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Third

Quarter
August
2008

Industry case studies

Table of Contents - Q3 2008


Electronic Fuel Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Eliminate Skid Vibration Problems . . . . . . . . . 5
Digital Fuel Valve Retrofit . . . . . . . . . . 10
Ignition Controls Test Finds Major Fuel Savings. . . . 12
NEW FEATURE: US Published Patent Overview . . . 13
Business Briefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

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The Results

CASE STUDY: ELECTRONIC FUEL CONTROL

Figure 1

Low-Cost Solution for Legacy Pipeline Engines


James J. McCoy, Jr.
Consulting Engineer,
Hoerbiger Engineering Services
Houston, Texas
Problem:
Many of the engines that are in use today in pipeline compressor stations
were designed and built in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. Most of these
engines are two-stroke, spark-ignited integral engines (compressors rods
and power rods connect to same crankshaft). These engines burn a small
fraction of the natural gas (methane) product that they are pumping, and
compress the gas in large, low-speed reciprocating compressors that are
very efficient at moving large volumes of gas down the pipeline with
each stroke of the compressor. Because the compressors are so efficient,
the engines remain in service despite the fact that on the power side, the
engines were designed when fuel costs were very low, and not a lot of
design emphasis was placed on fuel economy. The timing of the injection is accomplished by a camshaft driven at engine speed,, usually via a
push-rod/rocker arm assembly that activates a mechanical valve once per
revolution of the engine. This mechanical drive system causes the fuel
valve open/close event to be subject to variations on a cycle-by-cycle
basis that can cause fuel to be wasted.
Before about 1980, most of the ignition systems were magneto powered
system that timed the firing of each cylinders spark plug through a system of gears that turned in conjunction with the flywheel. Some of these
gears were turned by chains, and between the chain slack and gear mesh
error, the timing of the firing of each cylinder could be off as much as
plus or minus one to three degrees. This erratic firing has a detrimental
effect on the performance of the engine. By that time, automotive ignition systems had gone to a system that timed the firing of each cylinders
plug by sensing the position of the flywheel with magnetic sensors, and
this led to improved performance. In the eighties and nineties, the gas
pipelines began to retrofit ignition systems that incorporated a similar
system, with a much improved result. This type of ignition system is an
essential part of most upgraded engine systems sold today.
One important factor discovered in the pursuit of more modern and effective engine sub-systems is the effect of the fuel injection system on the
engines fuel efficiency. Most of the fuel injection modifications offered
to date have been very expensive and involve a major modification to the
fuel system. This HES system is an effort to obtain the fuel saving benefits of electronic fuel injection without most of the costs involved with
many of the current electronic retrofits. This paper demonstrates what an
important improvement that can be.
The Plan
In order to evaluate such a system, cylinder-by-cylinder control of the
gas is needed, instead of a system that feeds fuel in from a manifold
where the pressure is varied in order to control speed. The system tested
incorporates an electronic fuel valve that is attached as close as possible
to the mechanical valve. This electronic valve is fed fuel at a constant
pressure of < 80psi, and is controlled by a computer that sends a pulse
width signal to tell the valve how long to stay open in order to maintain
speed. The control system is able to bias the signal to each individual
cylinder, to enable a particular cylinder to get more/less fuel than all the
others, depending on what is needed to keep the output from each cylinder balanced. Also, the valve is triggered to open at exactly the correct
crank angle (piston position), much like the spark is triggered in the ignition system.
Hoerbiger Engineering Services has been involved in the retrofitting of
large bore gas engines with efficiency improving systems for more than
five years, and some of these systems involve the use of low pressure
valves on four cycle engines. These valves have operated on some engines for three or four years, and have proved to be reliable and accurate
gas admission valves. Because these valves are designed to operate at
pressures below 150 psi, there is a need to protect them from the high cylinder compression and combustion pressures, which can vary from 250
psi to over 800 psi. With a custom designed adapter, this valve can be
mounted right before the mechanical fuel injection valve. The fuel line
from the manifold is now connected to this electronic valve, and the manifold now becomes a constant pressure fuel rail. Since this valve operates
in a constant-pressure, variable-time mode, the governor that has been
needed to maintain speed by varying the fuel pressure can be eliminated.

This is a significant
changed that allows
fuel to be accurately
metered to each cylinder. With the old
system, the governor
was located upstream
of the manifold, and
thus quite some distance from each valve.
As the governor made
changes to the flow of
fuel, the response of
the engine took a longer time. With the new
system, the valve is right at the cylinder, and the response to changes
from the control system is seen by the engine is on each individual cycle.
This allows the engine to run more consistently on a cycle-by-cycle basis, thus improving fuel efficiency.
The valves are controlled by a special control system, which sends a signal to each electronic fuel valve to tell it exactly when to open, based on
a position sensing system that monitors the position of the flywheel. The
global signal that controls speed can be biased in fractions of a millisecond on a per cylinder basis to balance the power cylinders. Normally,
the electronic fuel valves are opened at the same crank angle that the
mechanical fuel valve opens, but with this electronic system, this can be
varied to optimize the combustion. Since the pressure to the electronic
fuel valve on each cylinder is higher than the normal pressure supplied
to the mechanical valves (usually ~70 psi compared to ~30 psi), the electronic valve is not open as long as the mechanical valve. The speed of
the electronic valve enables the fuel to be precisely metered into each
cylinder, and this improves cycle-to-cycle combustion stability.
The graph above (Figure 1) demonstrates the improvement in fuel rate on
a sixty year old Cooper GMV-10. This engine normally runs at less than
80% torque, but with this system, it can easily be configured to drop a
cylinder if the power requirement drops below a certain level. The benefit of this skip-firing has been known for some time, and to be able to do
it automatically is a real benefit. This feature is now being incorporated
into the control system, and the expected result is a flattened fuel curve.
This yields specific fuel rates that approach the levels seen near full load,
even when the load drops into the 70%, 60%, and even 50% levels.

creases, the ratio of fuel-to-air in the cylinder is reduced, so the mixture


in the cylinder becomes very lean. Lean to the point, usually at less than
85% torque, that the engine begins to misfire. These misfires, with the
original fuel system, are fueled misfires, and this caused the up-turn in
the fuel curve at light load (see Fig. 1). In many cases, these engines will
waste as much as 20%-25% of the fuel with these fueled misfires. With
the EFC system, this can be prevented by automatically, and temporarily, lay-down of a cylinder or two. This is done by having the control
system programmed to not fuel a certain cylinder for so many cycles,
then bring that cylinder back up before it has any detrimental effect on
the engine.
Summary - HES Electronic Fuel Control System
- Low Cost, payback in <1.5 yrs in most cases
- Operates with existing fuel system
- Engine can be started and run at much lower speeds
- Offers better fuel rate across load range
- Eliminates the need for mechanical or electronic governor
- Offers ability to automatically balance engine (upgrade)
- Offers ability to disable power cylinder when operating lightly
loaded, with big savings in fuel.
- Reduces mechanical failures on lightly loaded engines by reducing
misfires
- Simple installation (Can be done by station personnel after a particular

The Possibilities
One major advantages of this system is the ability to configure it in such a
manner that it will automatically balance the power cylinders. It has long
been known that a balanced engine, i.e., one where the power cylinders
each produce power with the optimal peak pressure and peak pressure
angle, is the most fuel efficient way to run an engine. Before now, the
only way to get a real-time engine balancing system was to install an expensive, high pressure fuel injection system. Many of the smaller, legacy
engines will never be fitted with that type of system because of both the
cost of the system, and the cost to upgrade the fuel system to handle
the high fuel pressures needed. This system, while lower in initial cost
with no cost (or very little) cost for upgrading the fuel system, offers the
same ability to do real-time engine balancing, thus ensuring optimal fuel
performance. Papers have been published that demonstrate a fuel rate
improvement of 1-3% based on balance alone. Now this is achievable
with a relatively inexpensive upgrade to this system by adding the peak
pressure sensors, and the control system software to do that function.
The balancing upgrade can pay for the additional cost in a few months of
operation, based on todays high cost for natural gas. (As of July 1, 2008,
that cost was over $11.00/MCF)

