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# LESSON1: Friction

Friction force:
- It exists between two surfaces when they touch each other
-It affects in the opposite direction of the movement.

Types of friction:
1- Friction between solids.
2- Friction between bodies and air.
3- Friction between bodies and water.

## What happen when ?

- Roll a small rubber ball on a sandy floor.
The rubber ball stops moving after a short time.
-Roll a small rubber ball on a smooth floor.
The rubber ball keeps moving for a long time.
-The friction force is the reason of stopping the ball during motion.
- Friction force arises when two surfaces touch each other.
-Effect of friction force is in opposite direction to movement direction.
G.R:Slowing down or stopping of the body during its motion.
Due to the friction force that affects in the opposite direction
of the movement.
When the bicycle tires touch the road, the friction force arises.
in the opposite direction of the movement.
What happen
When you stop pedaling during the movement of the bike ?
G.R The bike slows down
Because the friction force increases
- When a plastic cube touches a wooden board, the friction force arises.
- The direction of the friction force is upwards while movement is
downwards.
Conclusion:
1- Friction force arises when two surfaces touch each other.
2- When friction force is larger than movement force.
The body doesnt move.
3- When friction force is smaller than movement force.
The body moves.
4- Direction of friction force is opposite to the movement direction.

## The box doesnt move.

Because the friction force is
larger than the pushing force.
force.

## The box moves.

Because the friction force is
smaller than the pushing

## Factors affecting the friction force:

1- The surface area of the moving object.
By increasing the surface area of the moving object, the friction force
increases and vice versa.
Relation between surface area of moving object and friction force is direct.
2- The type of the material surface.
G.R:A ball moves on ceramic surface for long distance than on wooden
surface.
Because the friction force increases between rough surfaces and decreases
between smooth surfaces.
3- The speed of the body.
By increasing the speed of the body, the friction force increases.
- Rubber and dry cement has the greatest friction force Then glass and
metal then rubber and wet cement
- Glass and glass has the lowest friction force
Disadvantages ( harms ) of friction:
1- Damage machine parts.
Because the friction force causes a rise in temperature.
2- Make lose of money .
Ways to decrease the friction force:
1- Using lubricants and oil.
used to form a thin layer between the internal moving parts of machines
2- Using ball bearings.
A group of small metallic balls, which have smooth surfaces
G.R:Technicians put ball bearing between internal moving parts of
machines.
To decrease the friction force.
2

The ball bearing that exists in the axis of car engine and transmits the
motion from the car engine to the wheels.
G.R: Using lubricants and oil in machines. OR Using ball bearings in
machines.? To reduce(decrease) the friction force .

Give reasons:

## 1-The streamline shape in the design of the modern cars increase .

To decrease the exposed area so that reduce the air resistance.
1-The parachutist land safely on ground.
When he opens his parachute the area exposed to air increases so the air
resistance increase (decreases the falling speed)
3-Why does the bird stretch its wings on landing ?
When it stretch its wings the area exposed to air increases so the air
resistance
increase (decreases the falling speed) so it lands safely.
Q. Why does the front part of a train have a streamline shape ?
Q. Why does the body of the bird have a streamline shape?
Why does the temperature of an electrical saw get high ?
Due to the friction between the saw and the object..

## Lesson 2: Friction applications

1)Friction between two solid objects:
Factors affecting the friction force between two solid objects:
Friction force between solid objects increases:
1- By increasing speed of the body.
2- By increasing surface area of the moving body.
3- Between rough surfaces.
G.R Drivers cant control the car (vehicle) on wet roads.
Because water decrease the friction force
G.R The channels of car tires are connected with curved grooves.
Car tires should be replaced when their grooves disappear.
To squeeze water out.

## 2) Friction between solid objects and air:

Air resistance:
Is the friction force resulting from the movement of solid objects through
air.

## Factors affecting air resistance:

1- Speed (velocity) of the body.
By increasing the speed of the body, air resistance increases.
G.R You shouldnt increase the car speed up to a certain limit.
To reduce the air resistance & loss of fuel.
When air resistance equals the increase in the speed of the car.
The car moves with a constant velocity.
2- Surface area of the moving body.
By increasing surface area of the moving body, air resistance increases.
Because there is a direct relation between the surface area of the moving
body
and air resistance.
Give Reason:
1- Parachutist opens the parachute to land safely.
To increase air resistance by increasing surface area
2- Birds have streamline shapes.
To decrease air resistance.
3- Birds stretch their wings on landing.
To increase air resistance by increasing surface area
4- Rockets, aircrafts & trains are designed in streamline shapes.
To decrease air resistance.
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## 3)-Friction between solid objects and Water:

Water resistance: It is a friction force resulting from the movement of any
object through water.

## Factors affecting water resistance:

1- Speed of the body through water:
By increasing the speed of the body through water, water resistance
increases and vice versa.
2- Surface area:
By increasing the surface area of the body that moves through water,
water resistance increases and vice versa.
G.R Ships and fish are designed in streamline shapes.
To decrease water resistance.

1- helps in moving and stopping cars .
2- helps us to control the car speed.
3- helps us to walk on smooth surface .
Because the friction prevents us from slipping down.
4- Lighting of a match.

## Circulatory system and circulation

Circulatory system:
The system that transports digested food, oxygen gas & water to all
body cells and carries wastes away from body cells.

## Function Circulatory system:

1- It transports digested food, oxygen gas & water to all body cells.
2- It transports wastes to get rid of them.

## Structure Circulatory system:

It consists of heart, blood vessels and blood.
Heart: Is a muscular hollow organ equals the size of a fist.
Location heart: It locates inside the chest cavity between the 2
lungs.
Function Heart: It pumps the blood throughout the body.

