HUMAN AREA NETWORK

ABSTRACT
Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked. In addition to the WANs (Internet) and LANs, there are applications best served by Human Area Networks (HANs) that connect the last meter. RedTacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that uses thesurface of the Human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path. In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media, they may also be used in combination. Here, • • • • A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects. RedTacton uses the electric field that occurs naturally on the surface of the human body for communication. The RedTacton chips, which will be embedded in various devices, contain a transmitter and receiver built to send and accept data stored in a digital format. Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time. • RedTacton surpasses other human area networks in terms of communication performance and user convenience. Communication can be kept private using authentication and encryption technologies. Corresponding RedTacton receivers are installed at security check points. The system can provide authentication and record who touched the device and when by using automatic user authentication and log-in with just a touch. NTT Laboratories from

Japan has made three types of prototypes: RedTacton transceiver --PC card type, hub type and RedTacton device (box type) for RedTacton. This paper investigates on how RedTacton works, mechanisms for communication with RedTacton, its Features and its broad range of application fields are explained in detail giving the comparisons with other networks. Introduction: Perhaps many of us have imagined the future as a place crawling with antennas and emitters, due to the huge growth of wireless communications. And it’s possible that this is exactly how it will look like, but it seems that the current means of transferring data might already have a very serious competitor, none other than the human body. NTT Labs, the research and development wing of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation from Japan, plans to start conducting field trials for a radical new "human area networking" technology called RedTacton that uses the naturally-occurring electrical fields of human skin to transmit data. RedTacton involves initiating communication with a touch that could result in a wide range of actions in response. So, NTT combined touch and action to coin the term Tacton, and then added the word Red -- a warm color -to emphasize warm and cordial communications, creating the name RedTacton. According to NTT Laboratories, our whole body is the perfect conductor for electronic data, meaning that information such as music and films could be downloaded in seconds via your elbow. NTT, the Japanese telecoms group, and the team of scientists that invented the Red Tacton system, envisage a future in which the human body acts as a non-stop conduit for information. Wireless networks — often hampered by intermittent service — will eventually be replaced, NTT says, by “human area networks”. The developers are convinced that the new technology will be “highly disruptive” — undermining existing wireless industries and causing everyone to rethink the way that everyday actions could be undertaken. Field tests are under way and the first commercial appearance of Red Tacton is expected next year.

RedTacton uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared.

A transmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a RedTacton transceiver. The slim, PCMCIA-based RedTacton transceiver combines an optical receiver circuit equipped with a super-sensitive photonic electrical field sensor and a crystal to transmit data over the surface of human body at up to 10 megabits per second between wearable devices. Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user's natural, physical movements. Linked only by touch, the transceivers can also connect to similar transceivers worn by other users or embedded in any objects in real space, such as turnstiles or consumer electronics. Promising better security and far less interference than short-range wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and Near-Field Communications. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or torso. RedTacton works through shoes and clothing as well.

.  The RedTacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body.  The RedTacton receiver senses changes in the weak electric field on the surface of the body caused by the transmitter.  RedTacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field.  RedTacton detects changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the result to an electrical signal in a optical receiver circuit. RedTacton transceivers which integrate transmitters and receivers are also available.

The Red Tacton chips, which will be embedded in various devices, contain a transmitter and receiver built to send and accept data stored in a digital format. The transmitter sends data by inducing fluctuations in the minute electric field on the surface of the human body. The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field.

The chip then takes any type of file, such as an MP3 music file or email, and converts it into a format that takes the form of digital pulses that can be passed and read through a human being's electric field. The chip in the receiving device reads these tiny changes and converts the file back into its original form. RedTacton transceivers can be treated as standard network devices, so software running over Ethernet or other TCP/IP protocol-based networks will run unmodified. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam

In addition to the WANs (Internet) and LANs, there are applications best served by Human Area Networks (HANs) that connect the last meter. RedTacton enables the first practical Human Area Network between body-centered electronic devices and PCs or other network devices embedded in the environment via a new generation of user interface based on totally natural human actions.

Features: RedTacton has three main functional features:

Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human's natural movements.

Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps*. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time. * Maximum communication speed may be slower than 10Mbps depending on the usage environment. Taking advantage of this speed, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and execute Program can be sent.

APPLICATION FIELDS: One To One Services: With the ability to send attribute data from personal information devices worn on the body to computers embedded in the environment, one-to-one services could implemented that are tailored to the individual needs of the user. Enable one-to-one services tailored to the user's situation and tastes. Attribute information recorded in the RedTacton device is sent to the touched objects. The appropriate service is provided based on the attribute information received by the RedTacton receiver.

RedTacton devices embedded medicine bottles transmit information on the medicines' attributes. If the user touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal he is carrying. The alarm sounds only if the user actually touches the medicine bottle, reducing false alarms common with passive wireless ID tags, which can trigger simply by proximity.

