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Deirdre Barrett and Stanley Krippner

Crick and Mitchisons article on REM sleep as a random brain process
involved off-line memory consolidation.ii It reinforced the view, already held by
many neuroscientists, which dream content is basically without meaning. These
writers based their thinking on the notion that the brain is a neural network that
stores information during the day but nighttime stochastic noise is needed to
cleanse it of unwanted information that would otherwise overload its capacity.
However, later neural network stimulations tended to focus on the opposite
problem of how such systems can overcome noise.iii Crick and Michelson pressed
their idea so far as to assert that people should not recall their dreams because
such attempts may retain patterns of thought that are better forgotten.
Contrary to these perspectives, many investigations of dream reports
suppose the conclusion that dream narratives are not random and unpatterned but,
in Alfred Adlers terms, reflect a basic continuity with daily life.iv This point of
view was developed later by Calvin Hallv among others. This continuity between
dream reports and dreamers everyday life has been demonstrated not only for
individualsvi but for cultures as well.vii
For example, Monroe, Nerlove, and Danielsviii studied three groups of
male Nigerian students, finding that their dream content differed in relation to
their tribal backgrounds. The Ibo culture has a value system favoring upward
social mobility. Hausa culture does not support social mobility and individual
achievement. The Yoruba culture takes an intermediate position. The Yoruba

students dream reports contained more achievement themes than those of Hausa
students, but less than those of Ibo students. This is exactly what one would
predict if dreamlife reflects waking life.
Further contradicting the garbage disposal theory of dreams as dream
researchers nicknamed Crick and Michelsons assertions, there is enormous
anecdotal evidence of dreams grappling with, and sometimes solving, major
problems ranging from the structure of benzene to plots for prize-winning
literature.ix More controlled problem-solving studies confirm the potential utility
of dreams for this purpose.x Cultures that emphasize dreams as a source of
guidance have even more examples of nocturnal guidance than dream-neglecting
Western society. Indias greatest mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan, dreamed
all of his mathematical proofs and Mahatma Gandhi said that his non-violent
protest of British rule in India originated in a dream.xi The Arab world consists of
various sub-cultures with this type of emphasis.
Arab Dream Traditions and their Role in Previous Arab-world
Secular Arabic traditions have focused on the potential of dreams to
foretell the future. Sometimes the prediction is assumed to be literal and obvious,
while on other occasions elaborate systems of symbolic translations were
consulted such as the tenth century Oneirocriticon of Achmetxii in which
severity or even connotation often changed with the dreams interpretation. For
If someone dreams that he was decapitated in battle, he will
receive beneficence from a powerful man... (p.129)

If he dreams that a front tooth fell out, the closer of his kin will
die... (p. 108)
If he dreams that his fingernails were pulled out, the misfortune
will be even more severe, and this points to a short life... (p. 113)
In Islam, many of the foundations of the Koran were revealed to
Muhammad in his night journey which moderate branches of Islam construe as a
divinely inspired dream. Muhammad ordered the practice of adhan, the daily
call to prayer from the minarets and a central ritual of Islam to this day after one
of his followers dreamed of it. The split of Islam into the conflicting factions of
Sunni and Shiite was based partly on a dream of Mohammed, which the Sunnis
used to justify their rights as his successors.
The autobiographies of Muslim rulers often contain extensive dream
diaries and examples of decisions ostensibly based on dreams. When the Shah of
Iran was deciding whether to seek a loan from Russia, he dreamed that a famous
theological figure dressed in primitive Muslim garb approached the Shah and
threw at his feet a sack containing gold and silver. The interpretation of this
dream was that the Shah shouldn't make any new loans with unbelievers but
should trust that fellow servants of the faith would restore his finances. Saddam
Hussein reported dreaming that Allah told him to enter and take back Kuwait just
before the first Gulf War.xiii Before the second Gulf War, he reported a dream that
a snake came upon his path but he chopped off its head with a sword which he
interpreted to mean Western invaders would be vanquished.xiv
Contemporary Islamic militant jihadists (Mullah Omar, Osama bin Laden,
Atta, Reid etc.) routinely legitimate their calling through reference to dreams, and