Cooper GMV-10
Clark BA-8

Another major function this system offers is the ability to lay-down


one or more cylinders when the power from all cylinders is not needed.
This is particularly important if the engine is a two cycle and is blower or
pump scavenged. The two cycle engine needs the positive air manifold
pressure to accomplish scavenging of the burned gasses in a short period
of time. When this is done with an air pump or blower, there is no way to
reduce the amount of air going into the cylinder. Because of this, when
the air becomes dense (low ambient temperatures) or when the load de-

p. 4

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

GM Journal

GM

Journal

CASE STUDY: METHODS AND OPTIONS TO ELIMINATE SKID VIBRATION PROBLEMS


A Dynamic Skid Analysis Combined with the Appropriate Field Vibration Measurements
Can Give Insight into Various Ways To Reduce Vibration Levels of the Skid and Supported Machinery. These Analyses are particularly important for Flexible Skid Mounted
Packages that Support High Speed Compressors and Engines where Mechanical Resonance is oftentimes an Issue.
Marlan Jarzombek, PE & Zora Raoufpour, PE, PMP, Atmos Energy
Angel Rivera & Robert McKee, Ph.D., Southwest Research Institute

mounted engines (Units A & B) that drive high speed reciprocating compressors and operate in parallel. To acquire the necessary data to document the engine and skid
vibration levels, velocity probes were placed as needed
to measure vibration levels while engine operating speed
was varied. Figure 1 shows a photograph demonstrating
some of the velocity test points on Unit A. A similar testing configuration was used for Unit B. A description of
testing locations is given in Table 1.
Baseline data was recorded for Units A and B. Another
data set was acquired while the engine speed was varied
throughout the operating range. Vibration data was recorded in peak hold mode during speed changes so that
the maximum vibration amplitudes were captured.
During the test program, Unit A experienced difficulties
with start-up and Unit B was shut down to replace auxiliary equipment. This presented an opportunity to conduct
impact tests on both engines while the engines were not in
operation and therefore background noise was minimal.
This allowed for the capture of accurate modal response
data and identification of distinct mechanical responses
on both units.

Figure 1. Vibration Measurement Locations for Unit A and Unit B

Background
Skid mounted high speed machinery has become commonplace in the gas
compression industry today. Various skid designs exist and with each design,
there exists a different set of mechanical responses of the skid and machinery
that are mounted on the skid. These natural mechanical frequencies of the
skid can be excited by engine and compressor unbalanced forces and moments
as well as rolling torques, which can result in mechanical resonance and an
increase in vibration levels of skid components.
Mechanical finite element (FE) modeling of these skid structures and machinery is important so that mechanical resonance and excessive skid component
vibration can be predicted and avoided. Due to the complexity and uncertainty
in these types of models, it is sometimes necessary to obtain the appropriate
field vibration measurements to give insight into various ways to reduce vibration levels of the skid and supported components. This article will present
a case study where engine vibration levels were an issue due to mechanical
resonance, which resulted in excessive vibration of the engine and associated
components. The article will discuss the field data that was acquired on the engine and skid, the finite element analysis (FEA) that was performed to predict
the skid modes and vibration levels, and some options to reduce the vibration
levels of this particular engine and skid. Follow up data will also be presented
that documents the reduction of vibration levels due to the option selected for
implementation.
Test Procedure
Excessive vibration was reported on two separate physically identical skid
Table 1. Description of Test Points

Figure 2. Unit A Impact Data

Data Analysis
Impact data was acquired on Engines A and B to identify
the natural mechanical frequencies of each engine as it
sits on the adjustable engine mounts, pedestal, and lower
skid structure. Figures 2 and 3 present this data, which is
essentially the same for both engines as it should be for
physically identical units. The two modes of interest occur at approximately 16.5 Hz and 65.5 Hz. Unfortunately,
these modes are easily excited by 1 times operating speed
forces (1x) and 4 times operating speed forces (4x) from
the engine during operation. Significant 1x forces are always present for reciprocating engines and 4x forces are
significant for eight cylinder four cycle engines at half
orders, which are manifested in the rolling torques.
Both units were operated over an 850 rpm to 1,000 rpm
speed range while vibration data was acquired. Figures
4 and 5 present the horizontal vibration data acquired
at crankshaft level (top spectrum) and engine foot level
(bottom spectrum) on Unit A and Unit B, respectively.
The 1x vibration levels reached 0.7 ips on Unit A and 0.3
ips on Unit B at crankshaft level. The 4x vibration levels
reached 0.8 ips on Unit A and 0.8 ips on Unit B at the
engine foot level. SwRIs criteria for allowable vibration levels on high speed units is 1 ips at any discreet frequency or 1.5 ips overall. The vibration of these engines
does not exceed the 1 ips criteria but does exceed the 1.5
ips criteria. Although the SwRI overall criteria is allowable on some piping or attached components, this level
should not be seen on the foot of a major component,
such as the engine. The authors opinion of the vibration
levels experienced by both units is that it is excessive and
should be reduced. There is excessive buzzing of small
engine components that are susceptible to fatigue damage
if these vibrations are not addressed. The vibration levels
of Unit A are worse due to the larger 1x vibration levels.

Figure 3. Unit B Impact Data

Figure 4. Unit A Operating Data

- continued next page


Figure 5. Unit B Operating Data

GM Journal

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

p. 5

GM

Journal

CASE STUDY: METHODS AND OPTIONS TO ELIMINATE


SKID VIBRATION PROBLEMS
contd from previous page

Figure 6. Engine Vibration Profiles at 1x Operating Speed

Figures 6 and 7 present vibration profile data acquired on engines A and B at 1x and 4x, respectively. The data was acquired at various locations in the horizontal direction from the
bottom of the lower skid and up to crankshaft level. Both figures indicate that there is little movement of the bottom skid,
but vibration levels do increase through the pedestal height.
Vibration levels also increase across the engine supports, and
the rate of increase through this region at 4x is significant.
This vibration profile data indicates significant flexibility
across the upper pedestal and engine support region.

Figure 8 presents a plan profile of the Unit A vibration data
acquired at the top of the pedestal along its horizontal profile
at 1,000 rpm. The data indicates that the engine rocks back
and forth with similar vibration levels along the engine length
at 1x but the 4x vibrations are more significant near the center
and non-drive end of the engine.

Figure 7. Engine Vibration Profiles at 4x Operating Speed

The overall vibration levels found in the time-wave data are


shown in Figures 9 and 10 for Engines A and B, respectively.
The upper time-wave of each plot shows the vibration at the
crankshaft level while the lower time-wave shows the vibration at the engine foot. The vibration criteria of 1.5 ips overall is slightly exceeded by Engine A at crankshaft level but is
clearly exceeded at the engine foot level for both units.

Figure 8. Engine Vibration - Horizontal Profile at 1x and 4x (plan view)

Figure 9. Unit A Overall Vibration Levels

Once the field data was obtained, the next step was to compare
the measured data to what was predicted by the finite element
model. The FE skid analysis was revisited and the model was
tuned so that the engine modal frequencies and amplitudes
were similar to what was measured in the field. To accomplish this, the adjustable support stiffness was reduced significantly in the model. By making this change, the model was
in good agreement with the field data and the predicted modes
are found in Figure 11.
The next model was created to investigate the effects of replacing the adjustable supports with steel chocks and shims.
Figure 12 indicates that this modification would push both of
the engine modes off of resonance, which would significantly
reduce vibration levels.

The original model was modified to include one inch thick
t-section pedestal restraints (six total), as shown in Figure 13.
This modification also resulted in a significant increase in the
frequency of the two engine modes of concern. The model
predictions indicate that the pedestal restraints would also reduce engine vibration levels.

Figure 14 shows the modal results that include all of the modifications applied simultaneously. The modifications include
replacing the adjustable mounts with steel chocks, adding pedestal restraints, and extending the pedestal end plate by eight
inches in height. These simultaneous modifications would
result in a significant increase in the engine modal frequencies and a significant decrease in vibration levels during operation.

Figure 15 shows all of the potential modifications as well as
descriptions of each modification. Based on the analyses presented and various options available to reduce vibration levels, a decision was made to just replace the adjustable engine
supports with steel chocks and shims.

