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Original Title: Gear Speed Reducer

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Gear Speed Reducer

Example design for spur gear speed reducer.

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ME 484

MACHINE DESIGN II

Submitted by:

Vallejos, Dario Jr. C.

IV-BSME

Submitted to:

Engr. Nelio S. Gesmundo, Jr

Course Instructor

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work, though amateur at best, would not have been possible without the help of the

people within my immediate surroundings, that is, my family, professors, friends, and

acquaintances. Of special mention are the following individuals/persons:

My parents, without whose support this endeavor would surely fall apart in terms of

logistics and moral support,

My professors and instructors, without whom the knowledge and information taxed by this

task would not have been met,

My classmates/colleagues, without whom the ideas developed here would not have an

environment to thrive, improve, and grow,

My paramour, who kept me going, without whom this project would not have been rebuilt

each time it fell apart,

And to God, without whom all of these are otherwise physically void, intellectually

impossible, and mentally hopeless.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. DESIGN PROBLEM AND DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

A. DESIGN PROBLEM

B. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

1. GEAR PAIR

2. SHAFTING

3. RIMS AND ARMS

4. GEAR HOUSING

II. DESIGN SKETCH/ILLUSTRATION

III. COMPUTATIONS

A. GEAR PAIR

1. PRELIMINARY GEAR DIMENSIONS, CONTACT RATIO, AND INTERFERENCE

2. TORQUE AND FORCES

3. BENDING STRENGTH

4. PITTING STRENGTH

5. MATERIAL SELECTION

B. SHAFTING

1. SHAFT

2. GEAR HUB

3. BEARING SELECTION

4. TOLERANCES AND FITS

5. KEYS AND COUPLINGS

C. RIMS AND ARMS

1. INITIAL DIMENSIONS

2. ARM GEOMETRY

D. HOUSING

1. INITIAL ILLUSTRATION

2. GEARBOX DIMENSIONS

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS

V. APPENDIX

A. DESIGN PROBLEM

A gear-reduction unit is to be designed according to the data in the table and the

following specifications. The velocity ratio may be varied by an amount necessary to have

whole tooth numbers. The given center distance is the permissible maximum (but this

does not preclude asking the engineer in charge if a slightly larger one can be tolerated, in

case it looks impossible to satisfy this condition. The teeth are to be 20 F.D. with Np 18

teeth, with 17 as the minimum acceptable. The service is continuous, with indefinite life.

Use Bucking hams dynamic load for average gears.

(a) Decide upon the material with its treatment, pitch, and face with. Start out being

orderly with your calculations so that you do not need to copy all of them for your report.

The report should show calculations for the final decisions first, but all significant

calculation should be in the appendix. These latter calculations should show: that a cheap

material (as cat iron) cannot be used; that through-hardened steel (minimum permissible

tempering temperature is 880F), flame or induction-hardened steel, and carburized

case-hardened teeth have all been considered in detail.

(b) To complete the design of the gears, a shaft size is needed. At the option of the

instructor: (i) compute shaft diameters for pure torsion only using a conservative design

stress, as Ss= 6 ksi (to cover stress concentration, minor bending, on the assumption that

the bearings will be quite close to the gears, etc.); or (ii) make a tentative assumption of

the distance between bearings, and design the shafts by a rational procedure. It would be

logical for the input and output to be via flexible couplings. Let the shaft material be coldfinished AISI 1137. Design the keys for cold-drawn AISI C1118. Use better materials than

these only for good reason.

(c) Determine the dimensions of the hub, arms or webs, and rims and beads of both

gears.

(d) Make a sketch of each gear (on separate sheets of paper) including on it all

dimensions and information for its manufacture.

(e) At the instructors option (i) choose rolling type bearings, or (ii) design sleeve

bearings.

(f) Decide upon all details of the housing to enclose the gears, with sketches depicting

them.

(g) Your final report should be arranged as follows: (1) title page; (2) a summary of final

design decisions, and material specifications; (3) sketches; (4) final calculation; (5) other

calculations.

B. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

1. GEAR PAIR

MATERIAL

TABLE I.B.1-1

MATERIAL

Pinion

Gear

YIELD STRENGTH

270 ksi

HARDNESS

Pinion

Gear

CASE DEPTH

.023 in

TABLE I.B.1-2.a

RATING METHOD

ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04

Pinion

74.79 ksi

Gear

58.51 ksi

Pinion

.94

Gear

.97

TEMPERATURE FACTOR

1.0

RELIABILITY FACTOR

1.0

Pinion

81614.24 psi

Gear

65881.37 psi

GEOMETRY FACTOR

Pinion

.335

Gear

.415

OVERLOAD FACTOR

1.75

DYNAMIC FACTOR

1.275

SIZE FACTOR

LOAD DISTRIBUTION FACTOR

RIM FACTOR

1.0

1.181

1.0

TABLE I.B.1-2.b

ALLOWABLE CONTACT STRESS NUMBER

Pinion

264.02 ksi

Gear

252.79 ksi

Pinion

.91

Gear

.94

Pinion

237617.65 psi

Gear

237617.65 psi

GEOMETRY FACTOR

Pinion

.109

Gear

.109

GEOMETRY

TABLE I.B.1-3

PROFILE TYPE

PRESSURE ANGLE

DIAMETRAL PITCH, Pd

INVOLUTE

20

6

FACE WIDTH, F

2.67 in

CENTER DISTANCE, c

9.583 in

GEAR RATIO, mg

NUMBER OF PINION TEETH, Np

5.053

19

PINION SPEED, np

GEAR SPEED, ng

91

900 rpm

178.125 rpm

PINION DIAMETER, Dp

3.167 in

GEAR DIAMETER, Dg

8.00 in

776.44 rpm

DEDENDUM, b

.2083 in

CLEARANCE, c

.0413 in

WHOLE DEPTH, ht

.334 in

WORKING DEPTH, hk

.50 in

TOOTH THICKNESS, t

.262 in

2.976 in

7.516 in

CIRCULAR PITCH

.5234 in

BACKLASH

.015 in

2. SHAFTING

SHAFT MATERIAL

TABLE I.B.2-1

MATERIAL

AISI 1137 CD

98 ksi

YIELD STRENGTH

82 ksi

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

30E6 psi

MODULUS OF RIGIDITY

11.5E6 psi

DESIGN STRESS

6 ksi

SHAFT DIMENSIONS

Pinion

TABLE I.B.2-2.a

D1

DIMENSION

D1s

D2

D3

1.5475 in

1.8504 in

1.80 in

1.5475 in

HOLE

+0

No Adjustment

+0

+0

SHAFT

+.0024 in

No Adjustment

-.0030 in

+.0024 in

Gear

TABLE I.B.2-2.b

D1

DIMENSION

D1s

D2

D3

2.7559 in

3.0709 in

3.00 in

2.7559 in

HOLE

+0

No Adjustment

+0

+0

SHAFT

+.0029 in

No Adjustment

-.0037 in

+.0029 in

GEAR HOB

TABLE I.B.2-3

DIAMETER

LENGTH

PINION

2.70 in

2.25 in

GEAR

4.50 in

3.75 in

BEARINGS

TABLE I.B.2-4

MANUFACTURER/ DYNAMIC LOAD INNER

MODEL NAME

PINION

SKF

CAPACITY

OUTER

DIAMETER DIAMETER

BEARING

WIDTH

18300 lbsf

1.5748 in

3.1496 in

.9055 in

12600 lbsf

2.7559 in

4.3307 in

.7874 in

MANUFACTURER/ TORQUE

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

COUPLING

MODEL NAME

DIAMETER DIAMETER

GEAR

SKF

NU 1014 ML

COUPLINGS

TABLE I.B.2-5

PINION

SKF

CAPACITY

WIDTH

7884 lbs-in

.748 in

2.874 in

2.008 in

37812 lbs-IN

1.4961 in

6.7323 in

3.386 in

KD2-153

GEAR

SKF

KD2-303

KEYS MATERIAL

TABLE I.B.2-6

MATERIAL

AISI 1137 CD

80 ksi

YIELD STRENGTH

75 ksi

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

30E6 psi

MODULUS OF RIGIDITY

11.5E6 psi

KEYS DIMENSIONS

TABLE I.B.2-7

PINION KEY

GEAR KEY

PINION

GEAR

COUPLER KEY

COUPLER KEY

ORIGINAL

1.12 in

2.26 in

2.084 in

2.46 in

ADJUSTED

2.00 in

3.50 in

2.00 in

3.25 in

Data for the rims and arms are summarized as follows:

TABLE I.B.3-1

MATERIAL

RIM THICKNESS

.5864 in

RIM BEAD

INCORPORATED IN RIM

HUB BEAD

NONE

NUMBER OF ARMS

ARM LEGNTH

ARM GEOMETRY

5

4.955 in

ELLIPTICAL (h = 1.06 in)

4. HOUSING

Summary of gearbox dimensions is as follows:

TABLE I.B.4-1

MATERIAL

Cast iron

WALL THICKNESS

.45 in

.36 in

.90 in

.75 in

1.875 in

4.5 in

.875 in

1.3125 in

2.1875 in

3.80 in

5.20 in

III. CALCULATIONS

A. GEAR PAIR

1. PRELIMINARY GEAR DIMENSIONS, CONTACT RATIO, AND INTERFERENCE

INITIAL CALCULATIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL PROBLEM SPECIFICATIONS

Original specifications given by the problem are as follows:

TABLE III.A.1-1

POWER

GEAR RATIO

MAX CENTER DISTANCE

90 hp

5

9.5 in

PINION RPM

900

LOAD TYPE

Shock load

SAFETY FACTOR

1.4

PRESSURE ANGLE

20

PINION TEETH

18

Using the tabulated values, we may assign initial values to the center distance, number

of gear teeth, diametral pitch, and the pinion and gear diameters using the following

equations and correlations, respectively:

C = (Dp + Dg)/2

Eqn III.A.1-1

mg = Ng/Np Dg/Dp

Eqn III.A.1-2

mg = Dg/Dp

5 = Dg/Dp = Ng/Np

5Dp = Dg

C = (Dp + 5Dp)/2 = (6Dp)/2

9.5 in = (6Dp)/2

Dp = 3.167 in (initial)

Ng = 5Np = 5 18

Ng = 90 (initial)

Dg = 5Dp = 5 3.167

Dg = 15.835 in (initial)

DIAMETRAL PITCH Pd

The diametral pitch is given by the formula:

Pd = N/D

Eqn III.A.1-3

For this design, any value derived from Eqn III.A.1-3 will be rounded up in order to

meet a value for the center distance that is below the minimum. Hence:

Pd = N/D = 18/3.167 = 5.684

Pd = 6

CENTER DISTANCE C

The original maximum center distance C = 9.5 in will have to be adjusted with respect

to the adjusted diametral pitch. Modifying Eqn III.A.1-1:

C = (Dp + Dg)/2 = (Np + Ng)/2Pd = (18 + 90)/(2 6)

C = 9.00 in

DIAMETER ADJUSTMENT

Using Eqn III.A.1-3, the diameters for the gear pair may be derived as follows:

Dp = Np/Pd = 18/6

Dp = 3.00 in

Dg = Ng/Pd = 90/6

Dg = 15.00 in

Since the value for the center distance has not yet reached the maximum, these values

may still be increased without compromising the initial specifications.

