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Index

A

 

A

B

a, an, 41920, G717

C

abbreviations, 50913,

D

explaining meaning of, 51213

E

forming plural of, 494, 495, 501

F

misusing, 51213 period with, 470, 471, 511

G

possessive of, forming, 499500

H

absolute phrases, G749

I

abstracts for social science papers, 67374 abstract words, 13839

J

academic communities:

K

language expectations in, 128

abbreviation of, 512

L

specialized terms of, 128

M

academic disciplines:

N

humanities, see humanities, writing in the

O

natural sciences, see natural sciences,

P

writing in the social sciences, see social sciences,

Q

writing in the

R

academic English for nonnative speakers (English as a second language), 41749

S

articles and other determiners, 41726,

T

42627(box)

U

gerunds, 43740

V

infinitives, 43740 participles, 44042

W

possessives, 445

X

prepositions, 446

Y

progressive verbs, 44243

Z

pronouns, 44445

sentence structure and style tips, 447–48 verbs, 428–37 accept, except, G717 acronyms, periods with, 471 active voice, 169, 250, 391(box), G769 choosing the, 390, 412 forming the, 38889 function of, 387 A.D., B.C., C.E., B.C.E., G717 addresses:

abbreviations in, 51011 commas with, 461, 462 numerals in, 514 United States in, 510 adjective(s), G749 comparatives, 26566, 26667(box), G753 compound, forming, 497 function of, 263 misused as adverbs, 265 nouns used as, 263 phrases, see adjective phrases predicate, 249, 497, G763 proper, capitalizing, 5034 superlatives, 26566, 26667(box), G753 adjective (relative) clause(s), 303, G749 overusing, 308 placement of, 3056 punctuating, 3067 subordination with, 303 adjective phrases, G749 beginning with a preposition, 263 as modifiers, 263 adverb(s), G74950 adjectives misused as, 265 comparatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753

A

B

C

D

E

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I

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Y

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Index

conjunctive, see conjunctive adverbs forming, 264

function of, 264 phrases, see adverb phrases superlatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753 adverb clauses, 30910, G750

faulty comparisons, avoiding, 31415, G756 placement of, 31213 punctuating, 313 adverb phrases, G750

beginning with a preposition, 26465

advice, advise, G71718 affect, effect, G718 afraid, frightened, G731

agent in passive voice, 387, G750 aggravate, irritate, G718 agreement:

pronoun-antecedent, see pronoun- antecedent agreement subject-verb, see subject-verb agreement AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. (American Institute of Physics), 682 airplanes, names of, 506 all, 42526 all, almost, most, mostly, most all, G720 all ready, already, G718 all right, alright, G71819 all together, altogether, G719 allude, refer, G719 allusion, delusion, illusion, G71920 almost, most, mostly, all, most all, G720

a lot of, alot of, lots of, G736

alumnus, alumni, alumna, almunae, G72021 American Chemical Society Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 2nd ed. (Dodd, ed.),

682

American Grammar Book (Steer and Carlisi), 417

American Institute of Physics, 682 American Mathematical Society, 682 American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th ed. (Iverson et al.), 682 American Psychological Association style for writing in the social sciences, see APA style among, between, G721 amoral, immoral, G721 amount, number, G721 AMS Author Handbook: General Instructions for Preparing Manuscripts (American Mathematical Society), 682 an, a, 41920, G717 antecedent(s), G751 choice of relative pronoun and, 3035 defined, 303, 330 -pronoun agreement, see pronoun- antecedent agreement use of pronouns with, 330 use of pronouns without, 331 anthology, selection from an:

CMS system for, 66869 MLA parenthetical style for, 591 anxious, eager, G721 any, 424 anyone, any one, G722 APA style, 67481 articles:

editorial, letter to the editor, or review,

679

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

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X

Y

Z

Index

magazine, 678, 679 newspaper, 67879

online magazine, 679 online scholarly journal, 680 in reference book, 678 in scholarly journal, 678, 680

books:

with an editor, 677 edition after the first, 677 more than one work by the same

author, 67677

by more than two authors, 676 by one author, 675 source card for, 56263

translation, 677 by two authors, 67576 capitalization, 675 format for research paper, 229 online magazine article, 679 online scholarly journal article, 680 overview of, 67475 Web site, 680 apostrophe(s), 173, 49495, 499502 misuse of, 173, 5012 appositives, G751 defined, 268 placement of, 268 punctuation of, 268 apt, likely, liable, G735 article(s), G751 English as a second language, 41726,

42627(box)

see also determiners articles (periodical):

APA style, see APA style, articles CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system, books MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, article or essay see also magazine articles; newspapers; periodicals; scholarly journals artwork, MLA parenthetical style for, 599 as, as if, like, G722 assure, ensure, insure, G722 atlases, 528 authorial primary sources, 564 auxiliaries, G751 forming tenses with, 364 modal auxiliaries and subjunctive mood, 39698, 429 avenge, revenge, G72223 awfully, very, so, G746

B

bad, badly, G723 bare form of a verb, G751 base (bare-bones) sentence, G751 base (or simple) predicate, G763 base verb, G751 B.C., C.E., B.C.E., A.D., G717 be:

agreement with subjects, 351, 356 in subjunctive mood, 399 using verbs of action instead of, 412 because, since, “being that,” G723 because of, due to, G728