Figure 10. Unit B Overall Vibration Levels

p. 6

- continued p. 8

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

Figure 11. Original Skid Model Tuned to Field Data

Figure 12. Stiff Engine Supports (replace adjustable supports with steel
chocks and shims)

Figure 13. Pedestal Restraints (T-sections)

Figure 14. All Potential Modifications

Figure 15. All Potential Modifications

GM Journal

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GM

Journal

CASE STUDY: METHODS AND OPTIONS TO ELIMINATE SKID


VIBRATION PROBLEMS
contd from p. 6
Figure 16 presents the largest reduction in
vibration levels which occurred at 1x due to
this modification. Vibration levels also decreased at 4x, but were not as significant as
the decrease in vibration levels at 1x. The
overall vibration levels decreased from 2.7
ips down to 1.4 ips at the engine foot. This
data is found in Figure 17. This level is below SwRIs overall vibration criteria of 1.5
ips. Due to the significant reduction in vibration levels, this modification will also be
implemented on the adjacent engine.
Summary
This article presented several methods that
can be used to reduce vibration levels of skid
mounted machinery in comparison to the
original adjustable mounted engine configuration. Due to the variation in skid design
and supporting techniques, it is generally
recommended that a dynamic skid analysis
be performed to optimize the skid design
and minimize the potential for mechanical
resonance. If vibration problems arise in the
field, it may be necessary to acquire detailed
vibration data to gain a better understanding of the inherent problem with the skid or

support design. The data will also serve to


reconcile differences between the model predictions and actual machinery vibration behavior. Furthermore, the field data will add
credence to the model and potential modifications can be investigated with confidence so
that the optimum change to the system can be
implemented to minimize vibration levels.
This article presented one case study of an
engine/skid resonance problem and options
to reduce the vibration levels of the engine
driver. It should be emphasized that every skid design will have a different set of
resonant frequencies depending on the skid
and/or pedestal configuration, overall mass
and stiffness, machinery support details, and
variations in machinery exciting forces and
moments in terms of amplitude and forcing
frequency. Therefore, the solution that was
implemented and resulted in a reduction in
the vibration levels of the engine in this article, may not work for your particular application where vibration is an issue. However,
the methodology of detailed vibration testing,
modeling, and appropriate modifications can
be used to resolve a wide range of vibration
problems.

Figure 16. Key Post Modification Results

Adjustable Engine Mounts

Steel Chocks, Shims & Epoxy Resin

Figure 17. Overall Vibration Levels Before and After Modifications

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p. 8
Q3 - Industry Case Studies

GM Journal

GM

Journal

Case Study: XVG Flow Limiting at Chevrons Cymric 36W Site


Digital Fuel Valve Retrofit Improves Gas Turbine Starts in Oil Field
Cogeneration Application
Retrofitting the existing pneumatic fuel-metering system with an all-electronic
type eliminated problematic turbine light-offs and inspired similar user-installed efficiency upgrades at this and other company sites.
By Paul D. Zafuta
Aftermarket Engineering Manager
Precision Engine Controls Corporation

Since its tar-mining days in the 1860s,


McKittrick, pop. 200, has been near
the forefront of petrochemical production in Californias 400-milelong San Joaquin Valley. Just a few
miles outside town lies the Cymric
oil field, one of the Big Valleys almost two dozen giant fields and the
producer of some 346 million barrels
of oil between 1909 and 2000 [1].
Now, almost a century later, many of
the producing wells in this section of
Kern County are classified as stripper or marginal wells, defined by the
DOE as producing 10 or fewer barrels of crude per day over a 12-month
period.
Though nearing the end of their economic usefulness by conventional
recovery means, stripper wells nevertheless comprise around 84% of all
producing wells in the U.S. [2] Under
ideal conditions, traditional primary
and secondary recovery methods account for the extraction of only 40%
or so of a reservoirs original oil in
place (OOIP). Once production tails
off the wells are often prematurely
plugged, leaving almost two-thirds of
the OOIP still in the groundwhere
the prohibitive cost of resuming production at some later date will likely
leave such wells permanently abandoned [2].

The good news is that tertiary recovery technology, called enhanced oil
recovery or EOR, is driving a resurgence of some of the nations oldest
oil fields, with the result that many
thousands of stripper wells once in
danger of premature closure are now
meeting and even exceeding their
production peaks of bygone years
[3].
One widely used EOR method, steam
flooding (Figure 2, below), has been
successfully applied for a long time,
especially in heavy oil fields like
those in southern Kern County. A
proprietary variation of cyclic steam
flooding in use at Chevron Exploration & Production Co.s McKittrick
operation has proven quite successful
since its implementation in the mid1970s.
In operation, steam is pumped into
the reservoir zone at a temperature
and pressure sufficient to induce fractures in the rock, resulting in new access paths to reservoir contents. After
three days, steam injection stops and
the well is allowed to soak. During
this time the rock absorbs the water
and heat, thinning the molasses-like
heavy oil and increasing its mobility. The pressure induced during

Figure 1: One of four 3MW gas turbines at Chevrons Cymric 36W cogen plant about 35 miles west of Bakersfield, Calif.
When operating, the turbines run 24/7 generating electricity for oil field operations and producing steam for numerous
injection wells. Excess electricity is sold to the grid to help defray operating costs.

the injection phase propels the oil


into existing production well bores
where it is recovered. After pressure is depleted 30-45 days later, the
production wells are converted back
to injection wells and the process is
repeated. New high-resolution 2- and
3-D interwell seismic imaging techniques allow operators to monitor
flow characteristics, track fluid movement and record changes in reservoir
volume as the EOR progresses, thus
optimizing production [5].
Chevrons Cymric 36W cogen facility is a textbook example of how
EOR technologies like steam flooding are literally injecting new life
into mature wells while, at the same
time, the facility is paying its way by
generating most of its own electrical
powerwith enough left over to export the surplus to the grid.

on-site power station. The tremendous heat produced by the gas turbine
exhaust is not released directly into
the atmosphere but is harnessed to a
thermal-generation system that creates steam up to 500F for transport
to the various injection well locations
through a maze of above-ground piping (Figure 3, below).
Only a percentage of the generated
capacity is actually used to power
oil field operations, including the
pumpjacks for 36Ws almost 50 producing wells. The cyclic steam-flooding process requires periodic engine
start/stops as the existing wells are

toggled between the thermal injection and production phases. Considering the economic impact of engine
downtimewhich effects not only
well production but power exportation to the gridit is easy to see why
optimum turbine performance and
reliability are of paramount concern
to facility engineers at the McKittrick
site.

Figure 3: Cymric 36W cogen plant in operation at


McKittrick, Calif. Silver piping in foreground distributes steam many hundreds of yards to distant
injection wells.

Cymric 36W Turbine Operations

Figure 2: One of almost 240 pumpjacks powered by gas turbines at Chevrons five Cymric sites.
Just to the left center of the picture may be seen a steam line with a characteristic loop used for
trapping water out of the steam line on its way to the injection wells. At one point, almost half of
Chevrons producing wells at Cymric employed steam flooding, a commonly used EOR technique
in heavy oil fields [4].

p. 10

The cogeneration process here is


powered by four gas turbine generator setseach about 32 feet long and
weighing almost 36 tonsthat together output about 12MW of power.
The driveshaft of each engine is connected to an epicyclic speed-reduction gear box that couples the turbine
to the generator to output 60Hz power for field operations and for connection to the utility grid via the facilitys

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

GM Journal

GM

Journal

Case Study: XVG Flow Limiting at Chevrons Cymric 36W Site sure. The valve is configured with
Performance and Reliability: Still
the Bottom Line
New power-generation technology, particularly solar, is still in the
early stages of oil field implementation. However, maintaining the safe,
efficient and reliable operation of
Chevrons installed base of some 20
turbine gensets at various Cymric
siteswithout resorting to costly
control system upgradesremains a
key objective for keeping costs down
while maximizing production efficiency.
This was the crux of the matter at
Cymric 36W, where the cyclic starts
and stops of the turbine gensets were
beginning to take their toll on operational efficiency. Normal engine
use revealed a recurring pattern of
fuel-delivery-system problems that
required frequent inspection and
maintenance to reduce the chronic incidence of engine hard starts.
Problem: Maintenance-Intensive
Mechanical System
As shown in Figure 4, the turbines
stock fuel-delivery system featured a
hydro-mechanical design consisting
of a pressure regulator and an actuator driving a butterfly-type modulating valve operated by inherently
maintenance-intensive hydraulic and
mechanical linkages.
The existing control systems relaybased architecture utilizes several
proprietary electronic devices to drive
the actuator with a 0 to 50mA signal.
During engine startup, the ramping of the actuator from minimum

to maximum causes the butterfly to


move from fully closed to a full-open
position. The fuel flow is primarily
controlled open-loop by the pressure
regulator until 90% speed is reached.
At that point, the actuator becomes
closedloop and control is passed
to the governor, which modulates the
fuel flow via the actuated butterfly
valve to regulate the engine to the desired speed.
Once the unit was up and running,
everything worked just fine, said
Cogen Operator Larry Stipling. But
coming back on line after a shutdown, we usually had problems with
hard starts, not to mention the maintenance issues with the mechanical
fuel-delivery system that we had to
keep an eye on.
Solution: Digital Fuel-Metering
Valve Retrofit
About two years ago, the operator
was contacted by Precision Engine
Controls Corp. of San Diego, Calif.
who, in a beta test, installed a special
electronic control module to augment
operation of the companys VG series
valve that was used in the test. This
combination culminated in a new
configuration, the all-electric XVG
(referred to as flow-limiting mode
of operation) fuel valve. This valve,
designed to provide an easy drop-in
replacement for the three hydro-mechanical components, required no
changes to the engines existing electrical control system interface.
In operation, the XVGs built-in sensors allow the valve to calculate and
schedule flow based on back-pres-

Figure 4: Callouts show pre-retrofit gas turbine fuel-delivery components. Note fewer
elements, elimination of mechanical linkage and less clutter after all-electronic XVG
valve retrofit shown in Figure 6.