The relations below logically follow if adjustments from the original gear pair diameters

are incrementally iterated in terms of the number of teeth:

Dp = (Np + N)/Pd = (18 + N)/(6) = (18 + N)/6

Eqn III.A.1-4

Eqn III.A.1-5

Np = (Np + N) = 18 + N

Eqn III.A.1-6

Ng = 5Np = (Ng + N)

Eqn III.A.1-7

C = (Dp+Dg)/2=(Dp+5Dp)/2=6(18+N)/(26)=(18+N)/2

Eqn III.A.1-8

TABLE III.A.1-1

N

Dp (in)

Dg (in)

Np

Ng

C (in)

3.00

15.00

18

90

3.167

15.833

19

95

9.5

Only a single tooth can be added to the pinion, otherwise, the center distance limit will

be exceeded. This value will be checked if the resulting contact ratio has a range of 1.0

mp 2.01, and no interference exists.

CONTACT RATIO

The contact ratio is given by the formula:

CR = AB/Pb

Where:

AB = Line of contact = AP + BP

1

Eqn III.A.1-9

Pb = (D/N)cos = (/Pd)cos

CR = (AP + PB)/(/Pd)cos

Eqn III.A.1-10

To find the length of lines AP and BP, consider Fig III.A.1-12. An examination of the

figure yields the following relations:

Fig III.A.1-1

= 90 +

Eqn III.A.1-11

3 = arcsin [(PO3sin)/AO3]

Eqn III.A.1-12

3 = 180 - ( - 3)

Eqn III.A.1-13

AP = (AO3sin3)/sin

Eqn III.A.1-14

2 = arcsin [(PO2sin)/BO2]

Eqn III.A.1-15

2 = 180 - ( 2)

Eqn III.A.1-16

BP = (BO2sin2)/sin

Eqn III.A.1-17

The length of PO3, AO3, PO2, and BO2 can be expressed in term of the radii of the pinion

and the gear, and the addendum circle.

PO3 = Rg

Eqn III.A.1-18

AO3 = Rg + 1/Pd

Eqn III.A.1-19

PO2 = Rp

Eqn III.A.1-20

BO2 = Rp + 1/Pd

Eqn III.A.1-21

Considering the sum of the pinion and gear radii, the center distance, equals 9.00, i.e.

Rg + Rp = 9.50 in

Eqn III.A.1-22

length that a single tooth of the gear adds on the center distance:

(Rg + 1/2Pd) + Rp = 9.5 in +1/2Pd = 9.5 + 1/(26)

(Rg + 1/2Pd) + Rp = 9.583 in

let Rg = (Rg + 1/2Pd)

C = Rg + Rp = 9.583 in

Eqn III.A-1-23

Combining Eqns III.A.1-10~23, the final equation for the contact ratio of the gear pair

in term of the gear radius is given by Eqn III.A.-1-23. For the full derivation, see

Appendix A.

CR = ((Rg+1/6) sin(70-arcsin(xsin110/( Rg+1/6))) +

(9.75-Rg)sin(70-arcsin((9.583-Rg)sin110/(9.75-Rg))))/ ((sin110)(cos20)(/6))

Eqn III.A.1-24

Using Microsoft Mathematics confirms that valid values for Rg include {0 <mp < 9.0}.

Fig III.A.1-2

Plotting the value of the contact ratio (y-axis) with respect to the gear radius (x-axis) =

(Rg + 1/2Pd) = (15.833 + 1/(26)) 8.00 in, a value of contact ratio mp 1.70 is

obtained. Therefore, the diameters of the gear and the pinion are valid values for the

design.

HUNTING TOOTH

The addition of a hunting tooth in the gear modified the gear ratio mg = 95/19 = 5, a

relatively poor distribution of load amongst the teeth, to mg = 96/19 = 5.053. This

means that for the same tooth from the gear and the pinion will mesh again for every 96

revolutions from the gear and 19 revolutions the pinion.

The angular speed of the gear also changes in correspondence with the hunting tooth.

From 180 rpm, the value changes to ng = 178.125 rpm.

ADDENDUM a

The addendum is identified early on because it will be used to find whether or not

interference exists. It is given by the formula:

a = 1/Pd = 1/6

Eqn III.A.1-25

a = .167 in.

INTERFERENCE

Using SolidWorks, interference with Rp = Dp/2 = 3.167/2 = 1.584 in and Rg = 8.00 in is

determined graphically. Looking at Fig III.A.1-3, points A and B do not exceed either

points E and F. Hence, no interference occurs.

