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Database- organized collection of data | permanent repository of

data and information | cylinder (symbol)

Database systems- process and organize large amounts of data
in electronic form
1. Manual
2. Database Approach
DBMS- Group of programs that manage database | manipulates
database and provides an interface
MS Access (personal sphere)
IBM dBASE (enterprise)

Sybase (enterprise)
Oracle (enterprise)

File Manipulation Activities:

1. Front-end- interface (MS Visual Basic)
2. Back-end - Source Codes (MS Access)
Database administrator (DBA) - directs or performs all activities
to maintain a database environment

Designing, implementing, and maintaining the database

system and the DBMS

Establishing policies and procedures


Primary: Security | Secondary: Create back-up

Requirement/s: Bachelors degree in computer-related


Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagrams: data models that use basic

graphical symbols to show the organization of & relationships
between data

Box/rectangle- entity

Oval- attribute

Diamond/ crows foot- relationship

Relational Model: all data elements are placed in twodimensional tables (relations), which are the logical equivalent of
files (E.F. CODD)



In the relational model:

Each row of a table represents a RECORD (Tuple)

Columns of the table represent ATTRIBUTES/FIELDS

Domain: the allowable values for data attributes
Manipulating Data

Selecting- ROWS (eliminate)

Projecting- COLUMNS (eliminate)

Joining- COMBINE tables

Linking- LINK
Database Types

Data Management
TABLE TEMPORARY repository of data & information |
foundation of a database and database info
Hierarchy of Data:
1. Bit: a circuit that is either on or off, smallest unit of data storage
2. Byte: eight bits | Each byte represents a character

Character: basic building block of information

3. Field: typically a name, number, or combination of characters
that describes an aspect of a business object or activity
4. Record: a collection of related data fields
5. File: a collection of related records
6. Database: a collection of integrated and related files
Entity: a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects)
for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
Attribute: characteristic/s of an entity
Data item: value of an attribute
Primary Key (PK): field or set of fields in a record that is used to
identify the record
Traditional Approach: MANUAL Approach

Creation of different file

Redundant data

Saved in different location

Database Approach: pool of related data is shared by multiple
applications| NETWORK Approach/Centralized Approach

Reduced data redundancy

Creation of different file

Saved in One location

Traditional Approach
Sequential Access
Several Locations

Relationship- association between one or more entities

Database Approach
Direct Access
Permanent Medium
One Location

Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model

When building a database, consider: Content | Logical

Structure | Access | Physical Organization
Data Modeling
Building a database requires two types of designs:

Logical design- ABSTRACT MODEL of how data

should be structured and arranged to meet an
organizations information needs


DATABASE DESIGN for performance and cost
Syntax: Entity (Attributes)
Data Model: a diagram of data entities and their relationships
Poor data model: Difficulty in searching | Inaccuracy |

1. Flat File- Simple database program whose records have no

relationship to one another
Ms Excel
MS Word



2. Single User- Only one person can use the database at a time
MS Access


3. Multiple User- Allows dozens or hundreds of people to access

the same database system at the same time

Oracle- Market leader for General purpose database



Providing a User View
Schema: description of the entire database

Large database systems typically use schemas to define

the tables and other database features associated with a
person or user

Tables, Fields, Relationship

Creating and Modifying the Database
Data Definition Language (DDL)

Collection of instructions/commands that define and

describe data and data relationships in a database

Allows database creator to describe the data and the

data relationships that are to be contained in the schema
Data dictionary -a detailed description of all the data used in the
Storing and Retrieving Data
Logical access path (LAP) - an application requests data from
the DBMS

Application programs data DBMS

Physical access path (PAP) - DBMS goes to a storage device to
retrieve the requested data

Manipulating Data and Generating Reports
Query-By-Example (QBE) - a visual approach to developing
database queries or requests
1. Create simple query
2. Select Table/s & Fields
3. Title and modify the query
SQL (Structured Query Language)
1. DQL (Data Query Language)- Select
2. DML (Data Manipulation Language)- Insert, Update, Delete,
3. DDL (Data Definition Language)- Create, Alter

4. DCL (Data Control Language)- Grant, Revoke

Structured Query Language (SQL)- ANSI standard query
language for relational databases (D.D. Chamberlain)

Database programs can produce reports, documents,

and other outputs
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)Each letter, special characters is composed of 8 bits