GM Journal

a PC via RS-232 (Figure 7) to provide the required acceleration and


deceleration fuel schedules to start
the engine reliably without exceeding
engine temperature and surge limits.
A shunt resistor implemented at the
interface terminal strip within the
XVG converts the existing 0 to 50mA
signal to a standard 0 to 5V signal
which the valve uses to modulate between the acceleration and deceleration limits. The only other electrical
connection(s) required by the XVG is
24V power for the solenoid and electronics.
Results
Efficiency improvements designed to
help the company produce its products
more cost-effectively, while reducing
impact on the environment, are being
encouraged at every level of corporate operations through a companyinstituted plan called OEMSthe
Operational Excellence Management
System. In place since 2006, stringent OEMS program requirements
often exceed those of ISO 14001 and
OHSAS 18001 environmental standards. Key program objectives include industry-leading asset reliability and maximizing the efficient use
of resources and assets [6]. A perfect
example of this policy being put into
practice at the site level has been the
digital fuel-metering system upgrade
at Cymric 36W.
Now in its third year of operation, the
installation of the XVG fuel-metering systemcalled the blue valve
by site personnelhas proven a resounding success. Since we put the
blue valve in, we havent had a single
light-off problem or any of the fuel
system headaches we used to experience on a regular basis, Stipling said.
And that makes my job a whole lot

Figure 5: Precision Engine


Controls Corp. engineer
retrofits the all-electronic
XVG 1.5 fuel-metering
valve into the supply line
of the gas turbine. The
June 2006 installation
of the initial unit, shown
here, followed a one-year
successful test of a prototype concept that led to
the subsequent upgrade
of all of the sites turbines,
with no vendor assistance
needed after the second
install.

easier, he smiled. Looking forward,


digital fuel valves will be retrofitted
into additional units at other local
sites to further increase operational
excellence.
Summary
Precision Engine Controls installed
the first digital fuel-metering valve
on site in June 2006. Since then,
Chevron personnel have installed
three additional units without any additional PECC help on site, where all
units continue to run with no reported problems. Cymric 36W is one of
many similar operations in the
McKittrick area and elsewhere in the
San Joaquin Valley that can benefit
from improved engine performance
and reliability.
Based on the success of the first operational unit at Cymric 36W, the operator has been very satisfied with the
ease of installation and demonstrated
reliability of such a cost-effective solution to several nagging fuel system
issues. Thanks to PECC, problematic turbine light-offs and frequent
fuel system preventative maintenance schedules are no longer on the
operators to do list. With almost
two years of uninterrupted uptime to
its credit, the XVG has dramatically

Figure 6: Retrofitted XVG electronic fuel-metering valve with onboard fuel schedules
provided a seamless interface with the turbine gensets existing control system. Installation and commissioning of subsequent valves in other gensets was easy enough
to be performed by the customer with minimal initial vendor assistance.

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

increased engine reliability and improved Operational Excellence at


this and, soon, other Kern County oil
field locations.
About the Author:
A 25-year industry veteran, Paul Zafuta is
manager of field service and aftermarket
engineering with San Diego-based Precision Engine Controls Corp., a division
of Hamilton-Sundstrand. Zafuta holds a
Masters Degree in Physics from Pittsburg
State University.
Sources and Links:
1. The Kern County Oil Industry, San Joaquin Geological Society. See:
www.geocities.com/mudsmeller/oilfacts.html#cogen.
2. Marginal & Stripper Well Revitalization, U.S. Dept.
of Energy. See:
www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/oilgas/marginalwells
3. DOE Project Turns Abandoned Oil Lease Into Million-Barrel Producer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Mar 27, 2001.
4. Producing Thermal EOR in U.S., Oil & Gas Journal,
April 20, 1998, P.60.
5. Direct Imaging of Reservoir Fluid Changes: A New
Tool for Managing Production, Meyer, J.S. et al, Hart
Publications, Houston, TX.
6. See Efficiency & Conservation, Environmental
Management and Operational Excellence. www.chevron.com.
7. For further information about Precision Engine Controls Corp., visit: www.precisioneng.com.

Figure 7: PECC engineer downloads engine acceleration / deceleration schedules into the gas fuel metering valve retrofit in one
of Cymric 36Ws four gas turbine cogen units.

p. 11

GM

Journal

case study: Quicksilver Resources tests Murphy Power Ignition Controls,


The average fuel savings consistently
Finds Major Fuel Savings
fell between seven to 10 thousand cuReducing operating costs by maximizing fuel usage is becoming less a
bottom-line issue and more a matter
of survival. Record-high fuel prices
and constantly changing market conditions necessitate maximum use of
each fuel dollar.

Quicksilver is very proactive; always


looking for savings on fuel use and
cost. The company has traditionally
been willing to test new equipment if
it can deliver improved performance.
I used Murphy Power Ignition at my
previous company, and I wanted to
try a couple at Quicksilver. I planned
to datalog the fuel usage before and
after the installation to see what kind
of savings we could get, said Randy
Reiman, Emissions tech for Quicksilver. If theres an opportunity to save
money, well do it.
According to Reiman, Quicksilvers
fuel savings came as a result of the
installation of Murphy Power Ignition controls. The companys testing
on several sites in 2006 and 2007

showed a significant savings in fuel


usage and associated costs.
Reiman tested MPI on several different engines, loaded differently, to
see the difference on fuel savings.
Within days, the fuel savings was
clear, he said

In a test coordinated with Hague


Equipment Company, which provided the MPI control system hardware,
Reiman recorded the fuel usage tested
on four compressor sites throughout
Michigan.
Reiman used the MPI-16 ignition controller, which includes coils, wires,
sensors and mag pickups. He tested
the system on a CAT 399, a CAT 398,
and two Waukesha 7042 engines. All
engines were set up before and after
MPI installation to meet required
emission standards as prescribed by
the local air board.
Average fuel usage for each install was
monitored the same engine with and
without the MPI ignition controller.

bic feet (MCF) per day. I saw only


a small improvement on the 398, but
the 399 had a very large savings,
Reiman said.
With an average fuel price of $6 per
MCF, the lowest results save Quicksilver $42 per unit each day. At that
rate, Reiman conservatively estimates that Quicksilver will save at
least $15,330 per unit each year.
On the CAT 399 located at Quicksilvers Charlton East site, Reiman
was getting an average fuel savings
of 21.93 MCF per day. At the same
average fuel price ($6 per MCF), Reiman estimated that he saves $131.55
per day and $48,016.19 per year.
The MPI Ignition System is a microprocessor based, capacitor discharge
ignition system applicable to low,
medium and high speed engines with
4-20 cylinders. This state-of-the-art
system utilizes crankshaft-reference
timing which provides unparalleled
timing accuracy and stability by
eliminating the dependence on me-

James R. Hutton: Salesman, Engineer, Author, Gentleman

Houston, TX Dover Corporation has


announced the promotion of Don York to President of Cook Compression. York is responsible
for all aspects of the business, which provides
a comprehensive range of gas compression
products and services. The appointment of York
concludes a series of strategic moves begun in
late 2007 as Dover united a number independent
gas compression product and service companies
into a single, integrated organization.

Hutton joined CECO in


1986, after he retired as president of Dresser Machinery
James and Margaret Hutton
International Division, where
at the Gas Machinery conference in 2007
he worked for 38 years. A
graduate of Columbia University Engineering Midshipmans School, Hutton served in the US
Navy during World War II as a Chief Engineer. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering and a Bachelor of Business Administration from the University of Texas in Austin. He
is married to the former Margaret Berry and has two children, Heather and Jeb.

When I think of Mr. Hutton, two words come to mind, honesty and integrity. He lives by
these words and inspires each of us in the CECO family of companies by his example, said Joe
Miniot, Vice-President of Sales and Marketing at CECO.
Richard Hotze, President of CECO, said, Mr. Hutton has made an incalculable contribution to
our business and has helped innumerable companies over the last 60 years with his knowledge,
leadership and responsible approach to sales. We dont want him to retire anytime soon.

p. 12

These features have lead to improved


engine operation and efficiency thru
consistent and accurate ignition tim-

ing, essential to achieving balanced


and stable peak firing pressures. In
addition to the efficiency, Quicksilver will also realize reduced engine
maintenance due to a more balanced
and consistent combustion process.