appear to interpret night dreams as being both inspirational and even strategic in
their jihad.xv xvi
Because of this emphasis on dreams as foretelling the future rather than
arising from the past, many Arabs who are having PTSD nightmares of an event
occurring each night experience even more anxiety over whether this will indeed
occur again than dreamers in other cultures. In a study of PTSD nightmares in
Kuwaiti survivors of the Iraqi invasion, the dreamers were extremely likely to
view dreams about horrific encounters with the Iraqi army as meaning that the
Iraqis were going to return rather than simply as being about the past.xvii
The positive side to this emphasis on dreams foretelling the future happens
when people in the midst of turmoil dream of positive outcomes. These can be a
source of optimism and inspiration in Arab culture, while in Western traditions
they would be dismissed as "wish fulfillment" without the beneficial impact.
Dreams Occurring before the Arab Spring
In December 2010, the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi sparked
protests that toppled the government of Tunesia (where Bouazizi lived) and
spread across parts of North Africa and the Middle East. In her essay, Is there an
Arab Dream? Musings at a Difficult Time in the Arab Spring, Sarah
Eltantawixviii wrote from Cairo:
The air is still thick with heat. Its the kind that sends you,
exhausted, to bed midday to submit to naps so deep you are sure
your cells are regenerating at accelerated speed. Your lungs ache a
bit with breathing. The dreams of these naps are excessively sharp
with color; the subconscious deepest tresses excavated, as if by
divine pitchfork. The kind of dreams that give a strong cup of
coffee upon awaking a feeling of a lifeline. Being forced into these
dreams by nature, I wonder if they can be made of use.

If Adlers continuity hypothesis is valid, one would expect to see aspects

of the so-called Arab Spring in dream reports of people in those regions. And,
given dream beliefs in the region, one might expect them to be made use of for
guidance, inspiration, and warnings by many of the dreamers. In 2013, we
requested our contacts in that part of the world to collect dream reports that
seemed, in some way, connected to the protest movements.
Some dreams in the collection we gathered presaged the events, often by
several years. Akbar (a pseudonym, as are all dreamers names in this essay
except those of public figures), an Algerian, reported a dream from November
2002, one that he claimed reflected the spread of revolution fervor some 8 or 9
years later.
I see a mountain. It is very high and wide, and it rises from the
middle of a desert. I entered one of the caves in this mountain and
found a medium-sized rock incursion in the earth. Then I moved
that rock aside. Once I did this, huge amounts of oil came out of
the slit. It poured onto the desert and spread wide until it became a
One could make the case that the spreading oil is a metaphor for the way
that protests appeared in several countries following Bouazizis suicide. However,
this is a post-hoc interpretation; more likely the flowing oil mirrored the way that
newly discovered oil behaves once discovered.
A more likely premonitory dream was reported by Fawzia in July 2013, an
Egyptian, before Mohamed Morsi, the legitimately elected president, had been
deposed in an army coup.
I am looking at Morsi and am surprised because he is dressed in
tattered rags. He is the president, so why is he dressed so shabbily?

Fawzia recalled another dream a few nights later.

I see Morsi in the presidential palace. He is wearing a delicately
colored suit. A military officer is asking him to go outside the
palace to see the large crowd of his supporters.
Both dreams occurred very shortly before the coup. The first dream may
have reflected the rumors about the armys plan to seize power, something that
Fawzia, a backer of Morsi, did not want to occur. Her second dream may have
reflected her wish that Morsi remain in power. This might be an example of
Freuds wish fulfillment, something he thought characterized most dreams, but
a phenomenon that backers of the continuity hypothesis relegate to a minority of
dream reports. A very interesting variation on a wish fulfillment dream occurred
in this dream of a young woman in Egypt just before the Arab Spring:
I am observing a group of women who are parading for their
rights. I am not sure what country this is in. There must be several
hundred women protesting the government repression. They win
their battle but it is short lived. There is a new government that
gives the women their rights. But soon another government comes
in that abolishes the rights, and the women seem to be right back
where they started from. My mood is one of disappointment.
In a way, this parallels the government overthrow and then the military
coup ousting the new regime. However, this womans dreamed revolution was
more the one she would have liked to see. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
was not known for their sympathy for women's rights, and the military coup was
associated with suppression of women's rights. But it is still a remarkable dream
in many ways.

