These are question and notes on forces of IGCSE Physics. Will help you understand the basic forces and how they play a vital role in physics for example details on friction forces.You can test your skills and understanding and would be a great revision towards your preparation for your IGCSE PHYSICS exam.

© All Rights Reserved

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These are question and notes on forces of IGCSE Physics. Will help you understand the basic forces and how they play a vital role in physics for example details on friction forces.You can test your skills and understanding and would be a great revision towards your preparation for your IGCSE PHYSICS exam.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 12

Name & Set

A sky-diver jumps from an aeroplane. Here is a velocity-time graph to show the descent to the

ground in a simplified form

80

60

40

20

D

C

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Time / s

(i) the maximum velocity reached? __________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) the time taken? ______________________________________________________________ [1]

(iii) the acceleration of the sky-diver

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(iv) the vertical distance that the sky-diver free falls?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(b) In section AB, the sky-diver has reached terminal velocity.

(i) Why does the velocity remain constant?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) What distance does the sky-diver fall at constant velocity?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

GCSE MOTION

(c) At B, the sky-diver opens the parachute and decelerates rapidly.

(i) What is the deceleration of the sky-diver?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(d) why is the sky-diver again at constant velocity in the section CD of the graph?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(e) What happens to the sky-diver at D?

___________________________________________________________________________ [1]

2

(i)

(a) A car made a short journey. Some information about the journey is given in the table.

Time taken in

seconds (s)

Distance travelled

in metres (m)

50

300

100

800

150

1400

200

2200

250

3400

300

5000

Complete the graph by labelling each axis, plotting the points, drawing a smooth curve through

the points

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

GCSE MOTION

(ii) How can you tell, from your graph, that the speed of the car was greater in the second half of the

journey than in the first half of the journey?

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(iii) Calculate the average speed of the car during the journey. Include in your answer the equation

you are going to use. Show clearly how you get to your final answer and give the unit.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

(b) Name three forces that act on the car when it is moving along the road.

Force 1 ________________________________________________________________________ [1]

Force 2 ________________________________________________________________________ [1]

Force 3 ________________________________________________________________________ [1]

GCSE MOTION

3

The diagram shows an orbiter, the reusable part of a Space Shuttle. The data refers to a typical

flight.

Orbiter data

Mass

Orbital speed

78 000 kg

7.5 km/s

Orbital altitude

200 km

Landing speed

100 m/s

Flight time

7 days

(a) (i) What name is given to the force which keeps the orbiter in orbit around the Earth?

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) Use the following equation to calculate the kinetic energy, in joules, of the orbiter while it is in

orbit.

kinetic energy = 1

mv 2

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(iii) What happens to most of this kinetic energy as the orbiter re-enters the Earth's atmosphere?

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(b) After touchdown the orbiter decelerates uniformly coming to a halt in 50 s.

(i) Give the equation that links acceleration, time and velocity.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) Calculate the deceleration of the orbiter. Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the

unit.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(c) (i) Give the equation that links acceleration, force and mass.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) Calculate, in newtons, the force needed to bring the orbiter to a halt. Show clearly how you work

out your answer.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

GCSE MOTION

4

The table shows the braking distances for a car at different speeds and kinetic energy. The

braking distance is how far the car travels once the brakes have been applied.

Braking distance

of car in m.

Speed of car

in m/s.

Kinetic energy

of car in kJ

10

40

12

15

90

20

20

160

33

25

250

45

30

360

Kinetic energy in kJ

(a) A student suggests, "the braking distance is directly proportional to the kinetic energy."

(i) Draw a line graph to test this suggestion.

Braking distance in m

GCSE MOTION

(ii) Does the graph show that the student's suggestion was correct or incorrect? Give a reason for your

answer.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(iii) Use your graph and the following equation to predict a braking distance for a speed of 35 metres

per second (m/s). The mass of the car is 800 kilograms (kg). Show clearly how you obtain your

answer.

kinetic energy = 1

mv 2

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(iv) State one factor, apart from speed, which would increase the car's braking distance.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(b) The diagram shows a car before and during a crash test. The car hits the wall at 14 metres per

second (m/s) and takes 0.25 seconds (s) to stop.

After

Before

(i) Write down the equation that links acceleration, change in velocity and time taken.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) Calculate the deceleration of the car.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(iii) In an accident the crumple zone at the front of a car collapses progressively. This increases the

time it takes the car to stop. In a front end collision the injury to the car passengers should be

reduced. Explain why. The answer has been started for you.

