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Broadstreaming

Broadstreaming, not mainstreaming


An Approach towards Solutions for Inclusive Development

Mainstream Path
Vijoy Prakash
Principal Secretary
Rural Development
Govt of Bihar

This presentation was delivered at XLRI, Jamsedpur as


inaugural address in the conference on 'Solutions to Inclusive
Development' on January 29, 2010. Development Pyramid
Broadstreams of Development

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Gandhi’s Talisman
Talisman

I will give you a talisman. Whenever you are in doubt, or


when the self becomes too much with you, apply the
following test. Recall the face of the poorest and the
weakest man [woman] whom you may have seen,
and ask yourself, if the step you contemplate is
going to be of any use to him [her]. Will he [she] gain
anything by it? Will it restore him [her] to a control over
his [her] own life and destiny? In other words, will it lead
to swaraj [freedom] for the hungry and spiritually
starving millions?

Then you will find your doubts and your self melt away.

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Outline

• Inclusive Development: Concept


• Constitution of India and Inclusion
• Our Efforts so Far
• Musahar Community in Bihar
• Equality of Opportunity to Equalisation of Opportunity
• Understanding Differences
• Educating Underprivileged
• Broadstreaming vs Mainstreaming
• Count the Ability, Not Disability
• Underprivileged are Knowledge Creators too
• Look Beyond the Present Classification
• Commercialise Skills of Underprivileged
• Rehabilitation of Beggars
• Harness the Opportunities at Bottom
• Harness Rare Abilities Hitherto Unharnessed
• Empower People to Exercise the Rights
• -9 to 3

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Inclusive Development: Concept
Inclusive

• A process leading to development of inclusive society


• Inclusion is a process and a goal.
• Inclusion is about society changing to accommodate difference and
to combat discrimination. It sees society as the problem, not the
person.
• Inclusion is ‘Sarvodaya’

Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah,


Sukhinah
Sarve Santu Niramayah
Niramayah

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Inclusive Development: Concept
Inclusive

The Millennium Development Goals provide a basic framework for


Development
• Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
• Achieve universal primary education
• Promote gender equality and empower women
• Reduce child mortality
• Improve maternal health
• Ensure environmental sustainability
• Key ingredients of development are:
 poverty alleviation
 human rights
 civil society participation

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Constitution of India and Inclusion
Constitution

Preamble of Indian Constitution

We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to


constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist,
Democratic, Secular, Republic and to secure to all
its citizens:
– Justice - social, economic and political;
– Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and
worship;
– Equality of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
– Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual
and the unity and integrity of the nation

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Constitution of India and Inclusion
Constitution

Constitutional / Legislative Protection

• Directive Principles
• Fundamental Rights Social
• Special Provisions for SC and ST
• Reservation
• Adult Franchise

Exclusion

Political Economic

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Our Efforts so Far

• Institutional Approach- Better availability of institutions, schools, hospitals

• Industry

• Green Revolution

Growth in Agriculture and Industrialisation


led to widening of disparity

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Our Efforts so Far

• Garibi Hatao
– Beneficiary oriented programmes
• Self employment
– SFDA
– IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme)
– SGSY (Self Help Groups)
– Wage Employment
• Food for Work
• NREP (National Rural Employment Programme)
• RLEGP
– Housing (Indira Awas Yojana)
• Identification of people below poverty line (BPL)

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Our Efforts so Far

• Life Cycle Approach (from birth to death)


– Age specific interventions
– Birth (Mother and child care, ICDS)
– Schemes for adolescence
– Schemes at the time of marriage (cash/kind gifts)
– Schemes for old age (pensions, Old age homes)
– Death (Schemes for insurance and cremation)

• Gender Based Approach (At the time of birth, education, cycle, marriage,
reservation in Panchayati Raj, appointment, anti trafficking measures, etc.)

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Our Efforts so Far

• Right Based Approach (Beneficiary to client)


– Large scale legislative / constitutional interventions for inclusion
– Right to Education made a fundamental right (Art 21A)
– MGNREGA (Right to employment)
– Right to Disabled [The Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities,
Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act]
– Right of Children [Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children)
Act]
– Protection to Women (Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
Act, Pre Natal Sex Determination Act, etc. )
– Right of Old People
– Human Rights Initiatives

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Our Efforts so Far

• Campaign Based Approach


– Total Literacy Campaign
– Polio Eradication Campaign
– Total Sanitation Campaign

• Cash Incentives Based Approach


– Janani Suraksha Yojana (At the time of delivery)
– Mukhyamantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana (At the time of birth
of girl child invested in girl’s name)
– Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojana (For purchase of cycle to
girls in High School)
– Jeeva Drishti Programme (For purchase of Transistors)

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Musahar Community in Bihar
Musahar

• Musahar means rat eaters or rat food eaters.