Majda, a young woman of the United Arab Emirates had a sober

premonition of how events might go. As events were beginning to unfold in 2011,
she dreamed:
I am outside of Dubai in a desert area, and look back at the
skyscrapers. I think that I am lucky to be in a stable situation
because as I look into the distance I see a sandstorm coming. I
know it will not hit my country but I feel badly about the people
who will be hurt by it. When I wake up I am sad, which is an
unusual feelings for me upon awakening.
The metaphor of a sandstorm which her unconscious offered and her
resulting sadness are much closer to how many of the participants might
consciously view the events now than they were at the time of this dream.
An Egyptian journalist sent us his translations of three dreams that were
circulated after the June 30 coup. The alleged dreamer was Abd El Fatah El Sisi,
the Egyptian Minister of Defence who toppled Mohammed Morsi. These dreams
were circulated by the Muslim Brotherhood in an attempt to portray El Sisi as a
megalomaniac who thought that his dreams predicted the future. These dreams
came from an old audio interview with El Sisi broadcast by Qatari station al
Jazeera, hence they are probably authentically something El Sisi was trying to
promote in the initial interview but was asking after the coup. El Sisi observed, in
the interview:
I have had many dreams that came true, including these dreams
from 35 years ago. I am brandishing a red word in which the
religious slogan, There is no God but Allah was inscribed. I was
wearing a large watch decorated by a very big star. The watch was
the Omega brand and people kept asking me, Why are you, not

anybody else, wearing this magnificent watch? I say to them,

This watch was made to be mine, and its name is Omega means
universality. And that word is mine too.. In the second dream, I
hear somebody say to me, We will give you something very
precious, something that nobody else has ever had. And in the
third dream the late President Anwar Sadat is saying to me, I
already knew that you would be Egypts next president. I replied,
Me too.
The first dream is quite general, and the word Omega is given a strange
meaning, even in translation, since Omega is the last letter of the Greek
alphabet and in the Western world is generally thought to connote finality. The
final two dreams are both more recent and more specific. If El Sisi was giving an
honest report, they do seem to presage actual events. However, the use of these
dreams to discredit El Sisi is as provocative as the dreams themselves as it
displays the Muslim belief that dreams can be premonitory. The newspaper article
was meant to expose El Sisi as a self-promoter who used these dreams to enhance
his own reputation.
Islamic militants indeed announced supposed premonitory dream content
during the events of the Arab Spring to legitimate their positions. In a 2011
videotape produced in Syria, titled Dream (glad tidings) of the killing of the
killer/criminal/illegal Bashar at the hands of his associates,xix Sheikh Mohammed
Aljamal and Sheikh Hassan Al-Hussein describe dreams of others which presaged
Arab Spring events which had already happened such as the killing of Muammar

Qaddafi in Libya and the imprisonment of Hussnei Mubarak. They use the term
"Ro'aa "which literally means vision, but implies a divinely-inspired dream
when it refers to the experience of an ordinary believer, as only prophets are
assumed to have waking visions. Then Aljamal and Al-Hussein describe dreams
which they imply predict the outcome of the Syrian Civil War which was in its
early stages at the time. Their first example is:
This dream came before the events in Tunis. One of the good
people. . . saw a group gather over a lion and they ate it. And this
dream was a prophecy of the falling of the regime and the
humiliation of its members.
Their interpretation hinges on the fact that the name Assad means lion in
Arabic. Indeed, in the pun-like manner of dreams which Freud dubbed visual
representation, this image could be a rather obvious metaphor for the fall or
death of Syrian President Bashar Assad. In an ironic aside, however, two years
after the video was made and just as this book was going to press, major
newspapers around the world flashed the headline: Starving rebels eat lion from
a Damascus zoo,xx accompanied by graphic photos and video of men in the
suburb Al-Ghouta butchering the unfortunate animal--eerily reminiscent of the
dream account. Al-Ghouta was one of the areas hit by chemical gas attacks, and
papers reported that Syrian imams had issued a fatwa that allows people living in
those areas to eat meats that are normally forbidden under Islamic law, including
dogs, cats and donkeys.
Aljamal and Al-Husseins next three examples are safer from alternative
interpretations as more obvious representations of the triumph of the rebels:

The second dream is that somebody saw the flag of Syria was
being placed in a coffin.
One of the imams in Lebanon narrated to me a dream that involved Syria with its
houses doors lying open.
Another good man of Lebanon, when remembering God Almighty,
was taken into sleep. When he woke up he said: Look forward in
anticipation, for I have seen the people of Syria rejoicing happily
and inviting us to have breakfast feasts over there during
Their last example is the most literal:
A man I consider from the good people, and hes from Syria,
narrated to me a dream that Bashar Al-Assad was killed by people
around him close to him--people he trusts.
Aljamal and Al-Hussein assure listeners that these dreams mean that
Bashar will be killed by the hands of his own associates as per Sheikh-ul-Islams
dream . The victory is near . . . be patient. The Prophet said . . . near the [end]
time, the dreams of true believers will not lie. So far, this seems to be wishful
thinking--whether by the original dreamers or by the imams in their cherrypicking of dreams. The only accurate prediction so far is the unfortunate lion; two
years after the video was made, Assad still hangs onto power.
Dreams Occurring during the Arab Spring
Other dreams are contemporaneous with political events--the unconscious
minds representation of what the waking self is witnessing. In 2011, an Indian
student, Nakul, was in Cairo during the uprisings leading to the demise of the
Mubarak regime when he had the following dream:
I am in a dark house that is completely unfamiliar to me. Outside
there are camels that seem to be searching for me. I am terrified
because I do not know how to fight camels. But I do know that

they can go a long time without water so they will keep looking
indefinitely. One of the camels is unusually large and savage
looking. But it is very dark inside and outside, so I am able to
elude them. I wake up terrified.
This young man seems to be caught up in events beyond his control, with
hostile forces that are searching to destroy anyone not like themselves (in
ideology, perhaps) and so the hostility is not personal. Because there is so much
confusion, he is able to escape them, at least at the time he had the dream. He did
return to India safely.
In 2013, Azzam, an Egyptian, reported a dream in which an Egyptian
general who had been sacked by Morsi was chasing me into a building. Canisters
were being fired at him as well as at other protestors, with tear gas being emitted
from small windows. The dreamer was a supporter of Morsi who had been
deposed before he had this dream. This dream may have reflected his anxiety
about the military leaders who could well have tracked down and imprisoned all
supporters of the former president.
Once Morsi had been deposed, the event was reflected in dreams of his
Egyptian supporters and opponents. One supporter, Areed, reported a dream that
he recalled in July 2013:
I dreamed that Morsi, who had been ousted by the military in June,
was under detention. In this dream, I am sitting around a television
set with members of his family. One of his sons attacks me
verbally, even though I supported his father. Afterwards he tries to
console me and apologizes. The whole family apologizes.
Although I feel satisfied and tell them so, they keep apologizing.
And then they stop.
This dream might reflect Areeds disappointment with the fate of Morsi.
He might have thought that some of Morsis actions were responsible for his loss

of power, and the dream indicates the dreamers hope that Morsi will recognize
the mistakes that he made. The family members are ambivalent about recognizing
the situation but finally take some responsibility by apologizing to the dreamer
and, quite likely, the other supporters who felt let down.
Ragab Ez El Deen--another Egyptian, and in this case a researcher in
political science who wanted his real name included, also interjected himself into
contemporary events during the Arab Spring.
I am being chased by Tantawy, a military commander who headed the
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) which took over power
during the transition after the Mubarak regime collapsed.. He is

chasing me from house to house. I wondered how Tantwi could be

so earnest in chasing me although he is such an old man. I made
him believe that I have holed in a house. He stormed such house.
A mob caught him when he tried to go out of the house.
In this dream, El Deen may fear that his political sentiments may put him
at risk. However, there are many people who agree with him and he gets out of
harms way. This dream could well reflect the political realities of Egypt in which
shifting power structures endanger people whose allegiances differ from the group
in control at any given time.
In Jordan, where King Abdullah II was responding to protests by replacing
unpopular prime ministers and altering laws, a young woman, Aini, viewed the
Arab Spring much more positively. In August 2012, a month after the major
protests had replaced officials and a month before demonstrations over fuel prices
persuaded the King to drop the price, Aini reported:
My dream started with me climbing a red mountain with
someone (a distorted imp-like someone, come to think of it), and
when he couldn't climb anymore he said he was going back down,
and jumped all the way down from our height to the bottom. Being