Alert and contact record at medical, long-term care, and childcare facilities. Avoidance of risk at construction sites (an alarm sounds if special equipment is handled by anyone other than supervisors) Intuitive Operations: Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior, so there is no need to insert smart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated with today's electronic devices. Natural movements and actions are the trigger. There’s no "operation" any more. Just

intuitive human interaction. RedTacton transceivers embedded in two terminals can communicate not only data but also the control or configuration instructions needed to operate devices. Cable connections are eliminated. The body itself is used as transmission medium.

Print out where you want just by touching the desired printer with one hand and a PC or digital camera with the other hand to make the link Complicated configurations are reduced by downloading device drivers "at first touch". Display notebook PC screen on projectors with just a touch. Transfer songs to portable music players from notebook PCs with just a touch

By shaking hands, personal profile data can be exchanged between mobile terminals on the users. (Electronic exchange of business cards) Communication can be kept private using authentication and encryption technologies

Group photos taken with digital cameras are instantly transferred to individual's mobile terminal. Diagrams written on white boards during meetings are transferred to individual's mobile terminals on the spot. Personalization:

Digital lifestyle can be instantly personalized with just a touch. Setup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all be uploaded to a device the instant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured in advance. A pre-recorded configuration script can be embedded in a mobile terminal with built-in RedTacton transceiver. When another device with RedTacton capabilities is touched, personalization data and configuration scripts can be downloaded automatically.

Your own phone number is allocated and billing commences. Automatic importing of personal address book and call history. The PC is configured to the user's specifications simply by touching the mouse. Room temperature and lighting are customized when a switch in the living room is pressed.

The seat position and steering wheel height adjust to match the driver just by sitting in the car. The driver's home is set as the destination in the car navigation system. The stereo plays the driver’s favorite song. Touching the TV remote control triggers a filter/search routine according to your personal programming preferences.

Security Applications: RedTacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch. At the same time, all the transaction details and relevant user attributes (personal identity, security clearance, etc.) could be logged by the security system.

Carrying a mobile RedTacton-capable device in one's pocket, ID is verified and the door unlocked when the user holds the doorknob normally. Secure lock administration is possible by combining personal verification tools such as fingerprint ID or other biometric in the mobile terminal.

Automated car door lock/unlock just by touching the handle; unlocking a bicycle just by sitting on it. As a pass in amusement facilities Comparison with other Human communication Methods: RedTacton surpasses other human area networks in terms of communication performance and user convenience."Intra-body communication" using the human body as a transmission medium has been reported, but the electric field/photonics method employed by RedTacton is superior to conventional methods in terms of communication distance, speed, and interactivity. P: Possible; N: Not possible, P*: possible under some conditions

Signal Detection system Contact status with the electrode Distance Ground line & speed Duplex communic Between ation mobile terminals Between mobile terminals and external equipment Clear signal Amperage electric lines needed for body and earth ground Capacity coupling Voltage electric between the earth ground and equipment Electric field photonics Capacity coupling between ground Anywhere P on the body at up to 10Mbps P Communication possible even through shoes and clothing Wrist to fingertip at approx. 1kbps P* P* Communication possible even when passing through thin insulators Elbow to fingertip at approx. 3kbps N P* The electrode must be in constant contact with the body to maintain good conductivity

&

(RedTacton) the earth

and equipment

RedTacton does not require the electrode be in direct contact with the skin. High-speed communication is possible between two arbitrary points on the body.

With the electric amperage method, a clear signal line and ground line are required. With the electric voltage method, capacity coupling can substitute. Therefore, the electrode does not have to be in direct contact with the skin.

On the other hand, photonic electric field sensors used in RedTacton can measure standalone contacts without being influenced by grounds. As a result, the received waveform is not distorted, regardless of the receiver location. This makes long-distance and highspeed body surface transmission possible System Safety:

RedTacton uses the electric field that occurs naturally on the surface of the human body for communication. Transmitter and receiver electrodes are covered with an insulating film. No current flows into the body from the RedTacton transceiver

There is no current flowing from the RedTacton transceiver; however, the body indirectly Receives a minute electric field. This causes electrons already present inside the body to move, creating a minute displacement current. This displacement current is similar to those occurring in everyday life.

RedTacton is in conformity to the "Radiofrequency-exposure Protection RCR standard (RCR STD-38)" issued by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB).

. Conclusion: Some people will be highly attracted to the idea of using their bodies as networks, and new applications could flourish. Yet psychological barriers could prove a problem with many users. Even if convinced of the device's safety, some might worry about privacy or theft from accidental physical contact. With proper security, these are not serious problems, yet some users might also feel a vague sense of violation of their personal space. “If the user benefit is much larger than their concerns, people will start to use it,". This is exactly what happened to cell phones.

An intriguing possibility is that the technology will be used as a sort of secondary nervous system to link large numbers of tiny implanted components placed beneath the skin to create powerful onboard -- or in-body -- computers.

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