York Appointed President of Cook Compression

August 7, 2008: James R.


Hutton, author of How to
Sell Technical Equipment
and Services (PennWell,
2005) and Vice-President
of Compressor Engineering
Corporation (CECO), is celebrating his 50th anniversary
as a Professional Engineer
and 60 years of incomparable
service to the petroleum and
gas industry.

In How to Sell Technical Equipment and Services, Hutton shares the wisdom gleaned from decades of experience in the petroleum industry to help readers master the challenge of industrial
sales. The book covers topics such as knowing the product, always keeping promises, identifying the real decision makers on orders and how to deal with difficult, complicated projects. The
book is available from PennWell books, or directly from Hutton.

chanical engine gears, chains and


couplings.

In announcing the move, Dover Fluid Management President and CEO William W. Spurgeon
said, Don was instrumental in the recent formation of Cook Compression. His background,
experience and skills give him a unique ability
to move the organization forward with a single
vision and direction. Under Dons leadership,
Cook Compression will continue to maximize
organizational synergies, drive international
expansion and foster long-term growth.
York commented, This is an exciting and challenging time for our company, as well as for
our customers. Cook Compression is well-positioned as a leader in the reciprocating compressor and engine markets. We offer a complete package of products and services, encompassing
various options that are tailored to meet specific customer applications and requirements. Were
truly a single-source solution for all of their compressor and engine needs.
Don York is a veteran of more than 24 years with Dover Corporation, having previously served
with C. Lee Cook and Cook Airtomic in positions of increasing responsibility in various functional areas. Most recently he was President of the Products Group of Cook Compression. York
will be based in Houston at the Dover Fluid Management Energy Platform office.

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

GM Journal

GM

Journal

Published patent abstracts


The GM Journal is pleased to welcome
Randall Schwartz as a new contributor. A
former NGML student, Randy Schwartz
(BSME and MSME from K-State) is now
a patent lawyer in the Kansas City area after working in the Houston area as an engineer.
Each quarter, he will provide abstracts of
US Patents Issued that are of interest to the
gas machinery industry.
Thanks, Randy, and welcome!

7,398,642

7,389,767
Issue Date: July 15, 2008

Gas turbine system including vaporization of liquefied


natural gas

A gas turbine cycle that utilizes the vaporization of liquefied natural


gas as an intercooler in an open loop gas turbine system. The system
provides an increase in gas turbine cycle efficiencies while providing
a convenient system for vaporizing liquefied natural gas. The systems and methods of the present invention permit the vaporization
of liquefied natural gas using air that has been compressed in a first
compressor, with the resulting cooled air being easier to compress
and/or having fewer contaminants therein for compression in a
second compressor. As the air is easier to compress, less energy is
needed to operate the second compressor, thereby increasing the efficiency of the system. Additionally, unlike prior art systems that use
water as an intercooler, no additional equipment is needed to cool the
vaporized natural gas, such as cooling towers.
Inventors: McQuiggan; Gerard
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.

The invention relates to an internal combustion engine comprising


a high-pressure accumulator injection system wherein the swept
volume and the pressure are regulated by means of a volume flow
control valve (VCV) and a pressure control valve (PCV). The inventive method consists in checking, during the overrun condition of the
internal combustion engine, whether predetermined release conditions for carrying out the diagnosis are fulfilled, and in the event of a
positive result, the control valve (VCV) is closed for a predetermined
period of time (t1). During said period (t1), values relating to fuel
pressure (FUP) are detected by means of the pressure sensor (21)
and compared with a predetermined threshold value (FUP-SW),
the control valve (VCV) being deemed faultless if said fuel pressure (FUP) values are sufficiently often below the threshold value
(FUP_SW) during the cited period of time (t1).
Inventors: Kasbauer; Michael, Stadler; Wolfgang
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

7,393,183

7,389,752

Issue Date: July 1, 2008

Trailing edge attachment for composite airfoil

Abstracts of Issued U.S. Patents


The following list includes abstract and bibliographic information for recently issued U.S. patents. The inventions listed below may also be
the subject of one or more related foreign patent
applications or patents. More information concerning patents can be found on the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office website: www.uspto.gov.
7,403,850

Issue Date: July 22, 2008

Automated fault diagnosis method and system for engine-compressor sets

The automated fault diagnostic system operates on engine-compressor sets with one vibration sensor per sub-group of engine cylinders
and one sensor per compressor cylinder. Vibration signals linked to
crankshaft phase angle windows (VT) mark various engine events
and compressor events. In data-acquisition-learning mode, VT is
stored for each engine and compressor event per operating load
condition, statistical process control (SPC) theory identifies alarm
threshold bands. Operator input-overrides are permitted. If no baseline data is stored, the system automatically enters the learn mode.
To monitor, current VT are obtained and current load condition is
matched to the earlier load set and alarms issue linking predetermined engine or compressor event to the over-under VT. Baseline
data, SPC analysis, alarms and monitoring are set for crankcase
flow, engine cylinder exhaust temperatures, ignition system diagnostic messages. Compressor performance alarms use suction and
discharge temperatures and pressures.
Inventors: Boutin; Benjamin J., Webber, Jr.; Robert J., Oliva; Ferdinand G., Kealty; John F. , Fernandez; Javier, Kitchens; Thomas J.
Assignee: Dynalco Controls Corporation
7,402,335

Issue Date: July 22, 2008

Layer structure and method for producing such a layer


structure

The invention relates to a temperature resistant layered structure


comprising a substrate and a porous layer arranged on the substrate
having a pore defined by a wall, and a ceramic coating on an interior
surface of the wall. The invention also relates to a layered turbine
component arrangement comprising a substrate having a cooling
passage adapted to allow a cooling gas medium to pass through the
substrate and a porous layer arranged on the substrate, the porous
layer having cooling passages formed by gas-permeable inter-connections between pores in the porous layer.
Inventors: Bolms; Hans-Thomas, Heselhaus; Andreas
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,398,749

Issue Date: July 15, 2008

Method and device for controlling an internal


combustion engine

The invention relates to a method and device for controlling an internal combustion engine comprising an inlet pipe leading to a cylinder
input where a gas input valve is placed. Said engine also comprises a
drive for the gas input valve which makes it possible to adjust a gas
input valve lift for at least two values. The engine also comprises an
injection valve for metering fuel and a spark plug which controls the
crankshaft angle of air-fuel mixture ignition. Said internal combustion
engine is controlled in a following manner: a fuel is metered at least
once during the intake stroke of a cylinder when the valve lift (VL)
passes from one value to the other and at least one final injection
is carried out in a dosing manner only when the valve lift (VL) is
really carried out.
Inventors: Weiss; Frank, Zhang; Hong
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,398,743

Issue Date: July 15, 2008

Compression ignition initiation device and internal


combustion engine using same

An internal combustion engine having a compression ignition initiation device is provided. The compression ignition initiation device
includes a body defining a chamber and an outlet from the chamber.
The device further includes means, within the chamber, for generating a combustion initiating shock front from the outlet. A method is
provided, including compressing a mixture of fuel and air in an internal combustion engine cylinder to a point less than a compression
ignition threshold, and initiating ignition of the mixture by subjecting
it to a shock front.
Inventors: Fiveland; Scott B.
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,398,649

Issue Date: July 15, 2008

System and method for influencing the induction gas


temperature in the combustion chamber of an internal
combustion engine

The invention relates to a system and method for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine that
is preferably equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation device. This
system and method enable an improved adjustment of the temperature level inside the combustion chamber. In addition to adjusting
the temperature by using the exhaust gas recirculation device, an
influencing of the temperature, which is independent thereof, ensues
based on the compression of the induced fresh air by the exhaust gas
turbocharger. An increase in temperature is maintained even after the
compressed air is expanded on a throttle valve, and this increase
in temperature can, in the end, be used for influencing the energy
content inside the combustion chamber.
Inventors: Bauer; Erwin, Ellmer; Dietmar, Lauer; Thorsten
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Method for diagnosis of a volume flow control valve in


an internal combustion engine comprising a high-pressure accumulator injection system

A trailing edge attachment for a composite turbine airfoil. The trailing


edge attachment may include an attachment device for attaching the
trailing edge attachment to the airfoil. The attachment device may
include a plurality of pins extending through the attachment device
and into the trailing edge blade. The trailing edge attachment may
also include a spanwise cooling channel for feeding a plurality of
cooling channels extending between a leading edge of the trailing
edge attachment and a trailing edge of the attachment device. The
attachment device may be configured to place the leading edge of the
composite airfoil in compression, thereby increasing the strength of
the composite airfoil.
Inventors: Keller; Douglas A.
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.
7,392,792