Competitive Business- aspect of business intelligence limited to

information about competitors and the ways that knowledge
affects strategy, tactics, and operations | The focus is on the
external business environment


Counterintelligence- steps an organization takes to protect
information sought by hostile intelligence gatherers

ANSI (American National Standard Institute)- SQL/Flowchart

Distributed Databases- Data may be spread across several

smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices |
Data Warehouses

Data Manipulation Language (DML) - commands that

manipulate the data in a database

Select | Insert | Update | Delete

Replicated database- Holds a duplicate set of frequently used


Popular Database Management Systems

Popular DBMSs for end users: Microsoft Access and FileMaker

Entire market includes databases by IBM, Oracle, and

Examples of open-source database systems: PostgreSQL
Special- Purpose Database Systems- Specialized database
packages are used for specific purposes or in specific industries
Important Characteristics of Database to Consider
*Number of Users
*Ability to be integrated with other software
*Performance (Speed)


Using Databases with Other Software

Database management systems are often used with

other software packages or the Internet
A database management system can act:

Front-end application- Used for collecting input/data


Back-end application- Source Codes /Program Codes

Database Applications- manipulate content of a database to
produce useful information

Searching | Filtering | Synthesizing

Linking Databases to the Internet
Semantic Web

W3C (WWWC) World Wide Web Consortium

Development of seamless integration of traditional

databases with the Internet

Allows people to access and manipulate a number of

traditional databases at the same time through the
The web is the universal medium of DATA, INFORMATION, and
KNOWLEDGE exchange -Tim Berners-Lee
Data Warehouse

A database that holds business information from many

sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the
companys products, processes and customers

Collection of large amount of data / Central repository

Place where data can be stored for more convenient

1. Clean 2. Catalog 3. Made Available 4. Transform
Data Marts- a subset of a data warehouse | Smaller data
Data Mining- an information-analysis tool for discovering patterns
and relationships in a data warehouse or a data mart

To extract PATTERNS from DATA

1. Branding and Positioning of
products and services
2. Customer Churn
3. Direct Marketing

4. Fraud Detection
5. Market Basket Analysis
6. Market Segmentation
7. Trend Analysis

Business intelligence (BI) - gathering the right information in a

timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive
impact on business | a DSS

Thinking of the best STRATEGY

To improve better business decision making

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)- Online TPS | Software

that allows users to explore data from a number of different
perspectives | an approach to swiftly answer multi-dimensional
analytical (MDA) queries
OLAPs Applications: E-commerce, Marketing, Budgeting,
Forecasting, Financial Reporting
Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management
Object-oriented database- Stores both data and its processing

Method: a procedure or action, has name and body

Message: a request to execute or run a method, Invokes


OO Programming languages + database applications

Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) Programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and
provide a user interface and connections to other application
Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) - A
DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data

Database + OOPL = OODBMS

Visual, Audio, & Other Database Systems

Visual databases for storing image

Audio databases for storing sound

Other special-purpose database systems
Spatial data technology- stores and accesses data according to
the locations it describes and permits spatial queries and analysis |
PILEUS, Internet Umbrella
Virtual database systems- allow different databases to work
together as a unified database system
The Next Generation of DBMS: Internet | Distributed Database |
Expert System | AI System (IDEA)

Telecommunications, Internet, Intranets, & Extranets




2nd Most Visited site in the internet

February 2004

Mark Zuckerberg

Eduardo Saverin/ Dustin Moskovitz/ Chris Hughes

Facemash (October 2003)

Telecommunications: the electronic transmission of signals for communications | Analog & Digital Signals
Telecommunications medium: anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a
receiving device

Telephone | Television | Radio | Wireless

Channel bandwidth: the rate at which data is exchanged over a communication channel


The greater a channels bandwidth, THE MORE INFORMATION IT CAN CARRY PER UNIT OF TIME
Communication Types (SPEED)
1. Narrowband Communication- Supports lower rate of data exchange | Dial-up
2. Broadband Communication- Wide range of band (Wideband) | Faster rate of data exchange | DSL, Cable, Satellite, Wireless
Communication Media
1. Guided Transmission Media- Guided with SOLID medium | Twisted pair, Coaxial, Fiber Optic
2. Wireless Technology- Broadcast over airwaves