By increasing the time it takes for the car to stop, the ______________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

GCSE MOTION

6

(a) The following table gives the total kinetic energy of a car, and the passengers inside it, at

different speeds.

Speed in metres/second (m/s)

10

15

20

25

30

35

10

40

90

160

250

360

490

(i) Use part of this information to calculate the total mass of the car and its passengers.

Write down the equation you are going to use.

Then clearly show how you get to your answer.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

(ii) Plot a graph of speed (on the x-axis) against kinetic energy (on the y-axis).

(a) Label each of the axes.

(b) Draw a smooth curve for the correct points.

[2]

[1]

500

400

300

200

100

0

0

10

15

20

35

25

30

(iii) The speed limit in built up areas is 13 m/s. Use the graph to estimate the kinetic energy of the car

and passengers at this speed.

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

GCSE MOTION

(iv) Use the graph to find out what increase in speed would be needed for the car and passengers to

have double the kinetic energy which they had at 13 m/s.

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(v) What happens to most of the kinetic energy of a car when the brakes are applied?

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(b) (i) What is the braking distance of a car?

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) Explain what the connection is between the braking distance of car and its speed

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

7

The diagram shows the path of a ball when thrown through the air.

(i) Add to the diagram the name and direction of the force or forces acting on the ball in the three

positions shown. Assume that position 1 corresponds to the point immediately after release and that

during the whole flight air resistance is negligible

[2]

(ii) Explain, in terms of the energy changes of the ball, why the ball reaches a maximum height.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

(iii) If the ball had been thrown with the same velocity on the moon, describe and explain how the

path of the ball would be changed.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

GCSE MOTION

(a) The following graph shows the speed of a car at different times during a short journey.

40

30

20

10

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time from the start in seconds (s)

Use the information from the graph to help you to answer the questions.

(i) What additional information would you need in order to know the velocity of the car?

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) During part of its journey the car was travelling at a steady speed.

Calculate the distance that the car travelled during that part of its journey. Include in your answer the

equation you are going to use. Show clearly how you get to your final answer and give the unit.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

(iii) During part of its journey the car was slowing down.

Calculate the deceleration of the car during that part of its journey. Include in your answer the

equation you are going to use. Show clearly how you get to your final answer and give the unit.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

(b) Later the car accelerates at 2.5 metres per second per second (m/s2).

The mass of the car is 800 kilograms (kg).

Calculate the force needed to accelerate the car. Include in your answer the equation you are going to

use. Show clearly how you get to your final answer and give the unit.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

(c) The car driver and passengers wear seatbelts. Explain how a seatbelt reduces the risk of injury if

a car stops suddenly. You should include ideas about acceleration and force in your explanation.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

GCSE MOTION

9

A space shuttle orbits the earth 700 km above the surface at a speed of 7500m/s. To return to

Earth falls out of orbit. It has no engine for most of its descent it glides. A few minutes later it

lands on the ground at a speed of 100 m/s.

7500 m/s

glide path

70

km

orbit

Earth

________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(b) What percentage of its energy in orbit is left at touch-down?

(You dont have to know the actual mass of the shuttle to work this out.)

________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________ [2]

10

State what forces act on it.

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

(b) The rockets motor is fired in a direction opposite to that of its motion for 10 s.

Explain what happens to its velocity and explain why.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(c) The force on the rocket is 20 kN.

If the mass of the rocket is 1000 kg, calculate its acceleration during the 10 s period.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

(d)Calculate the final velocity of the rocket after the motors have been turned off.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [4]

10

GCSE MOTION

11

An aeroplane must reach a velocity of 100 m/s before it can take off. Starting from rest it

accelerates down the runway at a uniform rate. It takes 25 seconds to become airborne.

(a) Use this information to plot a velocity time graph for the aeroplane during take-off.

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(c) How far has the plane travelled along the runway before it gets airborne?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

11

GCSE MOTION

11

Its mass, including passengers and fuel is 150,000 kg. Its take-off speed is 100 ms-1.

The maximum thrust of its engines is 500,000 N.

(a)

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(b)

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(c)

We can assume there are no forces of resistance and the engines maintain maximum thrust.

Using the equation

Work done (joules) = force x distance

Calculate the minimum length of runway needed for take-off.

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

(d)

The following forces act on an aircraft when it is in flight: weight, drag, lift and thrust. On the

diagram below draw labelled arrows to show the size and direction of these forces when a plane

is travelling at constant speed and constant height above the ground.

[4]

Describe what will happen to the speed and height of the plane if the trust of the engines is reduced?

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

Describe what will happen to the speed and height of the plane if the lift of the wings is reduced?

_________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ [1]

12

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