Structure Of heart
1- The heart is divided into two sides, the left side and the right side.
2- The left side contains oxygenated blood (blood rich in O2 gas).
3- The right side contains deoxygenated blood (blood rich in CO2 gas).
4- There is a wall separates between the two sides of the heart? G.R
To avoid mixing the blood in the two sides.
5- The 2 upper chamber is called an atrium(left and right atrium).
The heart has two atria, the left atrium & the right atrium.
6- The 2 lower chamber is called a ventricle.
The heart has two ventricles, the left ventricle and the right ventricle.
7- The heart consists of four chambers ( 2 atria & 2 ventricles).
8- There is a valve between each atrium and ventricle in the same side. G.R
Because the valve passes the blood in one direction only from atrium to
ventricle
9- The four chambers of the heart are always full of blood and connected
to the blood vessels.

Blood vessels:

## Types of blood vessels

P.O.C.
Location
Thickness
Function
Type of
blood
Examples
Shape

Arteries
veins
start from the heart from the Begin at the body cells and open in
two ventricles and end at the the heart in the two atria.
body cells
thick
thin
carry the blood from the heart carry the blood from all the body
to all the body parts.
parts to the heart.
All arteries carry blood rich in All veins carry blood rich
O2 except the pulmonary artery in CO2 except the pulmonary
Which carry blood rich in CO2 veins Which carry blood rich in
O2
Aorta artery - Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins - vena cava
Large and wide at the
Begin by blood capillaries
beginning
Larger at the end
End by blood capillaries

Atria receive blood from veins, but ventricles pump blood through
arteries.
Arteries end with blood capillaries, but veins begin with blood capillaries.

Blood capillaries:
They are network of tiny blood vessels with very thin walls.
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## Functions of Blood capillaries:

1- Connect ends of arteries and beginnings of veins.
2- Have very thin walls. G.R
a) To allow the blood to deliver food and oxygen to the cells.
b) To allow the blood to carry CO2 gas and wastes outside cells.
Blood: It is a red liquid.

## Blood consists of:

1- Red blood cells
2- White blood cells
3- Blood platelets.
4- Plasma.
1- Red blood cells (RBC): are red cells without nuclei.

## The functions of Red blood cells:

a- carry oxygen gas from lungs to all body cells.
b-carry carbon dioxide gas from all body cells to lungs.
2- White blood cells (WBC): are white cells with nuclei.

## Function of white blood cells:

They defend the body against microbes by attacking them.
3- Blood platelets: are small cell fragments (parts).

## Function Blood platelets:

-Help in healing wounds.G.R?
Because they help in coagulation of blood (formation of blood clot).
4- Plasma: yellow watery fluid
All blood components are suspended in plasma.

Functions of Plasma:
a) Carries the digested food to all body cells.
b) Carries wastes to get rid of them.

## Blood is a fluid (liquid).G.R?

Due to the presence of plasma (yellow watery fluid).

Functions of blood
1- Transfer or delivery of materials to all body cells:
a) Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
b) Plasma transports food and wastes.
2- Defense and protection of the body: GR?
a) White blood cells attack microbes that cause diseases to human.
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## b) platelets help in healing wounds.

c) Blood keeps the bodys temperature constant.
Blood circulation: the path of blood throughout the body.

1- The blood carrying carbon dioxide gas reaches from all the body parts
to the right atrium through vena cava.
2- The blood flows to the right ventricle through a valve.
3- The right ventricle contracts pumping the blood into the two lungs
through the pulmonary artery.
4- The blood rich in oxygen (which comes from the two lungs) returns to
the left atrium through the pulmonary veins, then it flows to the left
ventricle through a valve.
5- The left ventricle contracts pumping the blood rich in oxygen to all
body cells through aorta artery.
GR:Wall of left ventricle is thicker than right ventricle?.
Because left ventricle pumps blood to all body cells, but right ventricle
blood to two lungs only.

## Blood circulation can be divided into two small

circulations which are:
A) The minor (pulmonary) blood circulation:
It is the blood circulation between heart and two lungs.
B) The major (systemic) blood circulation:
It is the blood circulation between heart and all body parts.
The number of heart beats at rest is 70 beats per minute.
The rate of your heartbeats increases during running(exercising).GR?
To supply the body cells with oxygen and food needed to produce more
energy.

## How to maintain the circulatory system healthy?

1- Keep exercising.G.R
To strengthen the heart muscle and to activate the blood circulation.
2- Eat healthy and balanced food that is low in fat and salt.
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## 3- Eat more fresh and clean vegetables and fruits.

4- Drink a suitable amount of clean water every day.
5- Avoid infections and accidents.
6- When you are wounded:
a) Try to stop the bleeding.
b) Clean the wound and treat it.
7- Avoid smoking and smokers.G.R
Because it harms the heart & causes weakens the blood circulation.

RCB'S

WBC'S

Attack microbes

Have nuclei

Artery

Vein

## - Carries blood from body parts to heart

Major blood circulation

Plasma

Platelets

## Help stopping bleeding and make

blood clots

Blood consists of
Red blood cells (RBC'S)

(WBC'S)

Blood platelets

Plasma

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## - White cells with nuclei

of different forms.
- They carry oxygen for cells and get
rid of carbon dioxide out.
- They defend the body
against microbes.

- Small sized
cells.

- Yellow
watery
fluid.

- They form
blood clot to stop bleeding
in case of
wounds.

They
contain
food that
cells need.

## Types of blood vessels

Arteries

Veins

Blood capillaries

## - Transfer blood from heart to all

parts of the body.

## - Transfer blood from

- Network of thin walled vessels
different body parts to
located within the tissues and
heart.
around cells.
- Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen
except the pulmonary artery.
- Connect between ends of
arteries and beginning of
veins.