Issue Date: July 1, 2008

System for dynamically detecting fuel leakage

A fuel control system for an engine is disclosed. The fuel control system may have a source of pressurized fuel and at least one injector
configured to receive and inject the pressurized fuel. The fuel system
may also have a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of
an actual fuel pressure at the at least one injector, and a controller in
communication with the sensor. The controller may be configured
to determine a desired fuel pressure at the at least one injector, and
compare the signal to the desired fuel pressure. The controller may
also be configured to initiate a leak detection sequence in response
to the comparison.
Inventors: Puckett; Daniel Reese
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,392,791

Issue Date: July 1, 2008

Multi-source fuel system for variable pressure injection

A fuel system for an engine is disclosed. The fuel system has a first
source configured to pressurized fuel to a first pressure, and a second source configured to pressurized fuel to a second pressure. The
fuel system also has a fuel injector configured to receive fuel at the
first pressure and the second pressure, and a valve disposed between the fuel injector and the first and second sources. The valve is
configured to modify the pressure of fuel from the first source based
on a pressure of fuel from the second source.
Inventors: Gibson; Dennis H.
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,390,471

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Apparatus and method for catalytic treatment


of exhaust gases

An exhaust gas treatment apparatus (20) for reducing the concentration of NO.sub.x, HC and CO in an exhaust gas stream (18) such as
produced by a gas turbine engine (12) of a power generating station (10). The treatment apparatus includes a multifunction catalytic
element (26) having an upstream reducing-only portion (28) and
a downstream reducing-plus-oxidizing portion (30) that is located
downstream of an ammonia injection apparatus (24). The selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO.sub.x is promoted in the upstream
portion of the catalytic element by the injection of ammonia in excess
of the stoichiometric concentration, with the resulting ammonia slip
being oxidized in the downstream portion of the catalytic element.
Any additional NO.sub.x generated by the oxidation of the ammonia
is further reduced in the downstream portion before being passed to
the atmosphere (22).
Inventors: Sobolevskiy; Anatoly (Orlando, FL), Rossin;
Joseph A. (Columbus, OH)
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc. (Orlando, FL)
7,390,282

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Directional shift in hydrostatic drive work machine

A method of performing a directional shifting event in a hydrostatic


drive work machine, and a hydrostatic drive work machine is provided. The method includes the step of adjusting a pump displacement of a variable displacement pump coupled with an engine and a
hydraulic motor of the work machine, at a rate based at least in part
on one or both of a predetermined acceleration limit and a predetermined jerk limit of the work machine. The work machine includes
an electronic control module having a computer readable medium
with a directional shifting control algorithm recorded thereon. The
control algorithm is operable to adjust a pump displacement in a
hydrostatic drive of the work machine at a rate based at least in part
on one or both of the predetermined acceleration limit or jerk limit
of the work machine.
Inventors: Shah; Vaibhav H.
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,389,771

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Closed loop EGR control method and system using


water content measurement

The present invention provides an internal combustion engine system that includes an internal combustion engine system includes
an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold fluidly
coupled to a compressor adapted to receive ambient air through an
air conduit of the engine, a first sensor positioned at least one of
inside and outside the air conduit and configured to measure a first
water content in the ambient air, and a second sensor positioned at
least one of inside the intake manifold and upstream of the intake
manifold and configured to measure a second water content in the
intake manifold.
Inventors: Andrews; Eric B., Lindner; Frederick H., Frazier; Tim
Assignee: Cummins, Inc.

GM Journal

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Use of engine lubricant as ignition fuel for micro-pilot


ignition system of an internal combustion engine

A method and system for providing pilot fuel for a pilot ignition system of an internal combustion engine having one or more cylinders
and having a lubrication system. A portion of the lubricating oil is
diverted from the lubricating system. During the pilot ignition phase
of the engine combustion cycle, the diverted lubricating oil is injected
into the one or more cylinders.
Inventors: Alger, II; Terrence F., Gingrich; Jess W., Hahne; Stephen F.
Assignee: Southwest Research Institute
7,389,683

Issue Date: June 24, 2008

Method and device for detecting a combustion misfire

An internal combustion engine has a plurality of cylinders that have


been allocated in at least two groups to one exhaust gas tract each.
In each exhaust gas tract, an exhaust gas catalytic converter and an
exhaust gas probe are fitted upstream of the exhaust gas catalytic
converter. In order to detect combustion misfires in a combustion
chamber of one of the cylinders, the following steps are carried out
in each case. A combustion misfire is detected in one of the cylinders
and allocated to one of the groups of the cylinders depending on at
least one operating variable of the internal combustion engine.
Inventors: Beer; Johannes, Kainz; Josef
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,389,173

Issue Date: June 17, 2008

Control system for an internal combustion engine


operating with multiple combustion modes

A method of controlling a diesel engine that is capable of multiple


combustion modes and equipped with a turbocharger and EGR loop.
The control method avoids a singularity condition inherent in turbocharged diesel engine having multiple combustion modes. For different combustion modes, different system states, control variables,
and actuators are carefully chosen for different controllers based on
the characteristics of the corresponding combustion mode as well as
sensor and measurement limitations.
Inventors: Wang; Junmin
Assignee: Southwest Research Institute
7,388,303

Issue Date: June 17, 2008

Stand-alone electrical system for large motor loads

An electrical power system that can be used to interconnect a plurality of generators to a plurality to loads while being rated at less than
a total power consumed. The system is preferably used to distribute
power for a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility. The system broadly
comprises a primary bus connected between the generators and the
loads, such as electrical compressor motors used in the LNG facility.
The generators and the loads are arranged along the primary bus
in order to distribute the power from the generators to the loads,
without overloading the primary bus.
Inventors: Seiver; John R.
Assignee: Conocophillips Company
7,383,813

Issue Date: June 10, 2008

Method and device for controlling the transition


between normal operation and overrun fuel cut-off operation of an Otto engine operated with direct fuel injection

The problem during overrun fuel cut-off operations, i.e. cut-off of


fuel injection during trailing throttle conditions of the vehicle, is that
the transition entails an undue torque jump, resulting in the smooth
operation of the engine and the driving comfort of the passengers of
the vehicle being affected. The aim of the invention is to reduce the
torque jump. Said aim is achieved by injecting fuel into a cylinder
of the Otto engine in a multiple injection process, at least a partial
quantity of the fuel that is to be injected being injected during the
compression phase, whereby the quantity of air that is taken in advantageously decreases because no internal cooling takes place while
the efficiency is advantageously reduced due to the lesser degree of
swirling, resulting in lower torque. Overall, torque (DM) is reduced to
a significantly greater extent than by merely adjusting the spark angle
(ZW) while smooth operation of the Otto engine is not affected.
Inventors: Weiss; Frank, Zhang; Hong
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,383,806

Issue Date: June 10, 2008

Engine with carbon deposit resistant component

Carbon deposits on engine components can negatively affect engine


performance. An engine of the present disclosure includes at least
one carbon deposit resistant engine component attached to an engine housing. The engine component includes at least one relatively
high surface tension surface that is a non-contact wear surface and
to which a relatively low surface tension coating is attached. The relatively low surface tension coating has a surface tension at least one
of equal to and less than 30 dyne/cm.
Inventors: Abi-Akar; Hind, Jiang; Xiangyang, Agama; Jorge R.,
Kelley; Kurtis C., Jarrett; Mark W.
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,380,983

Issue Date: June 3, 2008

Method and device for checking temperature values of


a temperature sensor of an internal combustion engine

In a method for checking temperature values of a temperature sensor of an internal combustion engine, a first temperature value is
recorded during a first predefined time period close in time to an
operating state of the starting of the internal combustion engine.
With the method a check is made to determine whether a cold start
of the internal combustion engine is present. An error in the first
temperature value is detected if the cold start is detected and the first
temperature value is greater than a temperature threshold value.
Inventors: Bayerle; Klaus, Moser; Wolfgang, Prinz; Oliver
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

7,380,540

Issue Date: June 3, 2008

Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge


compression ignition engine

A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by


compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine
may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and
load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the
charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished
in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal
variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent
engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one
of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas
recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal
to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal
setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward
its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to
a new combination of engine speed and load.
Inventors: Duffy; Kevin P., Mehresh; Parag, Schuh; David, Kieser;
Andrew J., Hergart; Carl-Anders, Hardy; William L., Rodman; Anthony, Liechty; Michael P.
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,380,401