• They belong to SC and are a totally marginalised community.
• Rat hunting communities exist all over country by different names.
• Population - 26 lakhs

Musahars 2001 1961

Literacy 9.0% 2.1%

Male literacy 13.7%

Female literacy 3.9%

Source: 2001 census, Bihar Me Shiksha Ki Pragati, GOB Publication)

By this rate of growth, the community would be fully literate


only after 500 years.
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Equality of Opportunity
to
Equalisation of Opportunity
Opportunity

• We open a school to cover all children. Is it sufficient to ensure that all would study?
• Learning is the outcome of 24 hours interaction within family, neighbourhood and
organised interventions at school. Excluded people may need more in terms of
community interventions to be able to get equal success.
• Empower the excluded to receive the benefits.
• Design community level interventions to empower underprivileged.

Bihar Govt has started appointing Tola


TolaSewaks
Sewaks in Musahar Tola to
support Musahar children at Home.

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Equality of Opportunity
to
Equalisation of Opportunity
Opportunity

Equal opportunity to education

should not stop at

equal opportunity of access,

it should lead to

equal opportunity
equal opportunity of success
success.

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Differences
Understanding Differences

unique
Every child has a unique learning
Learning Stylestyle

Verbal words

Logical number, logical systems

Spatial pictorial symbols

Rhythmic musical notes, rhythms

Kinesthetic facial gestures, expressions

Inter-personal social expressions/activity

Intra-personal inner visualizational activities

Natural nature related activities

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Differences
Understanding Differences
Underprivileged have a
different Different
learning style
learning styles

Children of deprived section have better intelligence of

Natural Intrapersonal Kinesthetic Rhythmic

But TL and evaluation pertaining to these intelligences don’t find place


prominently in our educational system.
This is leading to further widening of gap between achievements of haves and havenots.

Incorporate care and concerns


concernsofofhave-nots
have-nots in the learning

Curricula Special Inputs on Content


Teaching Methodology Evaluation Methodology

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Underprivileged
Educating Underprivileged
Shabari Ashram (Creative Learning Centres)

• To supplement school teaching


• To link with local context
• To work as link between school and parents
• To exhibit materials produced by
underprivileged
• To organise contextual supplementary activities

Prepare learning tools


prepare
using the product
their product

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Broadstreaming vs Mainstreaming
Broadstreaming

• Mainstreaming means bringing excluded


communities into the mainstream. It
presumes that excluded communities do

Mainstream Path
not have much relevant knowledge,
language, vocations, lifestyle etc. for
growth. So, they should be extricated from
the present situation to bring them into
mainstream.
• Broadstreaming means giving equal
importance to the lifestyle practices,
habits, language, vocation, etc. of
underprivileged and marginalised
communities as compared to that of
mainstream system. The entire system Development Pyramid
develops in such a way that it becomes the
Broadstreams of Development
mainstream.

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Broadstreaming vs Mainstreaming
Broadstreaming

Mainstreaming Broadstreaming
• Mainstreamed better than others • Emphasis on equality (All are equal)
• Underprivileged should learn the • Include language of underprivileged in
standard language. Their language is of teaching process and gradually shift to
no value. standard language
• Knowledge is created by mainstream • Knowledge is created by all
and underprivileged are the recipients • Give importance to food of
• Food habits of underprivileged are of no underprivileged
value they should gradually adopt • Working for dignity of work becomes
mainstream food habits easy. All works are considered equal.
• Mainstream work is more dignified than • Based on the strength of all
that of marginalised group
• Based on strength of mainstream
population

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ability not disability
Count the ability,

• Nobody is disabled.
Underprivileged may have different ability.
Develop that ability.

• One of the main reasons for exclusion is


the non recognition of knowledge created by excluded community.

• The best way to empower underprivileged is


to recognise, nurse and develop their creativity by applying highest
technological and managerial inputs.