Radio (30-300 MHz)

Microwave Terrestrial and Satellite (300 MHz- 300 GHz)

IRDA (InfraRed Data Association) (300 GHz above)

Common Telecommunications Devices
Fax modem- transmit text, graphs, photographs, and other digital files via standard telephone lines
Multiplexer- Allows several telecommunications signals to be transmitted over a single communications medium at the same time
PBX- Communications system that manages both voice and data transfer within a building and to outside lines
Modem- modulator/ demodulator

Dennis Hayes

Digital to Analog (Modulation)

Analog to Digital (Demodulation)

Digital subscriber line (DSL): telecommunications service that delivers high-speed Internet access to homes and small businesses
over the existing phone lines of the local telephone network

All major long distance carriers offer wireless telecommunications services that enable you to place phone calls or access the

ADSL- Asymmetric DSL | Does not require additional phone line | ALWAYS-ON internet access | UPSTREAM is lower
SDSL- Single Line or Synchronous DSL | Does not allow to use the telephone | UPSTREAM and DOWNSTREAM are

Networks and Distributed Processing

Computer network: the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or
Network nodes: the computers and devices on the networks | sharing, collaborating
Network Types

International Network
Mesh (Topology)

Personal Area Network (PAN)

Connects I.T. devices within a range of 33 feet or so

You can connect laptop, cameras, printer, PDAs

Wireless (Bluetooth, IRDA)

Bluetooth: Open wireless technology standard for exchanging information over short distances. (Ericsson, 1994)
Local Area Network (LAN)

Connects computer and other devices within a small area

Office, home, several floors, schools and airports

Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)

Connects computers and users in geographical area (campus or city)

30 to 90 miles
Wide Area Networks (WAN)

Connects large geographic regions

Long distance calls and internet

Internet: Largest WAN

International Networks

Link systems among countries

Transborder data flow: national and international law regulating the electronic flow of data across international

Using common systems (SAP)

Topology- Arrangement/ Layout/Network Architecture
Mesh Networking

A way to routing communications among network nodes (computers and devices)

Robust (if one fails, other connected devices are not affected)
Distributed Processing
Centralized processing: all processing occurs in a single location or facility
Decentralized processing: processing devices are placed at various remote locations
Distributed processing: computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network
Client/Server System
Client/Server system: multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions, such as database management, printing,
communications, and program execution
Peer-to-Peer System
Peer Computers- computer that can act as a server or as a client
Communications Software and Protocols
Communications protocol: a set of rules that govern the exchange of information over a communications channel

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) - Widely used LAN technology that employs coaxial cable or twisted pair wires as the transmission media | 10
Gbp at 10 Gigabit Ethernet
Wireless Communications Protocols

54 Mbps,
Wireless ATM


PAN Standard, v1


Wi-Fi, 11


MAN Standard
(WiMAx), 70 Mbps


54 Mbps.
Wireless LAN


Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access


100 Mbps

WiFi Wireless (Wide) Fidelity/ IEEE 802.11b with 11 Mbps

WiMax- Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Offers faster data speeds and broader coverage than WiFi

IEEE 802.16 with 70 Mbps

3G Wireless Communications (Protocol) IMT 2000 (3G)

Faster transmission speed of 2-4 Mbps

4G Wireless Communications

(Protocol) IMT Advanced

More advanced multimedia, smooth video streaming, portability and worldwide roaming

Faster transmission speed of 20-40 Mbps

Routers: electronic device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges packets of data
between them

Speed is DIVIDED into number of units


Computer networking device that connects network segments

Speed is NOT divided into number of units

Bridges- Connects one LAN to another LAN that uses the same protocol.
Communications Software
Network operating system (NOS): systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows
them to communicate with each
Network-management software: software that a manager uses on a networked desktop

Monitors the use of individual computers and shared hardware (such as printers)

Scans for viruses

Ensures compliance with software licenses

Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information
History of the Internet

US Defense of Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)

Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET)


Internet Protocol TCP/IP
IEEE 802.11A
IEEE 802.11B
IEEE 802.11G

IEEE 802.15
IEEE 802.16
IEEE 802.20

Internet Protocol (IP): communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): widely used transport-layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most Internet

TCP + IP = Internet
How the Internet Works

The Internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another

If the receiving computer is on a network to which the first computer is directly connected, it can send the message directly