A

B

C

D

E

F

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Y

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Index

being that,because, since, G723 beside, besides, G723

between, among, G721

Bible, MLA parenthetical style for documenting,

587

CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system, see

CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system biology, documentation style for, 682 books:

APA style, see APA style, books

CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of

Style) system, books MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style,

books source card for, 56263 subdivisions, abbreviation of, 512 titles, italics or underlining for, 507 both, 42526

brackets to mark changes in quotation, 480

C

can hardly, cant hardly, G724 capital, capitol, G724 capitalization, 5034, 507 APA style, 675 capitalized letters, forming plural of, 494, 501 cardinal numbers, 425 case, 34247, G752 object case, 34247, G752 possessive, see possessive case

reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 34647

subject case, 34247 CBE style:

citation-sequence system, 683 name-year system, 683 no author mentioned in text, 683, 684 online book, 685 online journal, 685 overview of, 683 single author mentioned in text, 683, 684 specific pages or paragraphs cited, 684 three or more authors mentioned in text,

683, 684 two or more authors mentioned in text, 683, 684 two or more sources cited in one reference,

684

Web site, 685 CD-ROM:

MLA parenthetical style for, 597 C.E., B.C.E., A.D., B.C., G717 censor, censure, G724

chapters of books, quotation marks for titles of,

508

chemistry, documentation style for, 682 Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., 662, 663 see also CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system childish, childlike, G724 cite, site, sight, G74243 citing of sources:

parenthetical, 57982 see also documentation clause(s), G752 adjective, see adjective (relative) clause(s) adverb, see adverb clauses

A

B

C

D

E

F

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I

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K

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Y

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Index

defined, 247 independent, see independent clauses

main, G758 nonrestrictive, see nonrestrictive elements noun, see noun clauses relative, see adjective (relative) clause(s)

restrictive, see restrictive elements subordinate, see subordinate (dependent) clauses clichés, 14243

clip art, 217

CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system, 66272 articles:

anthology selection, 66869

in a journal with yearly volume numbers, 66970 magazine, 669 in a newspaper, 67071 online, 67172 in reference book, signed, 670 in reference book, unsigned, 670 books:

chapter in a, 666 with corporate author, 668 edited, with focus on editor, 665 edited, with focus on original author,

665

edition other than the first, 66667 with editor(s), 66566 by one author, 66364 online, 671

reprints, 667

source card for, 56263 by three or more authors, 664 translations, 668 by two authors, 664 citations of several works by same author; follow-up reference, 663 citing source you have cited more than one note earlier, 663 citing source your have just cited in previous note, 663 first reference to any book cited, 663 footnotes and endnotes, 662 general format for, 663 Ibid., use of, 663 online articles, 672 online books, 671 collective nouns, G752 subject-verb agreement and, 358 colloquialisms, 132 colon, 46768 with quotation marks, 475, 476 Columbia Guide to Online Style, 593 comma(s), 463(box) with addresses, 461, 462 with adjective clauses, 3067 with adverb clauses, 313 with appositives, 268 comma splice, 172, 29091, 455, G752 in compound sentences, 28586 after a conjunction, 454 before conjunctions, 45354, 460 after conjunctive adverb at beginning of sentence or clause, 455 with conjunctive adverbs, 28889

A

B

C

D

E

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Index

with dates, 461, 462 with greetings, 461

after introductory elements, 455 with items in a series, 45960 with large numbers, 462 with names, 46162

with nonrestrictive elements, 45657 to prevent a misreading, 461 with quotation marks, 47576 with restrictive elements, 270, 3067,

45758

separating basic parts of a sentence, 172 between a subject and its predicate, 46364

with titles or degrees after a persons name,

461

between a verb and its object, 464 commands:

imperative mood for, see imperative mood mild, period to mark end of, 470 community, using language of a, see language companies, abbreviation of names of, 511 comparatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753 compare, comparison, contrast, G724 complement, compliment, G72526 complex sentences, G753 compound-, G754 defined, 302 forming of, 302 sequence of tenses in, 37981 see also subordination compound phrases, 25657, G754

compound sentences, 28493, 319, G754 and, overusing, 286 comma splice, 172, 29091 complex-, G754 conjunctions to form, 28586 conjunctive adverbs used to form, 28789 defined, 284 joining independent clauses to form, 28489, 289(box) punctuation of, 28586, 287 run-on (fused) sentences, 171, 29293 sequence of tenses in, 37879 computers:

Internet, see Internet and cyberspace notetaking on, 582 spell checkers, 490 concessions in argument, making, 199 concise, striving to be, see wordiness concrete words, 13839, 170 conditional sentences, 400401, G754 misusing would have, 401 conjunctions, G754 comma after, 172, 454 comma before, 45354, 460 compound sentences formed with, 28586 conjunctive adverbs, G754 defined, 287 forming compound sentences with, 28789 punctuation with, 28889, 465 connotation of words, 136 conscience, conscious, G726 consul, council, counsel, G72627 contexts, see rhetorical contexts continual, continuous, G726 contractions, 501

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B

C

D

E

F

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H

I

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X

Y

Z

Index

contrast, compare, comparison, G72425 coordinating conjunctions, see conjunctions

coordination, 28493, G75455 subordination used together with, 319 untangling sentences and, 323 see also compound sentences

corporate author:

CMS style for, 668 MLA parenthetical style for, 58687 correlatives, G755

defined, 296

used with parallelism, 296 could care less, couldnt care less, G726 council, counsel, consul, G72627

Council of Biology Editors, 682, 683 Council of Science Editors, 68283 credible, credulous, G727 criterion, criteria, G727 cyberspace, see Internet and cyberspace

D

dangling modifiers, 281, G755 dash(es), 268, 48586 misuse of, 486 data, G727 dates:

abbreviation of terms in, 510 apostrophe to mark omission of numbers in, 501 commas with, 461, 462 numerals in, 514

days of the week, abbreviation of, 512

declarative sentences, 253, G755 period to mark end of, 470 definite pronouns, G764 definitions:

dictionary, 152 delusion, illusion, allusion, G71920

demonstratives, 424 denotation of words, 13435 dependent clauses, see subordinate (dependent) clauses determiners, 41726, 42627(box), G755 a, an, and the, 41923 all, both, half, and other predeterminers,

42526

any, no, and not, 424 cardinal numbers, 425 with countable and uncountable nouns,

418

defined, 417 demonstratives (this, that, these, those), 424 few, several, and many, 425 much and little, 425

ordinal numbers, 424 placement of, 41718 diction, 13133 dictionary usage labels and, 15253 editing for, 170 highly formal, 132 informal or low level, 132 middle level, 13132 mixed levels of, 133 dictionaries:

definitions, 152 etymology, 153 parts of speech, 152

A

B

C

D

E

F

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X

Y

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Index

pronunciation, 152 as research source, 525

spelling, 152 syllable division, 152 synonyms, 153 usage labels, 15253

using the, 15153 verb usage, 153 word forms, 152, 153 different from, different than, G727

differ from, differ with, G727

direct object, 249, G761 direct reporting, 4034, G75556 of questions, 406, 4078

using tenses in tags, 4034 when to use, 403 disinterested, uninterested, G72728 do, 42930 documentation:

CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system in the humanities, see CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style in the natural sciences, 68285 CBE style, see CBE style in the social sciences, see APA style does, 42930 double negatives, 26768, G756 drama, see plays

due to, 149 due to, because of, G728

E

eager, anxious, G721 Editing faulty predication, 25960 editorials:

APA style, 679 MLA parenthetical style, 590, 59596 effect, affect, G718 Electronic Style (Li and Crane) (1993), 681 Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information (Li and Crane) (1996), 672, 681 ellipsis dots, 48081 email MLA parenthetical style, 596 emigrate, immigrate, G732 eminent, imminent, immanent, G728 emphasis, misuse of quotation marks for, 482 emphatic/reflexive case, 342, 34647, G752 encyclopedias CMS system for bibliographies, 670 end marks, see exclamation point; period; question mark endnotes, CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system English as a second language, see academic English for nonnative speakers ensure, insure, assure, G722 envelop, envelope, G72829 essays:

MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetic style, article or essay

A

B

C

D

E

F

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I

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N

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X

Y

Z

Index

quotation marks for, 507 et al., etc., G729

etc., et al., G729 etymology:

in dictionaries, 153 euphemisms, 146

every, subjects beginning with, 358

everyday, every day, G729 examples:

colon to introduce, 467

except, accept, G717

exclamation point, 473 with quotation marks, 476 expletives, 253, 448, G756

F

factor, G729 farther, further, G72930 fatal, fateful, G730 fateful, fatal, G730 faulty comparisons, 31415, 315, G756 faulty parallelism, 297, G756 faulty predication, 25960, G756 faulty tense shifts, 38284, 386(box), G756 few, 425 few, little, less, G730 figurative language, 14041 films:

italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for, 597 flaunt, flout, G730 flout, flaunt, G730

footnotes, CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system foreign words and expressions:

italics or underlining to identify, 506 subject-verb agreement, 359 formally, former, formerly, G730 former, formerly, formally, G730 fractions, slash in, 488 frightened, afraid, G731 full-sentence outline, 57778 fun, G731 further, farther, G72930 fused sentences, see run-on (fused) sentences future perfect tense:

common, 370 forming the, 364 progressive form of, 370 using the, 370 future tense:

common, 369 forming the, 264 progressive, 36970 using the, 36970

G

game scores, numerals for, 514 gender, G757 -inclusive language, 12829 pronoun-antecedent agreement in, 336 generalizations:

hasty, 197 general words, 13839 geographical entities not part of an address, 512 geology, documentation style for, 682

Index

A

 

Geowriting: A Guide to Writing, Editing, and

B

Printing in Earth Science, 5th ed. (Bates et al.