Issue Date: June 3, 2008

Method for monitoring the speed of a bi-turbocharger

A method and a device for monitoring a rotational speed of a first


charger for an internal combustion engine, especially an exhaust
gas turbocharger, are provided. A first exhaust value representing an
exhaust gas composition of the internal combustion engine in a first
exhaust section is defined, and a first speed value representing the
rotational speed of the first charger is determined according to the
defined first exhaust value. The first exhaust value is regulated to a
predefined first reference value using a first correcting variable which
is ascertained as required for regulation. The first rotational speed
value is determined depending on the first correcting variable.
Inventors: Henn; Michael, Kunz; Franz, Zhang; Hong
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,377,260

Issue Date: May 27, 2008

Method and device for controlling an internal


combustion engine

An internal combustion engine has a plurality of cylinders having combustion chambers and each being associated with a spark
plug designed for igniting a mixture of air and fuel in the combustion chamber, and at least two adjusting devices for adjusting the
air supply to the combustion chambers of the different cylinders. To
control the internal combustion engine, an individual ignition angle
is detected for each group of cylinders to which the same air mass
per working cycle is respectively supplied and during the respective working cycles of which the same loss torque is decisive. The
decisive loss torque is the one associated with the cylinder that is
in its intake cycle during the respective working cycle of the respective cylinder of the respective group. The individual ignition angle for
each group is detected as a function of the decisive loss torque for
the respective group.
Inventors: Jehle; Martin, Schneider; Dirk
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
7,377,250

Issue Date: May 27, 2008

System and method for balancing an engine during


cylinder cutout

The method includes reducing output of one or more cylinders of an


engine system without reducing output of the remaining cylinders of
the engine system. The method also includes reducing imbalance of
the engine system by supplementing the engine system with power
in response to the output reduction of the one or more cylinders.
Inventors: Duffy; Kevin Patrick
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,377,237

Issue Date: May 27, 2008

Cooling system for hybrid power system

7,372,253

Issue Date: May 13, 2008

Magnetic field sensor for measuring the rotational


speed of a turboshaft

A sensor for measuring the rotational speed of a turboshaft of a turbocharger includes a sensor housing and a sensor element which is
positioned in the sensor housing and which senses a variation of a
magnetic field caused by the rotation of the turboshaft. In order to
provide a sensor for measuring the rotational speed of a turboshaft
which can be produced simply and at low cost and also can be integrated in a turbocharger without major structural modifications, the
sensor element can be positioned outside the turbocharger, on or in
a compressor housing, and a pole piece is arranged on the sensor
element in such a way that it concentrates the magnetic field in the
sensor element.
Inventors: Biber; Peter, Gilch; Markus, Roux; Jean-Louis,
Simonnet; Antoine
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Siemens VDO Automotive
7,371,352

Issue Date: May 13, 2008

Catalyst element having a thermal barrier coating as


the catalyst substrate

A combustion catalyst coating (36) applied to the surface of a ceramic thermal barrier coating (34) which is supported by a metal
substrate (32). The microstructure of the thermal barrier coating
surface provides the necessary turbulent flow and surface area for
interaction of the catalyst and a fuel-air mixture in a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine. The temperature gradient developed
across the thermal barrier coating protects the underlying metal substrate from a high temperature combustion process occurring at the
catalyst surface. The thermal barrier coating deposition process may
be controlled to form a microstructure having at least one feature
suitable to interdict a flow of fuel-air mixture and cause the flow to
become more turbulent than if such feature did not exist.
Inventors: Campbell; Chris, Subramanian; Ramesh,
Burns; Andrew Jeremiah
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.
7,370,613

Issue Date: May 13, 2008

Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion


engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The
variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric
disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of
eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality
of eccentric disks.
Inventors: Lawrence; Keith Edward, Moser; William Elliott,
Roozenboom; Stephan Donald , Knox; Kevin Jay
Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
7,370,466

Issue Date: May 13, 2008

Extended flashback annulus in a gas turbine combustor

An extended flashback annulus (520) is formed between an exterior


surface (506) of a shroud or casing (508) associated with a main
swirler assembly inner body (500) or other fuel/air mixing device
and the inner surface (514) of an annulus casting (510) which are in
operational relationship with one another in a gas turbine combustor
assembly. The extended flashback annulus (520) is capable of forming an extended protective cylindrical air barrier (550) that extends
farther into the combustion zone, this barrier being more robust and
providing for the reduction or prevention of flashback to the baseplate and other heat-susceptible upstream components.
Inventors: Cai; Weidong
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.
7,368,827

Issue Date: May 6, 2008

Electrical assembly for monitoring conditions in a


combustion turbine operating environment

A cooling system for a hybrid power system that includes an engine


employs an engine cooling circuit to deliver coolant to the engine,
the engine cooling circuit including a radiator and a main fan to draw
air through the radiator. When the hybrid power system further includes an inverter, then the inverter is cooled via an inverter cooling
circuit that is formulated as one portion of the cooling system to
deliver coolant to the inverter, the inverter cooling circuit including
a heat exchanger located such that the main fan draws air through
the heat exchanger when the main fan is active. The cooling system
also includes a secondary fan to selectively draw air though the heat
exchanger during operation of an inverter cooling circuit coolant
pump.
Inventors: Carney; Allen B., Hughes; John C., Keene; Kevin J.,
Klinkert; Deborah A., Padget; Bradley D.
Assignee: Cummins Power Generation Inc.

An electrical assembly for use in various operating environments


such as a casing of a combustion turbine 10 is provided. The assembly may include an electrical energy-harvesting device 51 disposed
in a component within the casing of the turbine to convert a form of
energy present within the casing to electrical energy. The harvesting device is configured to generate sufficient electrical power for
powering one or more electrical devices therein without assistance
from an external power source. One example of electrical devices
wholly powered by the energy harvesting device may be a sensor
50 connected for sensing a condition of the component within the
casing during operation of the combustion turbine. Another example
of electrical devices wholly powered by the energy harvesting device
may be a transmitter in communication with the sensor for wirelessly
transmitting the data signal outside the casing.
Inventors: Kulkarni; Anand A., Subramanian; Ramesh
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.

7,377,116

7,367,223

Issue Date: May 27, 2008

Gas turbine combustor barrier structures for spring


clips

A barrier structure (302) blocks exit of spring clip fragments (317)


that may break off from a spring clip assembly disposed between a
gas turbine engine combustor (300) and a transition piece component (360). The barrier structure (302) may additionally comprise
an aspect (326) effective to restrict a spring clips (310, 311) radially inward compression, thereby reducing or eliminating damage to
the spring clip (310, 311) during shipping and handling. The barrier
structure (302) additionally may comprise an aspect (330) to restrict
access by a human hand to the free ends (318) of the spring clips
(310, 311). This aspect (330) reduces or eliminates the undesired
lifting of the compressor by grabbing the spring clips (310, 311) during combustor transport, installation or removal. Accordingly, barrier
structure embodiments are provided that reduce stress on spring
clips, and that prevent the exit of spring clips from a containment
space partly formed by the barrier structure.
Inventors: Parker; David Marchant, Wetzl; Kristian I.
Assignee: Siemens Power Generation, Inc.
7,373,823
Issue Date: May 20, 2008
Method for determination of the stress on blades of a turbine
machine during operation and corresponding device for carrying
out said method
The method serves to determine the vibrational state of turbine
blades, arranged on a rotor shaft, mounted such as to rotate in a
housing and/or of guide vanes. At least one electromagnetic wave
is transmitted into a flow channel in the vicinity of the blades, using
means for the generation of at least one electromagnetic wave. The
electromagnetic waves are at least partly reflected from at least one
blade. The reflected part of the at least one electromagnetic wave is
received by means for receiving and the vibrational state of the corresponding blade is determined from a signal corresponding to the
at least one received electromagnetic wave.
Inventors: Bosselmann; Thomas, Eiermann; Franz, Huber; Klaus,
Willsch; Michael
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Issue Date: May 6, 2008

Method and device for assessing the quality of a fuel,


in particular a diesel or petrol fuel

Fuels that are used nowadays can have a different densities or different heating values. Even when filling the fuel tank (7) the quality of
the fuel in the fuel tank (7) can change since different fuels are mixed.
For example a low density or a low heating value can lead to reduced
performance of the internal combustion engine (1). It is therefore
proposed that a fuel-specific factor k be determined using a sensor
(2, 2a), with which the characteristic of the combustion chamber
pressure and/or a lambda value is measured, and using an algorithm.
In a further embodiment the operating parameters (injected quantity,
start of injection, end of injection, injection pattern, exhaust gas recirculation rate, etc.) are corrected using the factor k.
Inventors: Kettl; Thomas, Zhang; Hong
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Randall W. Schwartz
Hovey Williams LLP
rws@hoveywilliams.com

p. 13

Business Briefs
Announcements may be sent to gmjournal@striker-ent.com or faxed to 972-692-8956.
Deadline for GMC Today is September 29, 2008; Deadline for Q4 GM Journal is October 31, 2008.