Fig III.A.1-4

After finalizing both the diameters of the pinion and the gear, the pitch line velocity v

may now be determined.

v = 2Rpnp = 2 1.584 in 900 rpm

v = 8957.31 in/min = 776.44 fpm

Eqn III.A.1-26

FACE WIDTH

After finalizing the diametral pitch, the face width can now be determined. Using the

formula

F = (8 ~ 16)/Pd, say 16/Pd

Eqn III.A.1-27

= 16/6

F = 2.67 in

Other geometric dimensions of particular concern are solved as follows:

DEDENDUM, b

Eqn III.A.1-28

b = 1.25/Pd = 1.25/6

b = .2083 in

CLEARANCE, c

Eqn III.A.1-29

c = b - a = .2083 - .167

c = .0413 in

WHOLE DEPTH, ht

Eqn III.A.1-30

ht = a + b = .167 + .2083

ht = .3753 in

WORKING DEPTH, hk

Eqn III.A.1-31

hk = 2a = 2 .167

hk = .334 in.

TOOTH THICKNESS, t

t = /2 Pd =/(2 6)

t = .262 in

Eqn III.A.1-32

Db = Dcos

Eqn III.A.1-34

Pinion

Dbp = 3.167cos(20)

Dbp = 2.976 in

Gear

Dbp = 8.00cos(20)

Dbp = 7.516 in

CIRCULAR PITCH

Pc = D/N = /Pd = /6

Eqn III.A.1-35

Pc = .5234 in

BACKLASH

The 26th edition of Machinerys Handbook provides a table to serve as a guide in

determining the amount of backlash of the gear:

TABLE III.A.1-2

For this design, an average between the two limits of the recommended gear backlash

value for gear pairs with diametral pitch Pd = 6~9.99, i.e., backlash bl = .015 in.

SAFETY FACTOR SF

The original specified safety factor SF = 1.4 will be reduced to unity. This is because the

design will use the rating method employed by the American Gear Manufacturers

Association (AGMA), an empirical approach to determine factors to be applied in the

design rating, i.e., uncertainties from which the safety factor was deemed fit to be

employed are now evaluated by empirical means.

UPDATED DIMENSIONAL SUMMARY

Preliminary dimensions for the involute spur gears are re-evaluated as follows:

TABLE III.A.1-3

POWER, P

DIAMETRAL PITCH, Pd

90 hp

6

FACE WIDTH, F

2.67 in

CENTER DISTANCE, c

9.583 in

GEAR RATIO, mg

5.053

19

91

PINION SPEED, np

GEAR SPEED, ng

900 rpm

178.125 rpm

PINION DIAMETER, Dp

3.167 in

GEAR DIAMETER, Dg

8.00 in

776.44 rpm

DEDENDUM, b

.2083 in

CLEARANCE, c

.0413 in

WHOLE DEPTH, ht

.334 in

WORKING DEPTH, hk

.50 in

TOOTH THICKNESS, t

.262 in

2.976 in

7.516 in

CIRCULAR PITCH

.5234 in

SAFETY FACTOR, SF

DRIVEN LOAD

1.0

Shock load

In order to proceed with the design, it will be necessary to find the value of the torque,

tangential force, radial force, and normal force acting on the gear pair assembly. These

are calculated by the following formulae, respectively:

T = 63000P/n; lbs-in

Eqn III.A.2-1

Where

P = power in horsepower

n = angular speed in rpm

Wt = T/R; lbs

Eqn III.A.2-2

Where

R = radius in inches

Wr = Wttan; lbs

Eqn III.A.2-2

Wn = Wt/cos; lbs

Eqn III.A.2-2

Applying the formulas for both the pinion and the gear:

PINION

T = 63000 90/900

T = 6300 lbs-in

Wt = 6300/1.584

Wt = 3977.27 lbs

Wr = 3977.27 tan20

Wr = 1477.61 lbs

Wn = 3977.27/cos20

Wn = 4232.52 lbs

GEAR

T = 63000 90/178.125

T = 31831.58 lbs-in

Value for Wt, Wr, and Wn for the gear is the same with the pinion.

TABULAR SUMMARY

Summarizing the computed values on a table:

TABLE III.A.2-1

PINION

GEAR

TORQUE, T

6300 lbs-in

31809.26 lbs-in

TANGENTIAL FORCE, Wt

3977.27 lbs

3977.27 lbs

RADIAL FORCE, Wr

1477.61 lbs

1477.61 lbs

NORMAL FORCE, Wn

4232.52 lbs

4232.52 lbs

3. BENDING STRENGTH

The bending strength is determined by the allowable bending stress number S at, which,

in turn, is determined by the bending stress number St. The formula for the two are as

follows:

St = WtKOKVKS(Pd/F)(KmKB/J)

Eqn III.A.3-1

Sat St (SFKTKR/YN)

Eqn III.A.3-2

Where

KO = Overload factor

KV = Dynamic factor

KS = Size factor

Km = Load distribution factor

KB = Rim factor

KT = Temperature factor

KR = Reliability factor

YN = Stress cycle factor

To proceed with the design, St is determined first. The factors are calculated next.

OVERLOAD FACTOR KO

The overload factor is determined by the use of the table below:3

TABLE III.A.3-1

th

The given design problem specifi.e.s that the driven load is shock load. However, the

power source is not specified. The design will limit its application to uniform shock

power source, eg, electric motor. Therefore, KO =1.75.

DYNAMIC FACTOR KV

The dynamic factor is determined using the figure below4:

Fig III.A.3-1

Since the transmission grade QV is not specified, assumption will be made according to

the type of load and pitch line velocity. From TABLE III.A.3-25, shock load applications

usually fall under QV = 7 or below; by the pitch line velocity method, it is suggested to

have QV = {6, 7, 8} for pitch line velocity v < 800 fpm.

