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# Polymath Tutorial

Polymath Capabilities

## Linear Equations Solver

Nonlinear Equations Solver
Differential Equations Solver
Regression
Linear & Polynomial
Data Table
Multiple Linear or Multiple Nonlinear Regression

Additional Capabilities
Export to Excel
Calculator and unit conversion tools
Polymath Export to Matlab (see help Menu for more
information)

Todays Class
Provide information on Polymath
How to open and use the software

## Learn how to input and solve nonlinear and

differential equations
Provide step-by-step instructions so you can practice
and compare results

## Address the question: Why learn another

software program?

Starting Polymath
1. Open Polymath Fogler from the start menu.

## Navigating the Menu

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1. New program
13. Solve system of ODEs
2. Open file
14. Regress and analyze data
3. Open recent file
15. Calculator
4. Save file
16. Unit converter
5. Cut
17. Scientific constants
6. Copy
18. Setup preferences
7. Paste
19. Help
8. Delete
9. Find
10. Find and replace
11. Solve system of linear equations
12. Solve system of nonlinear equations

Help Menu

## Example 1: Nonlinear Equation Solver

Consider the following set of equations:
kCA12 = v(CA0-CA1)/V
kCA22 = v(CA1-CA2)/V
where k = 0.075, v = 30,
CA0 = 1.6, and CA2 = 0.2 CA0.
Therefore, we have two remaining variables: variables
CA1 and V.
We will use initial estimates: CA1=1 and V=300.

## Nonlinear Equation Solver

Rearrange:
0 = kCA12 v(CA0 - CA1)/V
0 = kCA22 v(CA1-CA2)/V
In Polymath, the appropriate forms for these equations
are:

## f(CA1) = kCA12 v(CA0 - CA1)/V = 0

f(V) = kCA22 v(CA1-CA2)/V = 0
Can f(CA1) and f(V) be switched?

## 1. Open a new sheet by clicking on the blank sheet in the upper

corner.
2. Open Nonlinear Equations

3. In the upper left corner, click the f(x)+ button. This will allow
you to enter one of the two equations.
4. A new window will open.
5. Type in the first equation as shown before.

3. In the upper left corner, click the f(x)+ button. This will allow
you to enter one of the two equations.
4. A new window will open.
5. Type in the first equation as shown before.
6. Press Done.

## 7. You should see the new equation in the worksheet, as well as

the comments.
8. Enter the second equation by repeating the same steps.

9. You will see the two equations and two initial value guesses in the
worksheet.
10. The red X displays the undefined variables.
11. Enter the undefined variables by either 1) clicking on the x(=)+
button in the menu or 2) entering directly into the worksheet.

9. You will see the two equations and two initial value guesses in the
worksheet.
10. The red X displays the undefined variables.
11. Enter the undefined variables by either 1) clicking on the x(=)+
button in the menu or 2) entering directly into the worksheet.
12. Now you should see a blue check mark indicating this system of
equations can be solved.
13. To solve, click the purple arrow.

Results:
CA1 initial guess: 1
V initial guess: 300

CA1 = 0.602
V= 1102

## Example 2: Solving a System of

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)
This system may contain two types of equations: 1) first order
ordinary differential equations and 2) explicit algebraic
equations.
The differential equations must be entered in the following form:
d(x)/d(t)= .
Here t is the independent variable and x is a dependent variable.
Auxiliary algebraic equations must be entered in the form:
x = .

## For differential equations, an initial value is needed for all

variables. A final value is needed for the independent variable.

## 1. Open a new program (blank sheet)

2. Select Differential Equations

Series Reaction:

k1

k2

ABC

## Using Polymath, we can monitor the conversion

of A, the formation (and disappearance) of B,
and the formation of C.
Species Balances:
d ( A)
k1* A
d (t )

d ( B)
k1* A k 2 * B
d (t )

d (C )
k2* B
d (t )

## 5. Add the three equations with the following initial

parameters: A(0)=1, B(0)=0, C(0)=0
6. We still have two undefined variables: k2 and k1
7. Enter k1 as 1 and k2 as 2.

## 5. Add the three equations with the following initial

parameters: A(0)=1, B(0)=0, C(0)=0
6. We still have two undefined variables: k2 and k1
7. Enter k1 as 1 and k2 as 2.

We have an error. We need to enter the initial and final values for
our independent variable (t).

## 8. To add the final values for t, select Edit followed by

Define Initial and Final values
9. Then enter the initial and final values for t: 0 and 3.

## 8. To add the final values for t, select Edit followed by Define

Initial and Final values
9. Then enter the initial and final values for t: 0 and 3.
10. Select Problem and Arrange Equations to sort the list.

## 8. To add the final values for t, select Edit followed by Define

Initial and Final values
9. Then enter the initial and final values for t: 0 and 3.
10. Select Problem and Arrange Equations to sort the list.

## Before we solve, lets add a title.

11. Select Edit and Enter Problem Title

Graph

## 13. To run the program, click the purple arrow.

Run Program

Final values:
A = 0.050
B = 0.047
C = 0.903

Concentration Profiles
Graph generated to show disappearance of reactant A.

Concentration Profiles
Graph generated to show disappearance of reactant A.

Click
Graph
to
modify

Concentration Profiles

Click
brush to
edit

## How can B maximized?

k1

k2

ABC
If k1>>k2, what happens?
Change k2 to 0.5 and k1 to 2

Bmax = 0.25

Bmax = 0.63