ATCO NOISE MANAGEMENT OPENS


DENVER OFFICE
New Office To Specialize in Acoustical Engineering Services for the
Rocky Mountain Energy Sector
CALGARY, Alberta -- ATCO Acoustical Consultants, a business unit of
ATCO Noise Management, has expanded to Denver, Colorado. The
new office of ATCO Acoustical Consultants will enable ATCO Noise
Management to better provide localized expert industrial noise consulting
services to energy and engineering
companies in the Rocky Mountains
region of the United States.
ATCO Noise Management has been
servicing clients in Denvers energy
and engineering sectors from its Calgary headquarters for over five years.
We have grown our customer base to
the size where it makes sense to now
bring our expertise much closer, ensuring more immediate response to
clients in Denver, the State of Colorado, and across the Rocky Mountain
region, said Boris Rassin, President
of ATCO Noise Management.
The ATCO Acoustical Consultants
business unit is staffed with a total of
eleven experienced acoustical engineers and several project administrators, who work closely with members
of the mechanical and structural engineering departments of ATCO Noise
Management. ATCO Noise Management formed the business unit to focus on growing industry needs across
North America for proven consulting
expertise in noise management and
reduction.
Latin American clients will continue
to be serviced from the companys office in Curitiba, Brazil.
T.F. Hudgins Named Regional
Distributor of IMI Sensors Industrial Vibration Monitoring
Equipment
Houston, TX T.F. Hudgins, Incorporated, recently reached an agreement with the IMI Sensors Division
of PCB Piezotronics to distribute IMI
Sensors industrial vibration monitoring instrumentation products. These
products include industrial vibration
sensors and transmitters, switches,
reciprocating machinery protectors,
bearing fault detectors, panel meters,
cables and accessories. Under terms
of the agreement, T.F. Hudgins will
provide sales and support to customers in the oil, gas, petrochemical and
refining industries in a region that
includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma

and Texas. T.F. Hudgins has also


been named an exclusive distributor
for IMI Sensors new Series 649Axx
Reciprocating Machinery Protector and Series 680x Smart Vibration
Switches.
IMI Sensors designs and manufactures industrial accelerometers and
vibration sensors, 4-20 mA vibration
transmitters, smart vibration switches, bearing fault detectors, reciprocating machinery protectors, signal
conditioning, cables and related accessories for predictive maintenance,
equipment protection, condition
monitoring and machinery vibration
analysis. Sensors are used to monitor
bearings, gears, motors, spindles and
other rotating machinery in harsh factory environments.
ACI Services, Inc. announces
three management additions
Cambridge, Ohio -- John J. Bazaar has joined ACI Services Inc.
as Manager, Design Engineering,
reporting to Chuck Wiseman, Director of Mechanical Design. John has
25 years of mechanical design and
analysis experience from various industries including gas compressors.
He holds a BSME degree from Union
College, Schenectady, NY.
Derek A. McIntire has joined ACI as
Manager, Manufacturing, reporting
to Larry Burnett, VP of Operations.
Derek has more than 14 years of oil
field and manufacturing experience,
including engineering and supervisory assignments with Ford Motor
Company. He holds a BS in Industrial Technology and a MS in Industrial Systems Engineering from Ohio
University.
Nak Nortey has joined ACI as a Sr.
Project Engineer. Nak brings 30 years
of industrial experience and a strong
background in project management,
product design and stress analysis.
He holds a BSME degree from City
University of New York, an MS in
Engineering Science from Penn State
University, and is near a PhD in Mechanical Engineering after extensive
post-graduate studies at Columbia
University, Polytechnic Institute of
New York and Auberdeen University.
Compressor Products International and ACI Services Announce Alliance Agreement
Houston, TX Compressor Products International (CPI) and ACI
Services Inc. announced today that
the two companies are forming an
international sales, marketing and

p. 14

development alliance to expand services and product availability to each


companys customers - worldwide.
Under the agreement, CPI gains access to ACIs custom-designed cylinders and compressor engineering
capabilities; and ACI obtains CPI
polymer alloy materials and radius
disc valves for use in product development.
Compressor Products International Acquires Navitas (U.K.)
Ltd.
Stafford, Texas Compressor Products International (CPI) is
pleased to announce the acquisition
of Navitas (U.K.) Ltd., a business
located in Berkshire, U.K., which
developed the Valvealert condition
monitoring systems.
The Valvealert product is a condition monitoring tool which analyzes
the operation of compressor valves
over a period of time. This equipment
allows service engineers to reduce
down time of machines by detecting
and pinpointing operational problems
before they impact operating performance. In addition, Compressor
OEMs have used this product within
testing and quality routines of new
machines.
Valvealert is a non-intrusive method for monitoring and trending the
mechanical condition of reciprocating compressor valves. Valvealert
can be used on all types of compressors from small air compressors to
3000 bar L.D.P.E. compressors and
oxygen machines.
The product encompasses both offline and on-line monitoring hardware.
This hardware interfaces with the
Valvealert software that provides
automatic analysis and report generation through a simple graphical
user interface. The system will also
trigger alerts to compressor operators
notifying them of potential valve issues.
The Valvealert system is a patented
product that provides a flexible infrastructure to integrate compressor
monitoring and allows for the automatic assessment and control of compressor valves.
Altronic, Inc. Unveils CPU-95
Enhanced Display Module
Significantly larger display allows
for viewing additional information
provided by new datalogging capabilities
Girard, OH - Altronic, Inc. has

Q3 - Industry Case Studies

announced an optional Enhanced


Display Module
(791909-1) which
is backward-compatible for the
CPU-95 Digital
Ignition System.
The new display
will be of interest to users seeking an expanded
level of capability
or intending on
integrating their
CPU-95 system
into an existing
or planned supervisory control or remote monitoring
system.
In addition to incorporating a Modbus RTU-enabled serial port for communication with a remote monitoring
system or local controller, the Enhanced CPU-95 Display Module also
supports USB connectivity to a PC
and the associated CPU-95 Terminal Program. An innovative ignition
memory cloning system allows this
advanced Module to upload the ignition system configuration file (number of cylinders, firing pattern, number of monitored gear teeth, 4-20mA
or RPM curve, etc.) from a connected
Ignition Module, retain it indefinitely
in its own memory, andwithout need
of a laptopto download that memory
information to a new Ignition Module
in the event that the existing module
is damaged or requires replacement.
The larger system display allows for
the simultaneous display of large
amounts of information, and the ability to map the CPU-95 Ignition
Outputs to the appropriate cylinder
designation. Thus, the user retains
indication of the appropriate CPU-95
output (A, B, C, etc.) while also getting diagnostic indications in terms of
the on-engine cylinder reference (5L,
3R, #6, etc.). Advanced spark reference number graphing is also made
possible by the incorporation of the
larger display (see sample displays
above). Live and datalog-based XY
graphing of the monitored Spark Reference Number for a given cylinder
and at-a-glance indication of the
relative value of the Spark Reference
Number across all cylinders gives
the user unparalleled access and convenience in ignition system troubleshooting and monitoring.
Added capabilities also include an
on-board datalogging function which
retains up to one-hundred (100) date
and time-stamped records of the
Spark Reference Number for each
output which have been recorded at

user-adjustable intervals. These records are stored in a rolling first infirst out fashion and are accessible
for download via the Enhanced Display Module for offline trending and
analysis.

In Memoriam

Thomas G. Drenan, 52, passed away on


July 19, 2008 after a valiant two-year
battle with a malignant brain tumor. Prior
to his declining health, Tom was Director of Compressor Connection for ACI
Services Inc. in Cambridge, Ohio, U.S.A.
He knew integral engine compressors
inside and out, and was instrumental in
the development of ACIs CompressorConnection.com and the underlying used
compression equipment business.
Prior to joining ACI in January 2005,
Tom spent more than 24 years with Tennessee Gas Pipeline in various engineering and supervisory positions. A native
of Huntington, W.V., Tom had a BSME
degree from West Virginia Tech. He was
an avid racing fan and enjoyed working
on his classic 1969 Plymouth Road
Runner.
A friend to everyone he met, Tom was a
caring, Christian family man who leaves
behind wife, Karen, son, Tyler, and
daughter, Courtney. Personal condolences
may be sent to the family at www.thornblackfuneralhomes.com.

GM Journal

Redesigned KVG Power Head - Runs cooler. No cracking.


Improved COOPER-BESSEMER GMV Water Inlet Header - Better durability.

New AJAX Integrated Governor - Fast response to load change.

New Eco Jet and SUPERIOR 825 Combustion Chamber - Reduced emissions.