If the receiving computer is not on a network to which the sending computer is connected, the sending computer relays the
message to another computer that can forward it

Data is passed in chunks called packets

URL is used to identify a web address

Uniform Resource Locator (URL):

A subset of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier)

An assigned address on the Internet for each computer

Web Address

PROTOCOL specifies the access method and tells the software to access a file using http
PREFIX signifies that the address is associated with the service of WWW
HOST NAME use in URL to identify a particular web address
(suffix)domain names (EXTENSION)

Internet Service Providers - any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the Internet

Most charge a monthly fee

Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cables, or satellite transmission
The World Wide Web

The Web, WWW, or W3 (Tim Berners-Lee)

A menu-based system that uses the client/server model

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard page description language for Web pages
HTML tags

HTML tags that let the Web browser know how to format text - as a heading, as a list, or as body text - and whether images,
sound, and other elements should be inserted

Enclosed by lesser than and greater than symbols called HTML tags
Web Browsers- software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the

The menu consists of graphics, titles, and text with hypertext links

NCSA Mosaic, Marc Andressen

Search Engines & Web Research
Search engine: web search tool | Most search engines are free

ARCHIE- 1990, Alan Emtage

Web Programming Languages

Java (OAK)

James Gosling (Suns Microsystem)

An object-oriented programming language from Sun Microsystems based on C++

Allows small programs (applets) to be embedded within an HTML document

Duke- official mascot

Web Services: Standards and tools that streamline and simplify communication among Web sites for business and personal purposes
Instant messaging: allows two or more individuals to communicate online using the Internet

Internet Cell Phones and Handheld Computers

Some cell phones can be connected to the Internet to:

Search for information

Buy products

Chat with business associates and friends

SMS (Short message service)

EMS (Enhanced Message Service)

MMS (Multimedia messaging service)

Handheld computers and other devices can be connected to the Internet using phone lines or wireless connections, such as Wi-Fi
Career Information and Job Searching

Excellent source of job-related information

Most medium and large companies have Internet sites that list open positions, salaries, benefits, and people to contact for
further information

Can help you develop a good rsum and cover letter, apply for jobs online, prepare for a job interview, and negotiate a good
employment contract
Web Log (Blog), Video Log (Vlog), and Podcasting
Web log (blog): Web site that people can create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range
of topics
Video log (vlog): video content placed on the Internet using the same overall approach as a blog
Podcast: audio blog, like a personal radio station on the Internet
Chat Rooms- facility that enables two or more people to engage in interactive conversations over the Internet

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

Voice Chat (sound card, microphone, speakers)

Internet Phone and Videoconferencing Services
Internet phone service: enables you to communicate with others around the world

Relatively inexpensive | Useful for international calls | Ability to keep your phone number when you move to another location
Internet videoconferencing: Supports both voice and visual communications
Content Streaming: a method for transferring multimedia files over the Internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays
more or less continuously without a break, or with very few breaks

Enables users to browse large files in real time

Shopping on the Web

Shopping on the Web for books, clothes, cars, medications, and even medical advice can be convenient, easy, and cost
Bot (Robot): software tool that searches the Web for information, products, or prices
Web Auctions way to connect buyers and sellers | Ebay
Music, Radio, Video, and TV on the Internet

Music, radio, and video are hot growth areas on the Internet

Audio and video programs can be played on the Internet, or files can be downloaded for later use
Office on the Web
Many services and software products give you remote access to your files and programs over the Internet

Examples: Avvenu, EasyReach, BeInSync

Companies that offer remote access include MyWebEx PC Pro, Citrix Online, and Laplink
Other Internet Services and Applications
Internet services are constantly emerging

Critical information during times
of disaster or terrorism

Critical medical information

Distance learning


INTERNAL CORPORATE NETWORK built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and products

Used by employees to gain access to corporate information

Reduces need for paper


A network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a companys intranet with its customers, suppliers, or
other business partners

External network
Virtual Private Network (VPN): secure connection between two points across the Internet
Tunneling: process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the Internet
Net Issues

Management issues- No centralized governing body controls the Internet Service and speed issues

Web server computers can be overwhelmed by the amount of hits (requests for pages)

Privacy, fraud, security, and unauthorized Internet sites