Give reason:
1- The two sides of heart are separated.
To separate the blood rich in oxygen from the blood carrying CO2.
Or to prevent mixing the blood found in both sides.
2- Heart contains valves.To allow blood move from atrium to ventricle
only.
3- Blood flows in one direction only inside the heart.
Because valves allow blood to pass only from the atriums to ventricles.
4- The wall of left ventricle is more thicker than that of the right one.
Because the right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs (short way),While the
left ventricle pumps the blood to all body parts (long way).
5- Blood capillaries have a thin wall.
Thin wall allows blood to deliver food and oxygen to the cells . and allows to
get rid of wastes materials.
6- It is necessary to keep exercising.
To maintain the circulatory system and the blood.
7- Smoking must be avoided.To maintain the circulatory
system and the blood.
8- It is necessary to avoid exposure to infection and accidents.
To maintain the circulatory system and the blood.
9- Ventricles have thicker walls.
Because it pushes the blood for distance more than atrium.

omplete :-

1- The blood cells resist the microbes that cause diseases to the man .
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2- The blood cells transfers the oxygen and carbondioxide in the body .
3- . Keep the temperature of the body .
4- The left atrium contracts and pushes the blood to .
5- The .atrium accepts the blood from all body parts except the two lungs .
6- The blood vessels that give the heart the blood are called ..
7- The heart of the man consists of chambers .
8- The chamber in the heart accepts the oxygenated blood that comes from the two
lungs .
9-The heart is a muscular pump in a size of your -----10----------- blood circulation takes place between the heart and all the body parts.
11-Left ventricles contracts pumping blood into ------------.
14)-The blood is part of the ----------- system.

Correct:

## 1-The right side of the heart contains blood rich in oxygen.

2-Blood vessels which carry blood from heart to body are the veins.
3-Eating food rich in fats activates the circulatory system.
4-Wall is found between atrium and ventricle.
5)-Red blood cells defend the body against microbes.

## Lesson 2: Excretion and human urinary system

1- Solid wastes:
The indigested food stored in the large intestine before passing out of the
body.
2- Excretory materials:
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waste materials formed inside the cells and carried by the blood to special
organs to get rid of them.
a) Carbon dioxide:
Produced with water vapour when the body cells burn the digested food by
oxygen to produce energy.
Our body get rid of CO2 gas and water vapour through the two lungs
b) Nitrogenous wastes:
produced from breaking down of proteins.
We can get rid of nitrogenous wastes (urea & uric acid) by the urinary
system.
c) Excess salts and excess water:
Our body can get rid of excess salts and excess water through the urinary
system (two kidneys) and skin.
Excretion process:
The process of getting rid of the excretory materials out of the body.
Skin is one of the excretory organs GR?.
Because it gets rid of excess salts and excess water in the form of sweat.
Body cells release their wastes into the blood GR?.
Because blood carries these wastes to special organs to get rid of them.

Urinary system:
-A group of organs that clarifies the body from wastes and harmful
substances.
-The system that clarifies blood from nitrogenous wastes, excess salts and
excess water.

## Urinary system location:

-lies inside the abdominal cavity near the backbone.

## Urinary system function:

- filters the blood from excess salts, excess water, urea and uric acid.

## Urinary system structure:

The human urinary system consists of three parts, which are
a)Two kidneys
a) Two kidneys:
- The most important organs of the urinary system.
-bean shaped organs located on both sides of the backbone.

kidney functions:
1- Filtration of blood from wastes such as urea, uric acid and excess
salt.
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## 2- Getting rid of wastes in the form of urine.

b) Two ureters:
They are 2 narrow tubes that connect 2 kidneys with urinary bladder.
Two ureters function:

## - Transfer the urine from two kidneys to urinary bladder.

- A balloon-like sac that receives the urine from the two ureters.

- It stores the urine temporarly until it is released outside the body through
urethra.

Artery:
-It carries blood rich in oxygen, but containing waste materials to two
kidneys.

Vein:
- It carries the pure blood (filtered by the two kidneys) that is rich in CO2
gas to the heart which pumps it to the other body parts.

Urethra:
-Is a tube which extends from the urinary bladder and opens outside the
body
-It allows the urine to pass outside the body.
-Urine is the fluid of harmful wastes, which is produced by two kidneys.
-Urine consists of water containing some excess salts, urea and uric acid.
-Each kidney contains about one million minute tubules that filter blood
from wastes.
-The blood containing wastes enters the kidneys through arteries, but the
pure blood leaves kidneys through veins.

How can the body get rid of some excess salts through skin?
- The body gets rid of excess salts by secreting sweat from special glands
in the skin called sweat glands.

Sweat glands:
- Special type of glands inside the skin that produce sweat.
-Secreting sweat increases in summer due to high temperature.
GR:You must drink more clean water in summer.
Because the body produces (secretes) more sweat in summer.
- The body get rid of Carbon dioxide and water vapour wastes by lungs
- The body get rid of Excess salts by sweat from skin
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- The body get rid of Nitrogen wastes (urea and uric acid) by the kidneys in
the urinary system.

## How to keep the urinary system healthy:

1- Drink suitable amounts of clean water daily especially in summer.
2- Eat balanced healthy food low in salts.
3- Keep away from irrigation canals and avoid urinating in them.
To avoid bloody urine (schistosomiasis disease).
4- Dont keep urine in the urinary bladder for a long time.
Because this affects the function of kidneys.
Give the scientific term:
1-Two glands of bean shaped exist inside cavity of abdomen near the
backbone.
( Two kidneys )
2-The fluid which the kidneys produces and contains harmful substances.
( Urine )
3-The narrow tube which connects with the kidney and urine passes through it.
( The ureters )
Give reason:
1-If the 2 kidneys are damaged, the person will die.
Because the body cannot get rid of the urea ,uric acid and excess salts.
2- We should avoid spicy food.
To keep the urinary system healthy.
3- We shouldn't keep urine in our body for long time.
Because it is dangerous substance that harms the body.
4-Two kidneys are the most important organ in urinary system.
Because they filter the urine from blood.

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Unit (2)

Lesson 1: Soil

Components

Soil:
-

## A thin non-compacted superficial layer, which covers the Earth crust.

- The texture of soil is smooth, granular, or rocky rough.

Soil components:
Soil is made of many components such as:
a) Pieces of rocks (which is composed of sand, clay, minerals & gravels).
b) Water.
c) Silt.
d) Air.
e) Humus.