C

eds.), 682

of grammatical terms, G74969

D

gerunds, 252, 43740, G757

E

adding the possessive before, 26061, 500

F

glossary:

G

of usage, G71747

H

good, well, G731 got to, has to, have to, G73132

I

government publications:

J

MLA parenthetical style for documenting,

587

K

 

grammar:

L

glossary of grammatical terms, G74969

M

see also specific elements of grammar

N

greetings, commas with, 461, 462 group identity:

O

language unique to, 127

P

using respectful terms, 130

Q

R

H

S

half, 42526

T

hanged, hung, G731 has to, have to, got to, G73132

U

headword, G757

V

helping verbs, see auxiliaries homonyms, 17273, 493

W

hopefully, G732

X

human, humane, G732

asking questions when, 660

Y

humanities, writing in the:

Z

documenting sources, CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system organization of material, 66062 see also literature, writing about hung, hanged, G731 hyphen(s), 49698

I

idioms, 14344, 446 if clauses in conditional sentences, 400401 illusion, delusion, allusion, G71920 immigrate, emigrate, G732 imminent, immanent, eminent, G728 immoral, amoral, G721 imperative mood, 39596, G759 omitting the subject in imperative sentence, 254, 447 imply, infer, G732 in, into, in to, G73233 In Brief boxes:

active voice, 391 agreement of subject and verb, 360 commas, use of, 463 comparatives, 26667 compound sentences, forming, 289 determiners, 42627 faulty tense shifts, 386 interviews, conducting, 571 invigorating your style, 414 joining independent clauses, 289 misused modifiers, spotting, 282 participles, 271 passive voice, 391 phrasal verbs, 43637 pronoun reference, obstacles to clear, 336

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

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K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

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W

X

Y

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Index

sentence fragments, 327 subject, writing the, 253

subject-verb agreement, 360 subordinate clauses, 317 superlatives, 26667 tense shifts, faulty, 386

tenses of verbs, 376 verb-subject agreement, 360 verb types, 25051 voice, 391

incredible, incredulous, G733

indefinite pronouns, 331, 334, G764 forming possessive of, 500 you and your, 334

independent clause(s), G757 defined, 284 joining, 28489, 289(box) index cards, notetaking on, 582 indicative mood, 395, 400

indirect object, 249, G761

indirect questions, period to mark the end of,

470

indirect reporting, G75556 misuse of quotation marks in, 482 of questions, 4078, 472 of statements, 4045 infer, imply, G732 inferior to, inferior than, G733 infinitive(s), 252, 43740, G758

as modifier, 27475 perfect, 371, G762

phrases, see infinitive phrases

split, 275, G76667 tenses of, 371 infinitive phrases, G758 as modifiers, 27475 informational primary sources, 564 insure, ensure, assure, G722 Internet and cyberspace:

APA style to document:

online magazine article, 679 online scholarly journal article, 680 Web site, 680 CBE style:

online book, 685 online journal, 685 Web site, 685 CMS system to document:

online article, 67172 online book, 671 email, 596 MLA parenthetical style to document online sources, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, electronic sources as research source, 520, 54159 APA style for documenting, 67880 CBE style for documenting, 685 CMS system for documenting, 67172 MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style for documenting, see MLA parenthetical style, electronic sources interrogative pronoun, G758, G764 interrogative sentence, G758 interruptions:

dashes with, 485

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D

E

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K

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N

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Y

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Index

parentheses with, 485, 487 interviews:

MLA parenthetical style for, 597 into, in to, in, G73233 intransitive verbs, 153, 249, G768 invigorating your style, 414(box)

by asking questions, 413 by cutting unnecessary words, 413 using active voice more often than the passive, 412

using verbs of action instead of be, 412

by varying sentences, 41011 irregardless, regardless, G742 irregular verbs, G765

past participle of, 269 principle parts of, 363, 37275(table) irritate, aggravate, G718 italics, use of, 5056, 507, 508 its, its, 501, G73334

J

jargon, 14546 journals:

APA style for articles in scholarly, 678, 680 CMS system for articles in, with yearly volume numbers, 66970 italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for documenting:

articles in, see MLA (Modern Language

Association) parenthetical style, article or essay

online, 59495 source card for, 56263

K

kind of, sort of, G734 kinship, capitalization rules for terms of, 504

L

language:

academic community, expectations in, 128 being respectful of other groups, 130 diction, see diction figurative, 14041 gender-inclusive, 12829 group identity and, 127, 128(ex) sexist, 128 see also words later, latter, G734 lay, lie, G735 lead, led, G734 learn, teach, G734 leave, let, G734 lectures, MLA parenthetical style for, 598 led, lead, G734 less, little, few, G730 let, leave, G735 lets, let us, G735 letters:

apostrophe to mark omission of, in contractions, 501 capitalized, forming plural of, 494, 501 as letters, italics or underlining of, 506 in lists, punctuation with, 471 lowercase, forming plural of, 495

 

Index

A

B

679

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

M

letters to the editor, APA style for documenting,

liable, apt, likely, G735 lie, lay, G735 like, as, as if, G722 likely, apt, liable, G735

linguistics, documentation style for, 682 Linguistics Society of America, 682 linking verbs, 44748, G758 lists:

colon to introduce, 467

period to mark letters or numbers in vertical, 471 semicolon, misuse of, 466

literary works:

MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, literary work writing about, see literature, writing about literature, see also humanities, writing in the little, 425 little, less, few, G730 loose, lose, G736 lose, loose, G736 lots of, a lot of, alot of, G736 LSA Bulletin, 682

W

X

Y

Z

machine-readable documents, MLA

parenthetical style for, 597 magazine articles:

APA style for documenting, 678, 679

CMS system for documenting, 669 MLA parenthetical style for documenting,

588

quotation marks for, 507 source card for, 56263 magazine titles, italics or underlining for, 507 main clause, G758 main verb, G75859 Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Turabian) (rev. Grossman and Bennett), 663 many, 425 many, much, G736 mathematical ratios, numerals for, 514 mathematics, documentation style for, 682 maybe, may be, G736 measurement(s):

abbreviation of units of, 512 apostrophe in common phrases of, 500501 numerals for exact, 514 mechanics, 50315 medicine, documentation style for, 682 metaphors, 14041 mixed, 142 might have, might of, G736 minority groups, using respectful terms for, 130 misplaced modifiers, 27879, 282(box), G759 misspelling, see spelling mixed constructions, 258, G759 mixed metaphor, 142 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Gibaldi), 579 MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, 57982, 599, 662 article or essay, 58892

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E

F

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I

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Index

anthology, work from an, 591 in daily newspaper, signed, 589

in daily newspaper, unsigned, 590

editorial, 590 essay or any other short work in book,

588

in monthly magazine, 588 online, 59496 in reference book, 589 in scholarly journal, 589

work in a collection with more than one

editor, 591 works from different authors cited from one book, 59192

Bible, 587 books, 58387 afterword, 585 Bible, 587 corporate author, 58687 edition after the first, 586 with editor, 584 foreword, 585 by four or more authors, 58384 government publications, 587 introduction, 585 material quoted by your source, 585 more than one book by the same author, 584 multivolume work, 585 by one author, 583 online, 596

reprint, 586

soucre card for, 56263 translation, 586 by two or three authors, 583 electronic sources, 59396 email, 596 general format, 593 online book, 596 online editorial, 59596 online journal, 59495 online newspaper, 595 online posting, 596 World Wide Web, 594 literary work, 59293

play with act, scene, and line number(s),

592

poem with numbered lines, 59293 poem with numbered sections and numbered lines, 59293 other media or source:

artwork, 599 CD-ROM, 597 interview, 597 lecture, 598 machine-readable document, 597 movie, 597 performance, 598 recording, 598 speech, 599 television program, 598 parenthetical citing, 58081 steps in, 579 works cited, listing of, 582 MLA (Modern Language Association) style:

of documentation, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style

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B

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D

E

F

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I

J

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X

Y

Z

Index

periods in abbreviations, 470 modal auxiliaries and subjunctive mood,

39698, 429, G759 Modern Language Association style, see MLA (Modern Language Association) style modifiers, 26283, G759

adjectives, see adjectives adverbs, see adverbs appositives, see appositives comparatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753

dangling, 281, G755

defined, 254 function of, 262 infinitives and infinitive phrases, 27475

misplaced, 27879, 282(box), G759 nonrestrictive, G76566 participles, see participle phrases; participle(s) placement of, 27778 restricters, 279, G765 spotting misused, 282(box) squinting, 279, G767 superlatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753 money, using numerals for sums of, 514 months of the year, abbreviation of, 512 mood, 391401, G759 conditional sentences, 400401 defined, 395 imperative, see imperative mood indicative, 395, 400 subjunctive, see subjunctive mood

moral, morale, G73637

most, mostly, most all, all, almost, G720 most all, mostly, most, all, almost, G720 movies, see films much, 425 much, many, G736 musical compositions:

italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for, 598 musicals, italics or underlining for titles of, 507

N

names:

commas with, 461, 462 see also personal titles or degrees natural sciences, writing in the, 68185 documenting sources, 68285 CBE style, see CBE style

organization of material, 68182 Newbury House Dictionary of American English,

417

newspapers:

APA style for articles in, 67879 CMS system for articles in, 67071 italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for articles in, see MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, article or essay no, 424 none too, not too, not very, G737 nonnative speakers, academic English for, see academic English for nonnative speakers nonrestrictive elements, 457

commas with, 45657 modifiers, G76566

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

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V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

see also restrictive elements Norton Textra Writer, 582

not, 424 notetaking, 56263 with a computer, 582 on index cards, 582

not too, none too, not very, G737 not very, none too, not too, G737 noun(s), G760 case, 499500, G752

collective, 358

compound, 495, 49798, 500 countable and uncountable, 418 defined, 251

of measurement, 358 modified, 357 phrases, see noun phrases pluralizing compound, 495 pluralizing simple, 49395, 501 possessive case of, 499500, G752 predicate, 249, G763 proper, see proper nouns

spelled the same way in singular and plural,

358

verbal, see verbal nouns noun clauses, G760 functions of, 316 subject-verb agreement and, 356 using, 316 noun equivalent, G760 noun marker, see determiners

noun phrases, G760

defined, 251 novels, 62224 nowhere, nowheres, G737 number, G760 pronoun-antecedent agreement in, 33739 subject-verb agreement in, 35459 numbers, 494 cardinal, 425 commas with large, 461 forming plurals of numbers written as words, 494, 501 hyphen with written out, 498 ordinal, 424 using numerals or spelling out, 51314 number (word):

amount, G721 as subject, 359 numerals:

clarifying a spelled out number, parentheses to enclose, 487 in lists, punctuation of, 471, 487 spelling out numbers or using, 51314

O

object, G76061 complement, 250, G761 direct, 249, G761 indirect, 249, G761 of a preposition, G761 object case, 34247, G752 OK, O.K., okay, G737 Online! A Reference Guide (Harnack and Kleppinger), 672 online sources, see Internet and cyberspace

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

only, G737 Opera News, 127

operas, italics or underlining for titles of, 507 ordinal numbers, 424 organizations, abbreviation of names of, 511 ourselves, ourself, G73738