near the top, I struggled to the peak. But to my dismay, there was
nowhere to go, so I decided to do the same as him and jump down.
Then, as I was waking up, I had a half-dream, halfdaydream. I thought what if I hadn't jumped down the way I came
from, but had dived over the cliff on the other side? So I did. I
jumped from the cliff. Then all of a sudden I was swimming in a
clear lake, with fishes underwater, complete with corals reefs. I
was swimming peacefully when all of a sudden a huge shark came,
probably a great white. I was wondering if I should swim for the
shore, when it started to come for me. But it kept missing, and
really I wasn't afraid at all. I realized that someone, or something,
invisible was protecting me. A strong and reliable entity. The shark
darted for me one last time, and annoyed by its persistence (that
was the feeling I got), the entity took it and smashed it down, one
side then the other, like a pancake.
Ainis dream repeatedly introduced danger--the cliff, the shark. And
repeatedly there was some magic entity helping her, but she also gained in
efficacy herself. This seemed to reflect the nature of the protest process in Jordan:
certainly scary at times, as the police stood by prepared to move in if
demonstrations got too intense. But eventually, as with the shark, Aini learned she
didnt need to be too afraid and could assert herself. No doubt the dream contains
many other layers of personal meaning for a young woman struggling with
becoming an adult and being a woman in male-dominated world, but her role as
protestor and citizen of a country engaged in change seems to be a potent part of
the story.
Madhia, a teenager from Afghanistan, told our informant that, in her
opinion, the Arab Spring had redefined the entire Arab culture. She continued,
Entire populations broke the silence and openly criticized the then-current state
of affairs. Even in countries like Syria, where dissent is viciously marginalized,
protesters continue to call for an end to state mandated oppression. Madhia had a
dream in which a voice was signing about the Arab Spring. She recalled what she

could and recast the song, which she called Dream with Me. This translation
was done by our informant.
Dream with me.
Tomorrows coming,
And if it doesnt come
We will bring it ourselves.
All of our steps will lead us to our dream,
No matter how many times we fall.
We can always get up.
We can break through the darkness.
We can turn our night into a thousand days.
Dreams after the Arab Spring
The hope expressed in Madhias song did not last. The expected
Democratic Domino failed to materialize. Long-time dictators were deposed in
Egypt and Libya, but the governments that followed were not paragons of
democracy or even of stability. An uprising in Yemen failed to take hold, and
protests in other countries were repressed or simply fizzled out. Syria has been
locked in a bitter civil war ever since. Some commentatorsxxi have complained
that the Arab Spring term was the invention of Western journalists. The term is
an allusion to the European revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes collectively
referred to as the "Springtime of the People", and to the Prague Spring of 1968.
These analogies to Western-style democratic revolutions may never have reflected
the realities of events in the countries at the epicenter of the protests.
Amir, a high school student living in the occupied West Bank who
experienced its turnmoil all of his life, now watches Syrias civil war just over
the border. He hears the news daily and encounters acquaintances whove been
over the border and directly involved, but Amir has played no role in Syria.

However, he finds his dream tumbling him into the battle without warning in the
midst of normal teenage activities:
I was in my Jericho house, and fixed something to eat . . .and
Skyped a bit and solved some chemistry questions . . . Then, I
took out a rifle for my duties as a Lieutenant in the Arab Syrian
Army and went on a find-and-kill mission for Free Syrian Army
(FSA) members in Jericho.... I saw some FSA members
sneaking to the left...I shot them down, 2 men... There was no real
recoil, or any sense of shooting, nor was there blood or screams or
sounds...I just aimed and they were lying dead on the ground
next... I saw one of my men get shot in the head...
So he eats, chats with friends, and then war rages--a reality in that part of
the Middle East thats only gotten more exaggerated for anyone near the Syrian
border. The observation that the dream lacked gritty, real-life details as people
suddenly lay dead could result from the dreamers experiences playing videogames, not military service; but it also could be dissociation developed through a
waking lifetime of witnessed violence. A couple weeks later, Amir had a dream-the only one in our sample to overtly compare Arab Spring to European
struggles--but emphasizing their darkest resemblance:
I was a soldier in a militia, the black guardians, and our job was to
cover the Arab Syrian Army by shooting the Free Syrian Army
members... My fellow members were shooting bulls-eyes in the
Free army's heads....I, on the other hand missed all my shots. Then
I hit a fellow Arab Syrian Soldier...friendly fire. I saw the soldier
collapse with a small burst of blood, through the scope of my
sniper. I felt deep shame...not only am I failing in killing the
enemy, but I am killing our own men. A bullet hit me, in the leg. I
collapse.... The enemy comes....They raise me and place me in an
"ambulance." It was a donkey driven cart, with the cart being
fenced with wooden fence. Like a large baby's cradle... I lay
Then in the transitionless way that can only happen in dreams:
I was a French soldier injured in a battle in the early 1800s
between the French and the British... I was thrown into the cart