## Soil is composed of humus, water, sand, clay (mud), silt

and gravel.

a) Pieces of rocks:
- The variation in types of soil depends on the type of rocks and minerals.
- Rocks are the main source of sand & clay which are the main components
of soil

b) Humus:
- It is the decayed remains of animals and plants
- its color is dark brown or black.

## How is humus formed?

When the living organisms die, their bodies decay forming humus.

## The color of soil is dark brown.

Due to the color of humus, that is dark brown or black.

Importance of soil:
1- Plants take water and food from it
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## 2- Animals eat plants

3- Some animals make their homes in soil
4- Man eats plants and animals

Formation of soil:
Soil can be formed by breaking down of rocks by several factors as:
1- Water rushing.
2- Winds.
3- Heat & rains.
The origin of the soil of Egypt is the rocks of the Ethiopian Plateau.
1-When rocks of Ethiopian Plateau are exposed to heat, winds, rains and
running water
2- Flood water carried these particles of rocks to River Nile, then to Nile
Valley.
GR: Clay and silt are important components for soil?.
Because they are rich in elements necessary for growth of plants.

## Soil layers and organisms

1)Top soil layers

## 1- Top soil layers:

a) Roots of plants:
GR:Roots of plants extend deeply in the top soil layers?.
Because 1) They take water and food from soil.
2) They fix the plant in the soil.
3) They help the soil to be cohesive.
4) They prevent soil erosion
b) Leaves of plants:
When the leaves fall in the soil, they decay forming humus.
c) Ants and other insects Earthworms & some spiders
-They dig tunnels in the soil to allow water and air to pass
-When these organisms die, their bodies decay forming humus.

## 2- Lower soil layers:

- lie beneath (under) the top soil layers.
- dont have much humus.
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3-Rocky layers:
Their upper layers contain pieces of rocks, but their lower layers contain
solid rocks.

## Lesson 2: Types and properties of Soil

(1) Sand soil:Composed mainly of sand particles, a small amount of clay and slit, and
rarely contains humus.

(2) Slit soil:Composed of a mixture of equal amounts of gravel, sand, clay, and slit, but
it contains more humus".

(3) Clay soil:Composed mainly of clay and silt particles, and a small amount of sand
and humus.
Sand soil

Silt soil

1-Main components

Sand particles

## Sand ,gravel ,silt, Clay and silt

clay and more
humus

2-color

Yellow

Grey

Dark(black)

3-the size

Large

Medium

Small

4-compactness

Weak(loose)

Medium

High

5-aeration

Good

Medium

Poor

6-drainage of water

## Fast and great

Medium

Slow

7-water absorption

Low

Medium

High

8-fertility

Less

High

Fertile

Points of comparison

Clay soil

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Holding of water
( retain water )

Less

medium

More

9-suitable plants

Potatoes
sweet potatoes
peanuts-cactus

Cotton ,wheat
sugarcane
vegetables

Strawberry le
-oranges
pomegranate

Give reason:
1-Sweet potatoes are cultivated in sand soil
Because sand soil is Suitable for cultivation of plants that produce tubers.
2-The water level in clay soil is higher than sand and silt soils
Because clay soil has high absorption of water than sand and silt soil
3-Sand soil is called by this name
Because it is composed mainly of sand particles
4-The clay soil is poorly aerated
Because it has highly compacted Particles"
5- The clay soil has the slowest drainage of water
Because it is a Poorly aerated soil as its particles are highly compacted.
6-The sand soil is well aerated
Because it has weakly compacted Particles"
7-The silt soil is highly fertile
Because it is rich in humus"
8-The silt soil has grey color
Because it is rich in humus that is dark In color"

20

## Lesson 3 : Soil Pollution and Protection

Pollution
Pollution
- Any change in the environment that disturbs its natural balance.

Soil pollution
- Any change in the soil that disturbs its natural balance and harms its
living organisms.

## What are the soil pollutants?

Soil Pollutants :The materials that cause soil pollution.
1) Chemical pesticides.

2) Chemical fertilizers.

3) Industrial wastes.

## (1) Chemical pesticide (insectcides):

Used to kill the pests of agricultural crops.

## Harms pesticide (insectcides)

1-leak into the soil and pollute the plants.
2-Harm the human and animal health.
(b) Chemical Fertilizers:
- chemical compounds which compensate the poor soil with the elements
needed for plant's growth.
Harms Chemical Fertilizers
When they are used in great quantities:
1. They cause the death of living organisms that live in the soil.
2. They leak to the soil , harm man and animals.
(C) Industrial Wastes:
- Compounds result from industrial activities.

## Harms Industrial Wastes

1) Dissolve in irrigation water and rain water forming acidic rains.
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## 2) Increase soil acidification.

3) Dissolve in soil water and cause the death of the plants.

## (D) Increasing Soil Salinity:

Increasing soil salinity leads to dryness of soil cause loss of
cultivated plants
The factors increase the soil salinity:
-

## Increasing periods between the irrigation times.

Raising the level of ground water.

## Harm of increasing the soil salinity:

- causes loss of the cultivated plants and affects the plant growth.

## G.R.: Increasing the soil salinity

Due to increasing periods between the irrigation times and raising the
ground water level.

## 1) Decrease the use of pesticides

2) Decrease the use of chemical fertilizers& use natural
fertilizers.
3) Build factories away from the soil.
4) Irrigate the soil regularly to prevent their dryness& reduce the soil
salinity.
5) Recycling of agricultural wastes to useful materials

## Give reasons for:

1)-The increasing of soil salinity.
Because increasing the period (time) between the irrigation times and the
rising of the level of ground water.
2)-Acidic rains are harmful to the soil.
Because they increase soil acidification and they dissolve in soil water
and cause the death of the plants.
3)-Soil pollutants are very harmful.
Because:
1)-They reduce the ability of soil for cultivation.
2)-They cause the death of plants.
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## 3)-They harm the health of man& animals.