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knowledge creators
Underprivileged are knowledge creators too

Privileged

Knowledge Pool

Underprivileged

twoway
Make knowledge transfer a two waytraffic
traffic
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Look Beyond
Look Beyond the Present Classification

• Look beyond the usual classification modes. Classification such as SC, ST,
OBC may not be sufficient.
• Go beyond and study the problems at caste/ community/ group or even sub-
caste/sub- community/ sub group level. Ex. Kinnars
• Non-commercialisation of skills of underprivileged leads to non-interest in
modern education

Bihar Govt. has set up Bihar Mahadalit Development Mission for the
development of Mahadalits.

Mahadalits are those caste groups among


Mahadalits
SCs, who have lagged behind in the development process.

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Commercialise Skills
Commercialise Skills of Underprivileged

Musahars are excellent earth cutters.


Earth cutting is not considered as skill in common parlance.

• Legally recognise earth cutting as a skill and/or

• Impart short term training to Musahars to be trained and branded as


 SRI (Systemic Root Intensification) Rice/Wheat/Pulse Planters, Vegetable
planters, Medicinal Plants planters
 Forest planters
 Road builders
 Masons
 Brick makers

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Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation of Beggars

Beggars are seen as people having no skills and are parasites/ liability on
society. However, beggars are highly creative.
• good actors and singers.
• no hesitation in going and talking to people
• can speak loudly and speak for longer time.

We are trying to rehabilitate them using their creative skills in promotion of


social cause such as female literacy, anti aids campaign, exclusive breast
feeding, etc.

Govt of Bihar has established a State Society for Rehabilitation of Ultra-


poor to make Bihar beggar free.`

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Develop Tolerance for Food

• Food is one of main factors for social exclusion in society.


• Unacceptability of food and vocation of a group of people by the mainstream population is
one of the prime reasons for untouchability.
• Food habits are also responsible for malnutrition and labour inefficiency.
• Per capita availability of pulses decreased from 64 g/day in 1951 to 37 g/day in 1995. (Norm
60gm protein/day for person of 60 Kg Wt )

Enhance spectrum of food (Try all food that have been tried in the world even by a small
population).

Enhanced food spectrum would lead to reduction of prices of foodgrains.


Ex. Popularisation of rat meat can help in minimising the problem of untouchability,
conserve foodgrains and would also help in providing cheap protein sources.

Broader the spectrum of food, lesser would the poverty spectrum.

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Opportunities at
Harness the Opportunities at Bottom

• For last 4 years, Bihar has witnessed >11% growth rate by stepping up investment
by better governanace and focussing at bottom
• Better priorities (Infrastructure, Housing)
• Better planning and delegation

• A large base of excluded people provides big opportunity at bottom

• Govt interventions for inclusion has brought new areas of opportunities

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Opportunities at
Harness the Opportunities at Bottom

• Bihar is going to construct 1.7 million houses under IAY in 2009-10


• Requirement of bricks – 1,100 crores only for IAY
• Total requirement of bricks in all schemes ~ 3000 crores
• Total production of bricks - 1000 crores

Step up brick production or look for other alternatives of bricks and other building
materials

Think
So much brick production is going to eat away the top soil leading to
reduction in agricultural production in future. What can be alternatives?

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Opportunities at
Harness the Opportunities at Bottom

There is great variance of prices of Bihar grows


these items in local and
Mango 12.22 Lakhs MT
national/international market.
Ex. 0.5$/Kg (Local) to 7$/Kg Banana 9.59 Lakhs MT
(International) in Litchi. By exporting Litchi 2.00 Lakhs MT
50% of produce we can earn
INR 32,500 crores. Guava 1.98 Lakhs MT
Pineapple 1.08 Lakhs MT
We have storage gap of > 30 lacs MT
for marketing and distribution of Vegetables 60.26 Lakhs MT
foodgrains. Rice 34.17 Lakhs MT
Wheat 28.40 Lakhs MT
Think
Can we devise proper marketing/distribution structure to provide proper prices
to growers / farm labour?