P

page numbers, numerals for, 514 paragraphs:

sequence of tenses in, 38182, 38384

tense shifts in, 38182, 38384 parallel construction(s), G761 faulty, 297, G756 reasons for, 29495 using correlatives with, 296 writing, 295 parallelism, see parallel construction(s) parentheses, 48687 citing of sources in, 57982 to clarify a point, 48687 interruptions set off by, 485, 487 with letters or numerals in a list, 471, 487 punctuation of parenthetical elements, 487 for side comments, 48687 sparing use of, 487 participle(s), 26871, 271(box), 44042, G761 defined, 269 past, 269, 270, 44042 perfect, 269, 371, G762 present, 269, 371, 44042 punctuating, 270

tenses of, 371, 44042 participle phrases, 269, G762 defined, 269 punctuating, 270 particle, G761 passed, past, G738 passive voice, 250, 391(box), G769 the agent in, 387 choosing the, 39091, 412 forming the, 38889 function of, 387 misuse of, 391 progressive form compared to, 389 past, passed, G738 past perfect tense:

common, 368 forming the, 364 progressive form of, 368 using the, 368, 371 past tense:

common, 36768 in direct reporting, 403 forming the, 364 progressive, 368 using the, 36768 perfect infinitive, 371, G762 perfect participle(s), 269, 371, G762 performances, MLA parenthetical style for, 598 period, 47072, 511 misuse of, 47172 with quotation marks, 476 spacing after, 470 periodicals, source card for, 56263 persecute, prosecute, G738 person, G762

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

personal, personnel, G738 personal titles or degrees:

abbreviation of, 509 capitalization rules, 504 commas with, 461 personnel, personal, G738

persuasion, 619 phenomenon, phenomena, G73839 phrasal verbs, 43135, 436(box) phrases, G762

absolute, G749

adjective, see adjective phrases adverb, see adverb phrases

compound, 25657, G754

double quotation marks to enclose, 474,

475

figurative, 14041 infinitive, see infinitive phrases misused, 170 noun, see noun phrases participle, see participle phrases prepositional, G763 verb, see verb phrases physics, documentation style for, 682 plagiarism, 57173 plays:

italics or underlining for titles of, 507

MLA parenthetical style for, 592

plurals:

of abbreviations, 494, 495, 501 apostrophes and, 499501

of capitalized letters, 494, 501

of nouns, 49395, 501 of numbers, 494, 501 poetry:

italics or underlining for titles of long poems, 507 MLA parenthetical style for, 59293 quotation marks for titles of, 508 quoting, 404, 47879 political entities:

abbreviation of, 510 periods with abbreviations of, 471 poor, poorly, G739 positive form of adjectives and adverbs, G753 possessive case, 445, 499501, G752 of abbreviations, forming, 499500 of nouns, 499500, G752 of pronouns, 34247, 445, 501, G752 before a gerund, 26061, 500 precede, proceed, proceeds, proceedings, procedure,

G739

predeterminers, 42526, G763 predicate, G763 base or simple, G763 faulty predication, 25960, G756 function of the, 247 verb or verb phrase as part of, 248 predicate adjective, 249, 497, G763 predicate noun, 249, G763 prefixes, 492, 498 prepositional phrases, G763 prepositions, 446, G763 adjectives phrases that begin with, 263 adverb phrases that begin with, 26465 idioms using, 14344 object of, G761

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

present perfect tense:

common, 367

forming the, 364 progressive form of, 367, 443 using the, 367, 371 present tense:

common, 36566, 370, 443 in direct reporting, 404 forming the, 363 of infinitives, 371

of participles, 371

progressive, 366, 44243 subject-verb agreement in, 350 using the, 36566

pretentious words, 146 primary sources, 564, 660 principal, principle, G73940 principal parts, G764 irregular verbs, 363, 37275 (table) regular verbs, 363 principle, principal, G73940 proceed, proceeds, proceedings, precede, procedure,

G739

process, explaining a, see explaining a process progressive forms of verbs, 364, 44243, G753 passive voice compared to, 389 see also specific tenses, e.g. present tense, progressive form of pronoun-antecedent agreement, G750 in gender, 336 in number, 33739

pronouns, 44445, G764

ambiguous, 332 -antecedent agreement, see pronoun- antecedent agreement with antecedents, using, 330 without antecedents, using, 331 broad reference, 332 case, 171, 34247, G752 clear use of, 331 defined, 330, 444 definite, G764 faulty shifts in pronoun reference, 341 fixed in number, 355 free-floating they and it, 33334 function of, 252 gender-inclusive, 129 indefinite, see indefinite pronouns interrogative, G758, G764 modified, 357 muffled reference, 33233 object case, 34247 personal, case of, 34247, G752 possessive case, see possessive case, of pronouns reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 34647 relative, see relative pronouns remote reference, 334 subject case, 34247

unclear reference, 33234, 336(box) variable in number, 354356 who, whoever, use of, 345 whom, whomever, use of, 345 proofreading, spell checkers distinguished from,