Final Revisions
Complete the following statements:
1)-The damage of machines is due to the ------------between their moving parts.
2)-Lubricants and oil form a ----------layer between the moving surfaces of the
machines.
3) ----------is formed of a group of small metallic balls with smooth surfaces.
4)-The friction force increases by ----------the surface area of the moving objects.
5)-The effect of the friction force is in the ----------direction of the movement
direction.
6)- ------------- is used to decrease the effect of friction force between the internal
moving parts of machines.
7)- ------------ and ----------- are the factors affecting on air resistance.
8)-The friction force between water and the object moves through is called
--------------.
9)-Car tires have ------------ connected with ----------- to squeeze the water out.
10)-Increasing the speed of the car increases ------------.
11)- -----------enables us to walk and run without slipping down.
12)-Fish has streamline shape to ------------------.
13)-The effect of the friction force is in the opposite direction of the ----14)-When the bicycle's tires touch the ground, ----------- arises.
15)-The friction between the internal moving parts of machines causes a great loss of
-----.
1)-The layer formed by using lubricants and oil -------------.
(decreases the friction force- increases the friction force - prevents the frictionnothing happen).
2)-Friction force depends on the ------ of material surface. (type color
shape)
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3)-The friction force between glass and ceramic is ----------- that between glass and dry
cement.(equal to smaller than larger than)
4)-Friction increases by increasing ----------(height speed weight)
5)-Friction between your shoes and the ground prevents -----------. (walking running
slipping down)
6)-There is ----------- relation between the water resistance and the surface area of the
moving body.(a curved a direct an indirect no)
7)- ------------- exist in the axis of car engine and transmits the motion from the car
engine to the wheels. (Oil Lubricants Ball bearings)
8)- ------------- is (are) from the disadvantages of friction.
(Damages of machines Loss a lot of money Rising the temperature of the
internal parts of machines all the previous)
9)- --------------- slows down the moving objects.
(Movement force Heat energy Kinetic energy Friction force)
Give reason for:
1)-Fish has a streamline shape.
---------------------------------------------------------------2)-The parachutist opens his parachute on landing.
--------------------------------------------------------------3)-Using oil and lubricant in machines.
-------------------------------------------------------------4)-Birds stretch their wings on landing.
-------------------------------------------------------------5)-A big rubber ball moves on the classroom for a shorter distance than that of the
small rubber ball.
--------------------------------------------------------------6)-There are ball bearings in the car engine.
--------------------------------------------------------------8)-There is a direct relation between the friction force and the surface area of
the moving object.
--------------------------------------------------------------.
Write the scientific term:
1)-A set of small balls of smooth surfaces are put together between the internal parts of
the machines.
(----------------)
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## 2)-A force that slows down the moving object.

(----------------)

3)-The friction force between air and the moving objects through it.
4)-Substances that form thin layer to decrease the friction force.
Correct the underlined words:
1)-Friction force affects in the same direction of the object movement.
2)-Air resistance decreases when the car moves so fast.
3)-Lubricants increase the friction.
4)-The friction force between a marble and a glass surface is higher than that
between the marble and a wooden surface.
5)-When the velocity of a train decreases, the air resistance increases.
6)-Trains and aircrafts are designed in streamline shapes to increase the air resistance.
A)-Put () or (X) and correct the wrong ones:
1)-By increasing the surface area of the moving object, the friction force decreases.
( )
2)-When the parachutist opens his parachute the friction force decreases( )
3)-Oil is used to decrease the friction force.
( )
4)-The pushing of an object forwards is opposed by a friction force at the same
direction.
( )
5)-Ball bearings are used to increase the friction force.

## Complete the following statements:

1)-Heart is located within the chest cavity between the -------------.
2)- ------------ are the main organs of the urinary system.
3)-Vessels that carry blood to the heart are called ------------.
4)- ----------- is a thin non-compacted layer covers the Earth's crust.
5)- ------------ is a yellow watery fluid in which blood cells float.
6)-There is a ------------ between atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart.
7)-All arteries carry blood rich in oxygen except -------------.
8)-Water and ----------- break down rocks into small pieces.
9)-Increasing periods between irrigation times lead to ----------- of the soil.
25

10)-There are three types of blood vessels which are ----------, -------- and
--------------.
11)-The color of ---------- soil is dark, while that of -------- soil is yellow.
12)-The urinary system consists of ----------, ----------- and the urinary
13)-All veins carry blood rich in carbon dioxide except the ------------.
14)-The compactness in --------- soil is very weak, while that in -------- soil is very
high.
15)- --------- form clots which help in healing wounds.
16)- ----------- and ----------- dig tunnels in soil.
17)- -----------, ----------- are from the excretory materials that produced from burning
the digested food with oxygen.
18)-Roots and animals are in the ----------- layers of the soil.
19)- ---------- is a balloon like- sac that receives urine from ureters.
20)- --------- are special glands in the skin help to expel excess salts and water.
21)-The main types of soil are ---------, ---------- and ---------.
22)-Water, ---------- and ---------- are from the soil components.
23)-Arteries transport blood from ----------to------------.
24)-We can get rid of CO2 (carbon dioxide gas) by ------------through
--------------------.
25)- ------------ and ------------ are from soil pollutants.
26)-The heart consists of -----------chambers.
27)-The narrow tube connects between the kidney and the urinary bladder is known as
----28)-Left atrium pushes the blood into the --------- and blood does not return back again
to atrium because of the presence of ------------.
29)-Blood consists of ---------- , red blood cells, platelets and ---------.
30)-Urea is expelled out the body by the --------------.
31)- ---------- atrium receives blood from all body parts except the lungs.
32)-Red blood cells carry ----------- gas from ------------ to all body cells.
1)- ---------- blood cells resist the microbes that attack the body.
(Plasma White Red)
2)-Carbon dioxide and water vapor are released out the body by -------. (two lungs
stomach heart)
3)-The origin of the agricultural soil in Egypt is from ---------- plateau.
(Tibet Golan Ethiopian)
4)-Urea is expelled by the ------( heart kidneys lungs)
26