4

5

th

Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Mott, 4 ed., p. 389

TABLE III.A.3-2

For a high grade rating, QV = 8 will be used. Applying the formula for curves 5 QV 11

from Fig III.A.3-1:

KV = ((A + v.5)/A)B

Eqn III.A.3-3

Where

B = .25 (12 - QV).667 = .25 (12 - 8).667

Eqn III.A.3-4

B = .6303

A = 50 + 56(1.0 - B) = 50 + 56(1.0 - .6306)

Eqn III.A.3-4

A = 70.6864

KV = ((70.6864 + 776.44.5)/70.6864).7314

KV = 1.275

SIZE FACTOR, KS

The size factor may be taken as unity for most gears provided that the materials are

properly selected for the size.6 For this design, KS = 1.00.

ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04 defines the laod distribution factor as ...the peak load intensity

divided by the average, or uniformly distributed, load intensity; i.e., the ratio of peak to

mean loading. It is affected by two components, namely the face load distribution

factor Cmf, which accounts for the distribution of load along the face width, and the

transverse load distribution factor Cmt, which accounts for the distribution of load

among the teeth that share the transmitted load instantaneously. I.e.,

Km = Cmf + Cmt

Eqn III.A.3-5

Since there is no standard rating method for the transverse load distribution factor, it

can be assumed that Cmt = 1.00.

The empirical method of calculating for the Cmf may be used provided the design meets

certain criteria that are explained in Appendix C. Its formula is given as:

Cmf = Cmc(CpcCpm + CmaCe)

Eqn III.A.3-6

Where

Cmc = lead correction factor

Cpf = pinion proportion factor

Cp = is pinion proportion modifi.e.r

Cma = mesh alignment factor

Ce = mesh alignment correction factor

The value of Cmc is rated either as 1.00 for unmodified loads or .8 for crowned leads. For

this design, with uncrowned leads, Cmc = 1.00.

For Cpf, Fig III.A.3-27 is used.

Fig III.A.3-2

For face width 1.0 < F 17, the curves from the table is defined by the formula:

Cpf = F/10Dp - .0375 +.0125F = 2.67/(103.167) -.0375 +.0125(2.67)

Cpf = .08

Eqn III.A.3-6

Cpm is based on the location of the gear pair from their respective distances from their

bearing centrelines. Consider the figure8:

Fig III.A.3-3

Cpm is 1.0 for straddle mounted pinions with (S1/S) < 0.175; Cpm is 1.1 for straddle

mounted pinions with (S1/S) 0.175. For this design, the pinions will be located at the

center of the bearing line, hence (S1/S) < 0.175. Cpm = 1.00.

The mesh alignment factor, Cma, can be obtained from the figure9 and table10 below:

Fig III.A.3-4

TABLE III.A.3-3

For this design, precision enclosed gear units will be used. Using the graph and the

empirical values above, the mesh alignment factor is computed with the formula:

Cma = A + BF +CF2 = .675E-1 +. 128E-12.67 - .822E-4 2.672

Cma = .101

ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04, Table 2

10

Eqn III.A.3-7

The mesh alignment correction factor Ce is used to modify the mesh alignment factor. It

is rated as either .8 if alignment is improved upon assembly, etc, or 1.00 if no further

improvement with the alignment is made. For this design, the latter scenario is

assumed, hence Ce = 1.00.

Substituting the obtained values for the factors in Eqn III.A.3-5 yields:

Km =1.0 + 1.0(.081.0+ .1011.0)

Km = 1.181

RIM FACTOR KB

This factor is only modified for thin rimmed gears. Current information is insufficient to

find out whether or not rimmed gear is more appropriate for the design. However, the

graph11 shows that for a certain range of backup ratio mb = ht/tR 1.2 the rim factor is

at unity. Rimmed or not, this limit shall be observed so that KB = 1.0.

Fig III.A.3-5

11

GEOMETRY FACTOR J

Calculation for the geometry factor for the bending stress of spur gears is relatively

complex. It is simplified, however, with the aid of the table12 below.

Fig III.A.3-6

It logically follows then that the pinion and the gear will each have a different geometry

factor J. Thru inspection:

Jp .335

Jg .415

Substituting all the calculated values of the factors from Eqn III.A.3-1 for the pinion

yields

Stp = WtKOKVKS(Pd/F)(KmKB/Jp) = 3977.27 1.75 1.275 1.0 (6/2.67)

(1.181 1.0/.335)

Stp = 70303.20 psi

12

th

For the gear, Stp is multiplied to Jp to cancel its value and divide the new value with Jg.

Stg = Stp (Jp/Jg) = 81614.24 (.335/.415)

Eqn III.A.3-7

RELIABILITY FACTOR KR

The reliability factor accounts for the normal statistical distribution of failure amongst

gear units. Refer to the TABLE III.A.3-213. For this design, a .99 reliability will be used,

i.e., one failure in 10000, hence, KR = 1.00.

TABLE III.A.3-4

TEMPERATURE FACTOR KT

The temperature factor is usually taken as unity for temperature range 32< F <250 (0

< C < 121). For this design, it will be assumed that the normal operating conditions

will observe this limit; hence, KT = 1.00.

STRESS CYCLE FACTOR YN

The bending stress number adjusts the allowable stress numbers for the required

cycles of operation. It is given Fig III.A.3-714:

For number of cycles N exceeding 107, the upper limit of the shaded region in the graph

will be used.