again, and dragged away.... I only showed agony and despair once
we were negotiating the curb... as I was taken into the unknown....
Next thing I know, I am an Orc and loosing to a battle against the
centaur demigod as the last Orc Grunt. I try diplomacy, and slash
my head goes off...I hear a voice saying Our hero has been slain,
just like the video-game I was playing right before I fell asleep.
Conflict in his own country, war in Syria, ancient battles from history
books, and an intergalactic video-game swirl in a mix of permanent war. Awake,
Amir does view the FSA negatively, but hes not an admirer of the SAA. He
believes the current regime may be a slightly more stable force from the
perspective of the Palestinian refugee camps, but says no side is an angel and
you dont really support a side in that sort of a free for all. The dreams imagery
reflects that: though Amir is cast on a particular side in each scene, both sides
always behave equally aggressively. And its a SAA member he ends up
shooting. The general message seems to be all wars are hell. For Amir, the
battles around him have disrupted his ability to enjoy childhood play and teenage
exploration without violence and survival issues intruding.
Jasmine, who lives in Morocco, reported a gentler if perhaps equally sad
I am watching a scene in the desert. Some lovely flowers were
blooming. Their colors are remarkable, like something I had not
seen in my waking life. But the colors begin to fade and the plants
begin to die. Soon there is nothing there but sand, shifting sand.
This dream could well be a metaphor for the dashed hopes of the Arab
Spring. Jasmine lives in a country barely touched by either the successes or
failures of the protests. As a result, she can distance herself from these events and

give a reaction that does not put her in the middle of the action, as was the case
with the Egyptian and Palestinian/Syrian border dreamers.
Naval, a man viewing these events from India has an equally removed
perspective and his dreams perhaps incorporate more sense of the partial
successes, partial failures and continuing nature of the story:
I am watching a herd of horses running over a desert. They are all
very strong and very powerful. They seem to be Arabian horses
and I think that they represent various countries in the region.
Suddenly, the horses go off in their own direction and there is no
more unity. The horses do not turn against each other; they simply
run off toward different parts of the desert. I feel sad that they
could not longer stay the common course.
Our review of Arab Spring dreams supports Alfred Adler's thesis of
continuity between dream life and waking life. Each of the dream reports we have
cited is a reflection of actual events before, during, or after that period of history
and/or the dreamer's reaction to those events. Our review also mirrors many
Arabic traditions regarding dreams, suggesting that future historians include
reported dreams as an important supplement to their descriptions of the social and
political movements, and their sequels, that they study. These occurrences would
be more thoroughly understood if dream reports were added to first-person
interviews, post-hoc ruminations, media presentations, and other customary data
sources. Without paying attention to unconscious dynamics, a historical record of
critical world and region events is lacking layers of its psychological causation
and meaning.

i We would like to thank and Dr. Iain Edgar for their help in locating relevant dreams.
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vi Domhoff, G. William. The scientific study of dreams: Neural networks, cognitive development, and content

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vii Prasad, B. "Content analysis of dreams of Indian and American college students: A cultural comparison." Journal of Indian

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x Barrett, Deirdre. "The" committee of sleep": A study of dream incubation for problem solving." Dreaming, 3, no. 2 (1993): 115.
xi Barrett, D. (2001) op. cit. Chapter 8: When Gandhi dreamed of resistance.

xii Oberhelman, S. M. (Ed.). (1991). The Oneirocriticon of Achmet: a medieval Greek and Arabic treatise on the

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xiii Barrett, D. (2001). op. cit.
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xvii Barrett, Deirdre and Behbehani, Jaffar (2003). Post-Traumatic Nightmares in Kuwait Following the Iraqi Invasion. In Krippner,

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from Morocco to Pakistan, Oct. 31

Retrieved 11/20/13.
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YouTube Retrieved 11/20/13.

xxThe Times Starving rebels eat lion from a Damascus zoo Nov 29, 2013 Retrieved Nov 30th, 2013.

xxi Alhassen Maytha (2012). Please Reconsider the Term "Arab Spring" Huffington Post, Feb. 10 Retrieved 11/20/13.

The research reflected in this chapter was supported by the Saybrook University Chair for the Study of Consciousness.