## 5)-From the ways to protect soil from pollution -------------.

(using chemical fertilizer using natural fertilizer using chemical pesticides)
6)-The heart is a muscular pump in a size of your ------( finger foot fist)
7)-If the body is wounded and the blood exposed to the air, the ---heal the wound and
form clots.(red blood cells blood platelets white blood cells)
8)-Sweat glands excrete ----------(urine sweat carbon dioxide)
9)-The decayed remains of plants and animals are called (rocks humus gravel)
10)- ---------- blood circulation takes place between the heart and all the body parts.
(Minor Major Vein)
11)-The --------- soil layer that contains roots, leaves, worms and humus. (top lower
rocky)
12)-The thin non compacted layer that covers Earth is -(soil moon sun)
13)-Left ventricles contracts pumping blood into ------------.
(aorta artery left atrium pulmonary artery large veins)
14)-The blood is part of the ----- system. (respiratory - excretory circulatory
digestive)
Give reason for:
1)-Heart contains valves.
---------------------------------------------------------------2)-The blood platelets have a role in healing wounds.
-------------------------------------------------------------3)-There is a wall between the two sides of the heart.
-------------------------------------------------------------4)-Roots of plant are important.
-------------------------------------------------------------5)-Blood flows in one direction only inside the heart.
-------------------------------------------------------------6)-Earthworms that live inside the soil have a great importance.
27

## 7)-Peanut plant grows in sand soil.

-------------------------------------------------------------8)-Keeping away and avoid urinating in irrigation canals.
------------------------------------------------------------9)-The urinary system contains urinary bladder.
--------------------------------------------------------------

## Write the scientific term:

1-A yellow watery fluid in which the blood cells float
2-The remains of decayed organisms.
3-A balloon like sac that receives urine from two ureters.
4-The type of glands that get rid of excess salts and excess water through skin.(
)
5-The soil that drains water slowly.
(----------------)
6-Any change in the soil that disturbs its natural balance and harms its living
organisms (--)
7-The large artery that carries blood from the heart to all body parts.
8-The loose layer which covers the Earth's crust.
(----------------)
9-The cells that have no nuclei.
(----------------)
10-The narrow tubes which connect the kidneys with the urinary bladder.
11-The soil of the highest fertility.
(-----------------)
12)-The two lower chambers of the heart.
(-----------------)
13)-The two upper chambers of the heart.
(-----------------)
14)-It is a muscular hallow organ that pump blood to all body organs.
15)-The system that filter the blood from excess salts, urea and uric acid.(-------------)
16)-The network of thin walled vessels located within the tissues and around the
cells.( )
17)-The blood circulation between heart and all the body parts except the two
lungs.( )
18)-Blood vessels carry blood from body to heart.
(----------------)
19)-They from blood clots when the body is wounded. (----------------)
20)-The process in which the body get rid of wastes produced from burning food.(
)
21)-The blood circulation between the heart and lungs. (----------------)

## Correct the underlined words:

1)-The right side of the heart contains blood rich in oxygen.
2)-Blood vessels which carry blood from heart to body are the veins.
3)-The silt soil is poorly aerated.
4)-Rock is the remains of the decayed organisms.
5)-Urinary bladder is the main organ in the urinary system.
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## 6)-Skin gets rid of urine.

8)-Plants dig tunnels in the soil to make homes.
9)-Eating food rich in fats activates the circulatory system.
10)-Kidney is a part of circulatory system.
11)-Cell wastes are the undigested food which is stored in large intestine.
12)-Wall is found between atrium and ventricle.
13)-Red blood cells defend the body against microbes.
Put () or (X) and correct the wrong ones:
1)-The heart is a muscular pump in the size of your fist.
( )
2)-Eating food rich in fats and salts activates the circulatory system. ( )
3)-The heart is a part of the respiratory system.
( )
4)-The heart is located inside the mouth cavity.
( )
5)-Increasing the periods between the irrigation times leads to increase in the
fertility of the soil.
( )
6)-Lungs get rid of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
( )
7)-Keeping the urine and delaying getting rid of it benefits the urinary bladder.
( )
8) Skin helps in excretion process by getting rid of urine.
( )
9) Heart consists of four chambers.
( )
10) Soil is important for animal and human life.
( )
11) Blood platelets help in healing wounds.
( )
12-The friction force is always in the same direction of the movement. ( )
13- Oil is used to decrease the friction force. ( )
14-Lubricating and oiling of machines decrease the friction Force. ( )
15-When the friction force increases, the speed of object decreases. ( )
16-The streamline shape of fish increases the water resistance ( )
17-The heart is located in mouth cavity. ( )
18-Arteries carry the blood from heart to all body cells. ( )
19-Red blood cells are responsible for defending the body from microbes. ( )
20-White blood cells help in healing wounds. ( )
21-The pulmonary veins carry the blood rich in oxygen.
( )
22-Carbon dioxide is produced from burning of digested food( )
23-Nitrogenous wasted are removed through skin. ( )
24-Urination process increases in winter than in summer.
( )
25-You must eat balanced food contain much salt. ( )
26-Animals eat plants that depend on soil. ( )
27-Heat, wind, rain and running water breakdown the rocks into small particles. (
)

29

## 1)The left ventricle contract

2)There is no friction between the car tires and the ground
3)The rocks are exposed to rushing water and winds
4)A car moves very fast on wet road
5)You drink a little amount of water daily
6)Using a chemical fertilizers in great quantities
7)The two sides of the heart are not separated
8))The temperature of the internal moving parts of the
machines increase
9)The level of ground water rises
10)The two kidneys are completely damaged
Write the functions of :
1- The heart:
2- The valve:
3- The wall between the two sides of heart:
4- The arteries:
5- Veins:Carry the blood from all body cells to the heart
6- Blood capillaries:
7- The red blood cells:
8- The white blood cells:
9- Blood Platelets:
10- Plasma:
11- The kidney:
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## 12- The ureters:

14- Skin
15) Pulmonary artery
What is meant by ?
1) Sand soil:
2) Water resistance:
3) Sweat glands:
-Write down the advantages of friction:
-Write down the advantages of friction:

## -How can you keep your circulatory system healthy?

Eat food low in fat and salt
Keep exercising
Avoid smoking
Drink clean water

## How can you keep your urinary system healthy?

1-Drink clean water
2- Dont keep urine in the urinary bladder for long time
3- Keep away from irrigation canal
4-Eat food low in salts

## Identify the type of each of the following soils:

1-It's a yellow, weakly compacted, and well aerated soil (Sand soil)
2-It's a grey highly fertile soil (Silt soil)
3- Its a black soil contains small amounts of sand (clay soil)

## Write the scientific term :

1. it's the force that slows down the moving object and it has an effect in the
opposite direction of the moving body.
2. The friction force of the object moving in air
3. The friction force of the object moving in water
4. A force helps us to light a match
5. The system that carries oxygen, digested food and water to all body cells
6. A muscular organ that its size is about the size of fist
31

## 7. The lower two chambers of heart

8. The upper two chambers of heart
9. It allows the blood to pass in one direction from atrium to ventricle not in the
opposite direction.
10. They connect the end of arteries with the beginning of veins
11. Blood vessels carry the blood from all body cells to heart
12. Cells that resist the microbes which attack the body
13. One of the blood components that help in blood clot
14. a yellow watery fluid in which the blood cells float
15. The indigested food that stored in the large intestine until it passes out of the
body
16. The system that clarifies the blood from wastes
17. The bean-shaped organs which located in abdominal cavity
18. A balloon like sac organ that stores urine
19. A tube extends from the urinary bladder
20. The organ that get rid of excess water and excess salts
21. A thin non compacted upper layer that covers the earth crust
22. it's the decayed remains of animals and plants that mixed with the soil
23. Layer of soil that contains roots of plant leaves of plant of and micro
organisms
24. The well aerated soil
25. The soil that has weakly compacted particles
26. The soil that has medium drainage of water and medium absorption of water
27. The soil rich in humus
28. The soil poor in humus
29. Its any change in the soil that disturbs its natural balance
30. Chemical compounds used to kill pests of agricultural crops

Complete:
The friction force has an effect in the .. direction of the moving
body
2. When the object moves fast in water the friction force
3. .. is from disadvantages of friction
4. The damage of machines is due to .. between their moving parts
5. .. and are used to decrease the friction force
6. The friction force of the object moving in air called.
7. The friction force of the object moving in water is called
8. The system consists of heart, and
9. The heart is located in Cavity between the
10. The heart is a muscular .
11. The heart consists of . Chambers and . Sides
12. Each side of heart consists of chambers
13. The upper chamber of heart is called .., while its lower chamber is called
.
14. There are three types of blood vessels which are .,,

1.

32

## 15. Arteries carry the blood from to ..

16. Veins carry the blood from . to .
17. Vessels that carry the blood to heart are called
18. .. end with blood capillaries, while .. Begin with blood capillaries
19. The blood consists of .., , blood platelets and
20. blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the body
21. . blood cells attack microbes
22. The yellow watery component of the blood is called
23. The right atrium receives the blood rich in .
24. . are the indigested food that stored in the large intestine
25. and.. are from wastes that produced from burning food
26. The urinary system is located in . Cavity
27. The . System consists of ,.. and the urinary bladder
28. kidneys are located on both sides of the
29. The urinary system filters the blood from .,..,. And ..
30. The two kidneys get rid of wastes out of the body in the form of ..
31. . Is connected with the kidneys and transfer urine to ..
32. The urine consists of .,., excess water and
33. The kidney has a .. shape
34. The .. get rid of excess water and excess salts in the form of sweat
35. The main components of soil are . and ..
36. The color of humus is .
37. Plants take and .from the soil
38. Soil consists of . Layers which are ,. and
39. Lower soil layer found . The top soil layer
40. Clay soil consists mainly of particles while sand soil consists mainly of
.. Particles
41. The color of soil is black but the color of . Soil is yellow
42. is moderately compacted while soil is weakly compacted
43. The soil has small sized particles
44. The .soil is good aerated, while silt soil is . Aerated
45. The . Soil drains water faster than silt soil
46. .. soil is fertile , while . Soil is highly fertile
47. Cactus grows in . Soil while cotton grows in . Soil
48. cause the death of plants and harms the animals and human
49. the most important soil pollutants are ,.. and

1) Write the scientific term:1- The grey soil that contains more humus. Silt soil
2- Plants produce tubers and grow in sand soil. Potato and sweet potato
3- Small bodies that play a role in blood coagulation when the body is wounded. Blood
platelets
4- A set of small balls with smooth surfaces is put between the internal moving parts of
machines. Ball bearings
33

