date. satellite visibility on/off Test sensitivity.

delay) Add calibrated AWGN Add broadband noise to control C/No of GPS signal TTFF Sensitivity Accuracy © 2010 Agilent Technologies . or other obstructions Ionospheric and tropospheric modeling Account for atmospheric effects on GPS signals (refraction. elevation mask Test loss of visibility due to tunnels. mountains.Requirements for GPS Test Signals Impairments Feature Test Challenges Met Multipath signals (requires more channels) Simulate real-world situation with reflected signals from obstructions Reduced satellite visibility: partial or complete.