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Harness Rare
Rare Abilities
Abilities Hitherto Unharnessed

Snake charmers can become great snake farmers. Snake venom is sold @ Rs
1crore - 14 crore/Kg
Honey gatherers (Nat community) can become great Bee poison farmers.
(Apis Mellitus is made of bee poison.)
Musahars are excellent rat hunters.
Rat hunting is not considered as skill as rat meat is not fully commercialise
Rat meat sold in line hotels in Bihar/North East/South India. In Bihar, it is called
Patal Bageri.
Consider starting Rat Farming

Think
Apply highest technology to develop unrecognised rare skills to remove
exclusion.
While devising legislations / programmes that displaces traditional
occupations, plan for rehabilitation beforehand. Eg. Wildlife Protection Act.

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Nutritive
NutritiveValue
Value of Meats and Eggs

Field
Nutrition value Rats Egg Fowl Goat Mutton Pork Pigeon
Protein (gm) 23.6 13 25.9 21.4 18.5 18.7 23.3
Fat (gm) 1 13 0.6 3.6 13.3 4.4 4.9
Mineral (gm) 1.4 1 1.3 1.1 1.3 1 1.4
Fibre (gm) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Carbohydrates (gm) 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Energy (Kcal) 104 173 109 118 194 114 137
Calcium (mg) 30 60 25 12 150 30 12
Phosphorus (mg) 242 220 245 193 150 200 290
Iron (mg) 0 2.1 0 0 2.5 2.2 0
(Source: Nutritive Value of Common foods: National Institute of Nutrition)

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Comment of Hudson Institute
Comment

“ The best non-science solution I’ve heard is from Vijay Prakash, Secretary of
Welfare in India’s Bihar state. Prakash says we should eat rats. Then the rats won’t
eat the stored grain, and the people will get more high-quality protein. He is
promoting rat meat in the villages—and talking with hotels about rat meat on their
menus. It’s at least more realistic than expecting humans to become vegetarian.


DENNIS T. AVERY, Senior fellow for the Hudson Institute in
Washington, DC and Director for the Center for Global Food Issues.

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Rat Farming
Media on Rat Farming

American Chronicle has recognized the news of rat recipes of Bihar


as one of the best five lessons learnt in the month of August 2008.

The news has been published in thousands of newspapers and radio


and TV reports including BBC News & VOA and the idea is being
debated on several blogs.

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Exercise the
Empower People to Exercise the Rights
Rights

• National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2006


• National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, 2006
• Provision of 100 days guarantee of wage employment

Think
How to exercise the guarantee?
How to use the fund for inclusive development?
Planning, convergence with other programmes
Use of technology for inclusive development?

Govt. of Bihar has started e-Shakti programme in NREGS to use biometric


device to record attendance and make payment on the spot using Banking
correspondent. It also has a facility for electronic monitoring of implementation
and call centre facilities for grievance redressal and demand registration.

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-9
-9 to
to 3

• Process of exclusion
starts from the womb.
• Early years of life is
most crucial for laying
the foundation for
inclusion
– Malnourishment
– Less development of brain
– Poor language
environment
– Less interaction with
parents
• Early years exclusion is
irreversible Source: Adapted from Doherty 1997

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Malnutrition Poverty

• GDP losses ≥ 2-3%


• Leads to a >10% potential reduction in lifetime earnings for each malnourished
individual
• Malnutrition (stunting) in early years linked to a
– 4.6 cm loss of height in adolescence
– 0.7 grades loss of schooling
– 7 month delay in starting school

Improved nutrition
Improved nutrition can be a driver of growth

Source: Repositioning Nutrition, World Bank, 2006

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Improve Nutrition?
How Can we Improve Nutrition
The Window
Window ofofOpportunity
Opportunity for Improving Nutrition is very small…pre-pregnancy until 18-24
months of age

0.50
0.25
Latin America and Caribbean
Weight for age Z-score (NCHS)

0.00
Africa
-0.25 Asia
-0.50
-0.75
-1.00
-1.25
-1.50
-1.75
-2.00
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
Age (m onths) Source: Shrimpton et al (2001)

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Go to the people.
Live with them.
Learn from them.
Love them.
Start with what they know.
Build with what they have.
But with the best leaders,
When the work is done,
The task accomplished,
The people will say
‘We have done this ourselves’.

- Lao-tse in 7th century B.C.

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Process for inclusion
starts in mind.

Let’sstart
Let’s start thinking
thinking inclusively.
inclusively

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Thanks for inclusive participation.

vijoyprakash@gmail.com

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