5- The force that slows down the moving objects and its effect is in the opposite
direction of the object's movement. Friction
6- A force that opposes the motion of a boat in the river. Water resistance
7- A yellow watery fluid in which all the blood components float. Plasma
8- The organ which allows the urine to pass from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Ureter 9- The type of glands that get rid of excess salts and excess water through skin.
Sweat glands
10- The most suitable soil for cultivation. Silt soil
11- A structure exists in the axis of the car engine and transmits the motion from the car
engine to the wheels. Ball bearings
12- A muscular pump located in the chest cavity and pumps the blood to all the body
parts. Heart
13- Blood vessels which carry the blood from the heart to all the body parts. Arteries
14- The friction occurring when something moves through air. Air resistance
15- A system that filters the blood from excess salts, urea and uric acid. Urinary
system 16- The path of the blood throughout the body. Blood circulation
17- A balloon like sac that receives urine from the two ureters. Urinary bladder
18- The remains of the decayed organisms. Humus
19- The network of pipelines that extend all over the human body. Blood capillaries
20- An artery that carries blood rich in carbon dioxide gas. Pulmonary artery
21- A type of soil that rarely contains humus. Sand soil
22- A thin non compacted layer covers the earth's crust. Soil
23- The suitable soil for cultivating potato. Sand soil
24- The two organs which filter the blood from urea. Two kidneys
25- Rains formed when industrial wastes dissolve in rain water. Acidic rains
26- Chemical compounds used to eradicate pests of the agricultural crops.
Chemical pesticides
27- Dark brown material that exists in the top soil layer. Humus
28- Any change in the environment that disturbs its natural balance. Pollution
29- Blood circulation between the heart and all the body parts except the two lungs.
Systemic blood circulation
30- The flow of blood to the lungs and its returning back to the heart. Minor blood
circulation 31- The Soil that is rich with humus. Silt
32- Rains increase the soil acidification. Acidic rains
33- The two organs which excrete carbon dioxide gas and excess water in the form of
water vapour. Two lungs
34- Any change in the soil properties that disturb its natural balance. Soil pollution

## 2) Complete the following statements :

1- Oils, lubricants and ball bearings are used to decrease the friction force.
2- The heart is located within the chest cavity between the Two lungs
3- The blood consists of Red blood cells , plasma , blood platelets And white blood
cells. 4- The value of friction between two surfaces depends on the type of material of
both surfaces.
34

5- We can get rid of excretory materials like carbon dioxide and water vapour through
two lungs
6- Cactus grows in sand soil, while cotton grows in clay soil.
7- Sweat gland get rid of excess salts and water in the form of sweat
8- Kidneys are located on both sides of backbone
9- When living organisms die they decay forming humus
10- The direction of the friction force is opposite the direction of the object's motion.
11- The circulatory system consists of heart, blood and blood capillaries
12- From the agricultural soil pollutants are chemical pesticides and chemical
fertilizers 13- The right ventricle pumps the blood to pulmonary artery but left
ventricle pumps the blood to aorta
14- Blood keeps the body temperature constant.
15- The types of soil are clay , silt And sand
16- Urine consists of water containing excess salt, urea and uric acid
17- The heart beats cause pumping the blood to all body parts.
18- Car tires should be replaced when their grooves Disappear.
19- Urinary bladder is a balloon like sac.
20- The fish has streamline Shape.
21- Silt soil is highly fertile.
22- Increasing periods between irrigation times leads to increase the salinity of the
soil.
23- Blood circulation between the heart and all the body parts except the two lungs is
called systemic blood circulation.
24- The silt soil drains water faster than clay Soil.
25- Blood platelets form blood clots which help in healing wounds.
26- Water and wind break down rooks into small pieces.

3) Give reasons:
1- The fish has a streamline shape. To decrease water resistance
2- The heart contains valves.
To allow the flow of blood in one direction only from the atrium to the ventricle
3- The silt soil has the highest fertility. Because it contains great amount of humus
4- Friction force causes a great economical loss.
Because it increases the temperature of the internal parts of the machines leading
to the damage of them
5- Sweat has a salty taste.
Because it consists of the excess salts and excess water of the body.
6- Blood capillaries have thin walls.
To allow gases exchange process between the blood and the cells.
7- Smoking must be avoided. To keep the circulatory system healthy
8- The parachuitist opens his parachuite on landing.
To increase air resistance in order to land safely
9- The importance of earthworm and some spiders for the soil.
Because they aerate the soil by digging tunnels
10- Ball bearings are put between of the moving parts of machines.
35

## To decrease the friction force

11- The two sides of the heart are separated by awall.
To prevent mixing of blood between the two sides of the heart
12- Walking on wet ice may be lead to slipping down.
Due to the decrease of the friction force
13- The white blood cells are called the defense cells.
Because they resist the microbes which attack the body
14- The skin is one of the excretory organs. Because it excretes sweat
15- Man urinates less in summer than in winter. Because he gets rid of excess water
through sweating due to the rise of temperature
16- Car tires have inscriptions. To squeeze out water drops on the roads

## 4)Mention one function of each of the following:

1- The kidney: it extracts excess water, excess salts, urea and uric acid from the blood
2- Veins: they carry blood from all body parts to the heart
3- Urinary bladder: it stores urine till it is ejected out from the body
4- Ureter: it transfers the urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
5- White blood cells: they resist the microbes which attack the body
6- Red blood cells: they carry gases from the two lungs to the body cells and vice
versa

## 5) Choose the right answer :

1-Carbon dioxide gas and water vapour are released by the: (Kidneys lungs heart)
2- Blood vessels which carry blood from the heart are the: (Arteries veins blood
capillaries)
3- The origin of the agricultural soil in Egypt is from: (Tiba Golan Ethiopia)
4- Urea is expelled by the: (heart kidneys lungs)
5- .. are examples of soil pollutants: (Humus plant roots chemical
pesticides)
6- All the following are from the components of the blood except: (Plasma white
blood cells blood capillaries blood platelets)
7- You should . To maintain your circulatory system healthy: (Increase fats in
food expose to accidents keep exercising not eat vegetables)
8- Water drains easily in the .. Soil: (Silt sand clay)
9- The heart is a muscular pump in the size of your: (Fingers foots fist)
10- Rice grows efficiently in the soil: (Clay silt sand)
11- Aorta is connected to the : (left atrium right atrium left ventricle right
ventricle) 12- The main components of soil are: (Sand, humus and clay air and
water minerals and air gravel and water)
13- The friction force depends on: (The type of the material surface only the surface
area of the moving body the speed of the moving object all the previous)
14- .. carry oxygen from the lungs to all the body cells: (White blood cells red
blood cells platelets plasma)
15- The stopping of a bike gradually during movement is due to the increase of: (The
friction force the magnet the attraction force all the previous)
36

16- The right side of the heart contains blood rich in .. gas: (Oxygen carbon
dioxide nitrogen all the previous)

37