490

proper nouns:

capitalizing, 5034

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

examples of, 5034 prosecute, persecute, G738

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th ed., 674

Q

question mark, 472, 511 with quotation marks, 47677 questions:

direct reporting of, 406, 4078

indirect, period to mark the end of, 470

indirect reporting of, 4078, 472 invigorating your style with, 413 question mark at end of direct, 472

quotation, quote, G740 quotation marks, 403, 47477 double, 474 misusing, 482 with other punctuation, 47577 quoting words, phases, and short passages of prose, 474, 475, 482 single, 475, 508 special uses of, 482 titles in, 482, 507, 508 quotations:

changes in, marking, 48081 colon to introduce, 467 of extended dialogue, 404 fitting into prose, 4089 of long prose passages, 47778 marking changes in, 48081

misfitted, 4089

prose, several lines of, 404 within quotations, 475 tags with, 4034, 474, 476 of verse, 404, 47879 see also quotation marks quote, quotation, G740

R

race, using respectful terms for, 130

radio programs, italics or underlining for titles of, 507 raise, rise, G74041 rational, rationale, rationalize, G741 ReadersGuide to Periodical Literature, 536, 538 real, really, G741

reason

recordings, MLA parenthetical style for, 598 redundancy, 148 refer, allude, G719 reference book, articles in:

APA style, 678 CMS system, 670 MLA parenthetical style, 589 reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 34647, G752 regardless, irregardless, G742 regular verbs, G76465 principal parts of, 363 relative clause, see adjective (relative) clause(s) relative pronouns, 303, G765 choosing, based on the antecedent, 3035 religious groups, using respectful terms for, 130 reporting, direct and indirect, see direct reporting; indirect reporting reprints, CMS system for book, 667

is that, reason

is because, G741

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

requests, imperative mood for, see imperative mood

research sources:

secondary, 660, 661 see also specific types of sources, e.g. encyclopedias

respectively, respectfully, respectably, G742 restricters, G765 restrictive elements, 457 adjective clauses, 307

commas with, 270, 3067, 45758

modifiers, 279, G765 participle phrases, 270 see also nonrestrictive elements

revenge, avenge, G72223 rhyme, 622 rise, raise, G74041 run-on (fused) sentences, 29393, G766

S

salutation of a letter, colon following the, 467

scholarly journals:

APA style for documenting articles in, 678,

680

italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for documenting articles in, 589 sciences, natural, see natural sciences, writing in the Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed. (Council of Biology Editors), 682, 683 seasons, 504

secondary sources, 660, 661 semicolon, 46566 in compound sentences, 286, 287, 465 with conjunctive adverbs, 28889, 465 misuse of, 466 with quotation marks, 476 sentence adverb, see conjunctive adverbs sentence fragments, 325, 471, G766 defined, 325 spotting and editing, 32627, 327(box) using and misusing, 32526 sentences, G766 complex, see complex sentences compound, see compound sentences conditional, 400401, G754 coordination of, see coordination declarative, 253, G755 English as a second language, tips for,

44748

fragments, see sentence fragments imperative, see imperative mood interrogative, G758 one-clause or simple, 24761 parallel construction, see parallel construction(s) run-on (fused), 29293, G766 simple, 24761, G766 subordination, see subordination tense shifts in, see sequence of tenses untangling, 323 varying length and structure of, 41011 sequence of tenses, 37886, G766 in complex sentences, 37981 in compound sentences, 37879 defined, 378

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

faulty tense shifts, 38284, 386(box), G756 in paragraphs, 38182, 38384

series, items in a:

commas with, 45960 dashes with, 485 serif fonts, 21314

set, sit, G742 several, 425 sexist language, 128 ships, names of, 506

short stories:

quotation marks for titles of, 508 sic, marking misspellings in quotations with,

480

sight, cite, site, G74243 similes, 14041 simple sentences, 24761, G766 coordinating to form compound sentences, see compound sentences simple subject, G767 since, because, being that,G723 sit, set, G742 site, cite, sight, G74243 slang, 132, 133 slash, 48788 so, very, awfully, G746 Social Science Citation Index, 564 social sciences, writing in the, 67281 abstracts, 67374 asking questions when, 657, 659(box), 672 documenting sources, see APA style

organization of material, 67273

Social Sciences Index, The, 537 some, 424 sometimes, sometime, G743 somewhere, somewheres, G743 songs, quotation marks for titles of, 508 sort of, kind of, G734 sources, see research sources specialized terms:

of academic community, 128 group identity and, 127 specifics, strengthening texture by interweaving generalizations with, 16162 specific words, 13839, 170 speeches:

MLA parenthetical style for, 599 quotation marks for titles of, 508 spelling:

adding prefixes, 492 adding suffixes, 49192 checking the dictionary, 152, 173 demons, keeping a list of your, 491 editing, 17273 homonyms, 17273, 493 marking misspellings in quotations, 480 pluralizing compound nouns, 495 pluralizing simple nouns, 49395 spell checkers, computer, 490 split infinitives, 275, G76667 squinting modifiers, 279, G767 states, abbreviations for, 51011 stationary, stationery, G743 statistics:

citing sources of, 185 compilations of, 528 as evidence, 185

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

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Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

statue, statute, G74344 subject(s), 25152, 253(box), 447, G767

agreement with verb, see subject-verb agreement complete, G767 compound, made with and, 357

every, beginning with, 358 finding, 354 function of the, 247 inversion of subject-verb order, 253

number of the, recognizing, 35459

omitting the, 254 placement of, in declarative sentence, 253 simple, G767

-verb agreement, see subject-verb agreement subject case, 34247 subject complement, 249, G767 subject headings to locate research sources,

