Final 05 Sol

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Final 05 Sol

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Final Examination

May 4, 2005; 1 PM 3 PM

Name:

Student ID:

1. A reversible reaction A R B is taking place in a PFR. The equilibrium constant (in terms of

concentrations) is 4. 50% of the equilibrium conversion is obtained. A CSTR of equal size is placed

downstream of the PFR (PFR-CSTR) to increase conversion. What is the total conversion in the reactor

sequence with this arrangement?

20 points

A B

Solution to the first-order reversible constant volume PFR

Xe

k = X e ln

Xe X

C A0 X e

Xe

C

Ke = 4 = B =

=

C A C A0 (1 X e ) (1 X e )

1

1

= 1+

Xe

Ke

X e = 0.8

X 1 ( given) = 0.5 0.8 = 0.4

In the first situation,

Xe

0.8

k = X e ln

= 0.8ln

= 0.5545

0.8 0.4

Xe X

CSTR of equal size placed placed downstream

V

X X1

= 2

FA0

r2

CB

X

) = kC A0 (1 X 2 ) 2

Ke

Ke

X 2 X1

k =

= 0.5545

X2

(1 X 2 )

Ke

r2 = k (C A

2. A liquid antibiotic containing 500 mg of active ingredient is given to a patient with a body fluid of 40 liters.

In the stomach, the antibiotic can either be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach walls or can

be eliminated through the gastrointestinal tract. Both these processes are first order with rate constants of

0.25 h-1 and 0.5 h-1 respectively. The only mechanism for the antibiotic to leave the bloodstream is by

elimination through urine. This reaction can also be assumed to be first order with a rate constant of 0.4 h-1.

The doctor wants to find out the exact time at which the concentration of this antibiotic in the blood peaks in

the patient. Determine this time and the concentration of the antibiotic in the blood stream at this time.

C A Concentration of drug in stomach

CB Concentration of drug in blood

dC A

= k1C A k2C A

dt

dCB

= k1C A k3CB

dt

Series reaction

kC

CB = 1 A0 e kt e k3t

k3 k

k = k1 + k2

C A0 = 12.5 mg/l

Maximum concentration is when

t=

dCB

=0

dt

1

k

ln = 1.796 hours

k k3 k 3

CB = 2.03 mg/liter

20 points

3. The liquid-phase irreversible reaction A B is carried out in a CSTR. To learn the rate law, the residence

time, is varied and the effluent concentrations of species A are measured. Pure A enters the reactor at a

concentration of 7.5 mol/liter in all the runs given below.

Run

1

2

3

4

1

15

30

100

(min)

CA (mol/lit)

3.2

0.72

0.46

0.21

a. Write the mole balance for the CSTR where an nth order equation is taking place (in terms of

concentrations and residence time).

b. Show how you will plot the above data to obtain a straight line, and thus determine the reaction

order (n) and reaction rate constant k.

c. Plot the data on the paper provided and find n and k by the method you describe in step b.

20 points

CSTR Eqaution

C A0 C A

= kC An

C CA

ln A0

= ln(k ) + n ln C A

Plot

C CA

ln A0

versus ln C A

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

n=1.5

k=0.75

0.5

1.5

Series1

4. The elementary reversible liquid-phase reaction A R B is carried out in a CSTR. The reactor is jacketed

and is surrounded by a jacket. Pure A enters the reactor at a temperature of 270C. The following parameters

are given.

Rate constant k at 1000 C = 1.25 min -1 , E = 40, 000 cal/mole

Equilibrium constant K e at 1200 C = 75

UA = 4000 cal/min K; Ta = 37 0 C ; C pA = C pB = 45 cal/mol K; H Rx = 75 kcal/mol A

V = 100 liters, v0 = 10 lit/min, FA0 = 10 mol/min

Using the mole balance equation only, a relationship between conversion in the reactor and the reactor

temperature can be obtained. This relationship is shown in the following figure as a plot of XMB versus reactor

temperature.

a. Show the equation that was used to create this plot.

b. Develop an energy balance equation for the CSTR. Show how many steady states are possible

and determine the conversions and temperatures at the stable steady states.

c. Identify at least two strategies for obtaining higher conversions in this unit.

20 points

1.2

Xmb

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

280

300

320

340

360

380

Temperature

400

420

440

460

480

X EB =

UA(T Ta ) / FA0 + C pA (T T0 )

H Rx

1.6

1.4

1.2

Conversion

0.8

Xmb

Xeb

Series3

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

300

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

-0.2

Temperature

Two strategies Increase U or reduce Ta

460

480

500

B

is performed in a PBR at 450 K and 4 atm. Feed rate is 4 mol/s

2

containing 10% A and the rest inerts. The PBR is packed with 10 mm diameter spherical porous particles.

The intrinsic reaction rate is given as: rA' = 2 C A mol/kg(cat)-s . Bulk density of the catalyst is 2.5 kg/liter.

The diffusivity is 0.075 cm2/s. The pressure drop parameter alpha ( ) is found to be 0.001 kg -1 .

a. What is the value of the internal effectiveness factor?

b. How much catalyst (kg) is required to obtain 15% conversion in the reactor?

c. Find the pressure at the exit of the reactor.

20 points

=R

k

2 2.5

= 0.5

= 4.0824

D

0.075

3

1 = 0.5553

2

tanh

dX

(1 X ) P

FA0

= rA' = kC A = kC A0

dW

(1 + X ) P0

(1 X )

(1 W )1/ 2

(1 + X )

dX kC A0 (1 X )

(1 W )1/ 2

=

dW

FA0 (1 + X )

= kC A0

1

1+ X

k

2

(1

)

dX

=

W

dW

0 1 X

v0 0

(1 + ) ln

1

k 2

1 (1 W )3/ 2

X =

(1 X )

v0 3

v0 = 36.9

lit

; X = 0.15; = 0.05; = 0.001; = 0.5553;

s

k=2

W = 5.387 kg

P

= (1 W )1/ 2 = 0.9973

P0

P = 3.989 atm

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