13

14

ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04, Fig 18

Fig III.A.3-7

YN = 1.3558Nc-.0178

Eqn III.A.3-8

Nc = 60Lnq

Eqn III.A.3-9

Where

L = Number of life hours

q = Number of contacts per revolution

From Eqn III.A.3-9, it is obvious that different values of YN For this design, the number

of life hours will be designated as the upper limit of the design life of multi-purpose

gearing application (15000 hrs,

For q, a value of unity is designated because the gear pair only mesh with one another

in each revolution, i.e., q = 1.0

15

th

TABLE III.A.3-5

Evaluating Eqn III.A.3-9 for both the gear and the pinion

Ncp = 60 15000 900 1

Ncp = 8.10E8

Ncg = 60 15000 178.125 1

Ncg = 1.60E8

Substituting the values of Np and Ng to Eqn III.A.3-8

YNp = 1.3558 (8.10E8)-.0178

YNp = .94

YNg = 1.3558 (1.60)-.0178

YNg = .97

Substituting the values of St, SF, KT, KR, and YN to Eqn III.A.3-2 for both the gear and the

pinion yields:

Satp 74790.64 psi 74.79 ksi

Satg 56750.78 (1.0 1.0 1.00/.97)

Satg 58505.96 psi 58.51 ksi

TABULAR SUMMARY

Summarizing the values for the bending strength in a table:

TABLE III.A.3-6

ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESS NUMBER

Pinion

74.79 ksi

Gear

58.51 ksi

Pinion

.94

Gear

.97

TEMPERATURE FACTOR

1.0

RELIABILITY FACTOR

1.0

Pinion

81614.24 psi

Gear

65881.37 psi

GEOMETRY FACTOR

Pinion

.335

Gear

.415

OVERLOAD FACTOR

1.75

DYNAMIC FACTOR

1.275

SIZE FACTOR

LOAD DISTRIBUTION FACTOR

RIM FACTOR

1.0

1.181

1.0

4. PITTING STRENGTH

The pitting strength is determined by the allowable contact stress number S ac, which, in

turn, is determined by the contact stress number Sc. The formulae for the two are as

follows:

Sc = CP (WtKOKVKS(Km/DpF)(Cf/I)).5

Eqn III.A.4-1

Sac Sc (SFKTKR)/(ZNCH)

Eqn III.A.4-2

Where

CP = elastic coeffici.e.nt

Cf = surface condition factor

I = pitting geometry factor

ZN = pitting resistance stress cycle factor

CH = hardness ratio factor.

All other variables have been previously identified. The remaining unknown factors

shall be accordingly identified.

ELASTIC COEFFICI.E.NT CP

The elastic coeffici.e.nt is defined by the equation16:

CP = (1/(((1 - p2)/Ep) + ((1 - g2)/Eg))).5

Where

p = Poissons ratio of the pinion

g = Poissons ratio of the gear

Ep = Modulus of elasticity of the pinion

Eg = Modulus of elasticity of the gear

For steel, the design material, = .3 and E = 30000 ksi, CP = 2300.

16

Eqn III.A.4-3

This design assumes that the manufacturing of the gear allows for appropriate surface

finish. Hence, surface condition factor can be taken as Cf = 1.0.

PITTING GEOMETRY FACTOR I

Likewise with the bending geometry factor J, the pitting geometry factor I requires a

relatively complex procedure to identify. For this design, a simplified approach will be

taken based from the pressure angle and the number of teeth of the pinion and the gear

ratio. Consider the figure17:

Fig III.A.4-1

Plotting the corresponding value of I for Np = 20 and gear ratio 4.45, I .109

Substituting the unknown variables from Eqn III.A.4-1 with the values from TABLE

III.A.3-6 and the new calculated values yields:

Sc = 2300 (3733.27 1.75 1.275 1.0 (1.181/2.67 3.167)(1.0/.109)).5

Sc = 237617.65 psi

17

th

The contact stress number also adjusts the allowable stress numbers for the required

cycles of operation. It is given by the graph18:

Fig III.A.4-2

For a number of load cycles greater than 107, the shaded region shall be used to identify

ZN. Using the formula for the upper region:

ZN = 1.4488Nc-.023

Eqn III.A.4-5

The values of Nc for the gear and the pinion have been previously identified, namely Ncp

= 8.10E8, and Ncg = 1.60E8. Substituting these values to Eqn III.A.4-5 yields:

ZNp = 1.4488(8.10E8)-.023

ZNp = .90

ZNg = 1.4488(1.60E8)-.023

ZNg = .94

18

The value of CH for the pinion is set at 1.0. The value of CH for the gear is either set at 1.0

or otherwise depending upon the gear ratio, surface finish of the pinion, and/or

hardness of the pinion and the gear.

For this design, it is initially assumed that the hardness ratio factor for the gear CH = 1.0

until further information regarding the material of the gear is decided.

Substituting the values for the variables in Eqn III.A.4-2:

Sacp 237617.65 (1.0 1.0 1.00)/(.90 1.0)

Sacp 264019.61 264.02 ksi

Sacg 237617.65 (1.0 1.0 1.00)/(.94 1.0)

Sacg 252784.73 psi 252.79 ksi

TABULAR SUMMARY

TABLE III.A.4-1

ALLOWABLE CONTACT STRESS NUMBER

Pinion

264.02 ksi

Gear

252.79 ksi

Pinion

.91

Gear

.94

Pinion

237617.65 psi

Gear

237617.65 psi

GEOMETRY FACTOR

Pinion

.109

Gear

.109

5. MATERIAL SELECTION

Given the allowable contact stress number and the allowable bending stress number

previously calculated, it will be necessary to select a relatively stronger type of steel.