52931

Library of Congress, 53031 subject-verb agreement, 34959, 360(box), 428,

G750

academic English, guidelines for, 35153 be, 351, 356 defined, 349 dialectical mistakes in, 35153 examples in different languages, 349 finding the subject, 354 number of the subject, 35459 in present tense, 350 subjunctive mood, 395, G760

modal auxiliaries in, 39698, 429

special verbal forms in, 39899 using the, 39699 subordinate (dependent) clauses, 317(box), 319,

G76768

adjective clauses, see adjective (relative) clause(s) adverb clauses, see adverb clauses defined, 302 noun, see noun clauses subordinate verb, G768 subordination, 317(box), G768 with adjective clauses, see adjective (relative) clause(s) with adverb clauses, see adverb clauses coordination used together with, 319 with noun clauses, 316 purpose of, 3002 subordinate (dependent) clauses, see subordinate (dependent) clauses subordinators, see subordinators untangling sentences and, 323 subordinators, 31012, G768 relations signaled by, 312 such a, G744 suffixes, adding, 49192 superlatives, 26567, 26667(box), G753 supposed to, suppose to, G744 synonyms:

dictionary entries, 153 thesaurus for, 153

T

teach, learn, G734 television shows:

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

italics or underlining for titles of, 507 MLA parenthetical style for, 598

tenses of verbs, 36275, 376(box), 428, G768 auxiliaries, formed with, 364 common and progressive forms, 364, G753 faulty shifts in, see sequence of tenses

forming the, 36364 future, see future tense future perfect, see future perfect tense infinitives, 371

misusing, 37071

participles, 371 past, see past tense past perfect, see past perfect tense

the present, see present tense present perfect, see present perfect tense principal parts of irregular verbs, 363,

37275(table)

principal parts of regular verbs, 363 progressive forms, 364 sequence of, see sequence of tenses shifts in, faulty, see sequence of tenses in subjunctive mood, 39899 time and, 362 than, then, G744 that, 424 that, which, who, G744 the, using, 42023 the fact that, 149 their, there, theyre, G745 theirselves, theirself, themselves, G744

themselves, theirselves, theirself, G744

then, than, G744 there, their, theyre, G745 therefore, thus, thusly, G745 thesaurus, 153 these, 424 theyre, there, their, G745 this, 424 those, 424 thus, therefore, thusly, G745 time (of day):

abbreviation of terms specifying, 510

apostrophe in common phrases of, 500501 colon to separate hours and minutes in,

467

spelling out numbers or using numerals for,

514

verb tenses and, 362 titles:

capitalization rules, 504, 507 italicizing or underlining, 506, 507 personal, see personal titles or degrees in quotation marks, 482 see also specific types of works, e.g. books to, too, G745 too, to, G745 tracking your sources, 56263 transitive verbs, 24950, G768 translation of a book:

APA style for, 677 CMS system for, 668 MLA parenthetical style for, 586 try to, try and, G745 type, G745

 

Index

A

B

U

C

uncertainty within a statement, question mark to indicate, 472

URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), 543

D

underlining, 5056, 507, 508

E

Understanding and Using English Grammar

F

(Schrampfer), 417

G

unfinished remarks, dash to indicate, 48586 uninterested, disinterested, G72728

H

unique, G746

I

United States, abbreviation of, 510

J

untangling sentences, 323

K

used to, use to, G746

L

 

V

M

N

verb(s), G769 of action, 412

O

agreement with subject, see subject-verb

P

agreement

Q

auxiliary of helping,248 as element of the predicate, 248

R

intransitive, 153, 249, G768

S

inversion of subject-verb order, 253

T

linking, 24849, 44748, G758

U

main, G75859 mood, see mood

V

phrasal, 43135, 436(box)

W

phrases, see verb phrases placement of, in declarative sentence, 253

X

sequence of tenses, see sequence of tenses

Y

-subject agreement, see subject-verb

Z

agreement subordinate, G768 tenses, see tenses of verbs transitive, 153, 24950 types of, 24850, 25051(box) voice, see voice see also mood; voice verbal nouns, 252, G769 gerunds, see gerunds infinitive, 252 subject-verb agreement and, 356 verb phrases, G769 as element of the predicate, 248 forming, 429 mood, see mood parts of, 248 verse, see poetry very, awfully, so, G746 virgule, 48788 voice, 38791, 391(box), G769 active, see active voice function of, 387 passive, see passive voice

W

wait for, wait on, G746 way, ways, G746 Web sites, see Internet and cyberspace; Web page design well, good, G731 were, were, G747 which, that, who, G744 who, that, which, G744 whose, whos, 502, G747

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Index

wordiness, 413 words:

choosing the right, 155(box) connotation of, 136 denotation of, 13435 euphemisms, 146

figurative, 14041 general or abstract, 13839 idioms, 14344, 145(ex) italics or underlining of word treated as a

word, 506

jargon, 14546 order of, 448 pretentious, 146

quotation marks to define, 482 quotation marks to enclose, 474, 475, 482 specific or concrete, 13839 wordiness, 14749, 413 works cited, listing of, in MLA (Modern Language Association) parenthetical style, 582 World Wide Web, see Internet and cyberspace would have misused in conditional clauses, 401 would have, would of, G747