With the contact stress as the governing stress for this design, consider the figure19

below:

Fig III.A.5-1

Required Brinell hardness number is calculated for both the gear and the pinion for

both Grades 1 and 2.

Grade 1

HB = (Sacp - 29100)/322

Pinion

HB = (264019.61 - 29100)/322

HB = 729.56

Gear

HB = (252784.73 - 29100)/322

19

Eqn III.A.5-1

HB = 694.67

Grade 2

HB = (Sacp - 34300)/349

Eqn III.A.5-2

Pinion

HB = (264019.61 - 34300)/349

HB = 658.22

Gear

HB = (252784.73 - 34300)/349

HB = 626.03

The Brinell hardness numbers, all well above 400, suggest that through hardening will

not be sufficient. Heat treatment case hardening will be required. In order to select the

appropriate heat treatment, consider the table20:

TABLE III.A.5-1

Only carburization hardening meets the requirement for the allowable contact stress,

namely Gear 3 for both the pinion and the gear. In this regard, a material with good heat

treatment hardening property and yield strength will be required for the gear pair.

20

Upon inspection of the properties of AISI 6150 (tempered at 400 F)21, it is conclusive

that it should serve well as the material for the gear pair.

Fig III.A.5-2

CASE DEPTH

ANSI-AGMA provides suggested case depth for carburized gear teeth. Consider Fig

III.A.5-322. For this design, normal case depth is selected for economy. Using the

equation for the normal case depth curve, the normal case depth is evaluated as

he = .119935Pd -.86105 = .119935 (6 -.86105)

he = .023 in

21

22

th

ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04, Fig 13

Eqn III.A.5-2

Fig III.A.5-3

TABULAR SUMMARY

Tabulating the new data23 for summary:

TABLE III.A.5-2

MATERIAL

Pinion

Gear

YIELD STRENGTH

270 ksi

HARDNESS24

Pinion

Gear

CASE DEPTH

23

24

See Appendix D for hardness conversion chart

.023 in

B. SHAFTING

1. SHAFT

ORIGINAL SPECIFICATION FOR THE SHAFTS

The shaft material and the allowable design stress are given by the design problem. The

data are tabulated as follows:

TABLE III.B.1-1

MATERIAL

AISI 1137 CD

98 ksi

YIELD STRENGTH

82 ksi

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

MODULUS OF RIGIDITY

DESIGN STRESS

30E6 psi

11.5E6 psi

6 ksi

The design problem specifies that the design stress be limited to 6 ksi, only for pure

torsion, with the value covering for the stress concentration, minor bending, etc. Using

the torsion equation, initial shaft diameter is evaluated:

d = 16T/(d3)

d = (16T/( d))1/3

Evaluating d for the pinion and the gear:

dp = (16Tp/( d))1/3 = (16 6300/( 6000))1/3

dp = 1.749 in 1.75 in

dg = (16Tg/( d))1/3 = (16 31831.16/( 6000))1/3

dg = 3.00 in

Eqn III.B.1-1

The problem does not specify the length of the shaft. However, it does suggest keeping

the distance of the gear pair from each of their respective bearing as little as possible.

For this design, the distance of the gear pair from the bearing will be determined by

angular deflection, and synchronous vibration and transverse deflection.

The website roymech.co.uk provides data sheet for engineering application, including

recommended shaft deflection. From the table:25

TABLE III.B.1-2

The design specified the use of roller bearings. For this design, cylindrical roller

bearings will be used for economy, hence, the maximum angular deflection of .06.

TORSIONAL DEFLECTION

Using the torsional deflection formula:

= TL/JG

L = JG/(T)

Where

L = Distance of gear pair from the bearing

J = Polar moment of inertia

25

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Drive/Shaft_design.html#Deflections

Eqn III.B.1-2

Evaluating for the gear and the pinion shafts:

Pinion

L = JG/(T) = (.06 /180)((1.754/32))(30E6))/(6300)

= (.00105)(.9208)(30E6)/6300

L = 4.59 in

Gear

L = JG/(T) = (.06 /180)((3.004/32))(30E6))/(31831.16)

= (.00105)(7.9522)(30E/6)/6300

L = 7.85 in

SYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION

In order to design the shafts against critical speed, they must be designed such that

resonance starts to occur at about each of their fifth harmonics26, in which the impulses

are negligible, i.e.:

ns fn /2n-1

Where

ns = angular speed of the shaft

fn = natural frequency

n = nth harmonic (5th harmonic for this design)

fn ns 25-1

For the pinion

fnp (900) 25-1

fnp 14400 vib/min 240 vib/sec

26

Eqn III.B.1-3

fng (178.125) 25-1

fng 2850 vib/min 47.5 vib/sec

The design natural frequencies of the pinion and the gear shafts are substituted to Eqn

III.B.1-4 in order to find the allowable transverse deflection.

fn = (12g/y).5/2

Eqn III.B.1-427

Where

g = 32.2 ft/s2

y = transverse deflection

y = (12g)/(2fn)2

For the pinion

yp = (12 32.2)/(2 240)2

yp = .00017 in

For the gear

yg = (12 32.2)/(2 47.5)2

yg = .00434 in

Using the acquired values of deflection, the distance of the gear pair from the bearings

may be obtained by the beam deflection formula for simply supported beams:

y = WnL3/48EI

E = Modulus of elasticity

I = Moment of inertia

L = (48EIy/Wn)1/3

27

Eqn III.B.1-5

Calculating the moment of inertia for both the pinion and the gear shaft using the

formula:

I = (D4/64)

Eqn III.B.1-6

Pinion

Ip = ( 1.754/64)

Ip = .4604 in4

Gear

Ig = ( 3.004/64)

Ip = 3.9761 in4

Substituting the values to Eqn III.B.1-5

Pinion

Lp = (48 30E6 .4604 .00017/4232.52)1/3

Lp = 2.99 in 3.00 in

Gear

Lg = (48 30E6 3.9761 .00434/4232.52)1/3

Lg = 18.04 in

The evaluated distance of the pinion shaft from the bearing is also safe for the gear

shaft. For housing convenience, the same value will be used for both the pinion and the

gear shafts. Therefore, tentative shaft length = 2L = 6.00 in.

BEARING REACTION

To illustrate the initial set-up of the gear and shaft assembly, consider Fig III.B.1-1. The

combined radial and tangential forces are combined and are represented as the normal

force. The bearing reactions from the gear and the pinion will be the same since the

same amount of force acts on the shafts.

Using static moment equation to evaluate bearing reactions, with clockwise set as

positive:

MA = 3Wn - 6RB = 0

RB = (3 4232.52)/6

Fig III.B.1-1

RB = 2116.26 lbs

MB = 6RA - 3Wn = 0

RA = (3 4232.52)/6

RA = 2116.26 lbs

SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAM

With the forces acting on the shaft already known, the shear and moment diagram may

now be determined. Using the shear and moment equation:

V = Fy

Eqn III.B.1-7

Where

V = Shear force

Fy =Vertical forces

M = M = f(V)

Eqn III.B.1-8

V = 2116.26 - (4232.52) + 2116.26

V=0

M=0

Using Microsoft Mathematics, the shear and moment diagram are graphed as follows:

Fig III.B.1-2a

Shear diagram

Fig III.B.1-2b

Moment diagram

The actual endurance strength of the material must be evaluated in order to proceed

with the shaft design. Its value is evaluated as:

Sn = SnCmCstCRCs

Eqn III.B.1-9

28

Where

Sn = Endurance strength

Cm = Material factor

Cst = Stress type factor

CR = Reliability factor

Cs = Size factor

These variables are evaluated accordingly.

28

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ENDURANCE STRENGTH Sn

The endurance strength may be derived from Fig III.B.1-329

Fig III.B.1-330

Plotting the tensile strength of AISI 1137 CD against the surface finish condition,

endurance strength Sn = 38 ksi.

MATERIAL FACTOR Cm

According to its density and general characteristics, AISI 1137 CD can be classified as

wrought steel31. Hence, from TABLE III.B.1-3, its material factor Cm = 1.00.

TABLE III.B.1-3

29

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30

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Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Mott, 4 ed., p. 175

31

http://www.steelforge.com/literature/ferrousnon-ferrous-materials-textbook/ferrous-metals/carbon-steel/

Stress type factor is either evaluated 1.0 for bending or .80 for axial tension. For this

design, Cst = 1.0032.

RELIABILITY FACTOR CR

The same reliability from the gear pair shall be applied for the shafts. Hence, from the

table33 below, reliability factor CR = .81.

TABLE III.B.1-4

SIZE FACTOR CS

The size factor of the shaft shall be evaluated using the following range of values34:

TABLE III.B.1-4

Using the equation for .30 < D 2.0 for the pinion shaft and 2.0 < D < 10.0 for the gear

shaft:

Pinion

Eqn III.B.1-10

32

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33

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Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Mott, 4 ed., p. 175

34

th

Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Mott, 4 ed., p. 175

Cs = .8237

Gear

Eqn III.B.1-11

CS = .7953

Substituting the obtained values to Eqn III.B.1-9

Pinion

Sn = 38E3 (1.00)(1.00)(.81)(.8237)

Snp = 25353.49 psi

Gear

Sn = 38E3 (1.00)(1.00)(.81)(.7953)

Sng = 24479.33 psi

READJUSTED SHAFT DIAMETERS

The final shaft diameters left to be determined are those at the section of the bearing.

Considering that neither torque nor bending moment occurs at the bearings from both

the pinion and the gear shaft, the equation for the shaft diameter at these sections is

applied:

D = (2.94KtVN/Sn).5

Where

N = Shaft factor of safety = 3 (shock load, certain data)

Kt = Stress concentration factor = 1.5 (round fillet)

Pinion

D = (2.94 1.5 2116.26 3/25353.49).5

D = 1.0501 in

Eqn III.B.1-12

Gear

D = (2.94 1.5 2116.26 3/24479.33).5

D = 1.0695 in

TABULAR SUMMARY

The acquired values for the shaft diameters, including the preferred basic sizes, are

summarized in a table:

TABLE III.B.1-5

Pinion

D1

D2

D3

Nominal Size

1.05 in

1.75 in

1.05 in

1.20 in

1.80 in

1.20 in

Gear

D1

Nominal Size

Preferred basic size

D2

D3

1.0695 in

3.00 in

1.0695 in

1.20 in

3.00 in

1.20 in

2. GEAR HUB

Mott and Faires recommend empirical methods for calculating the hub diameter and

hub length, respectively.

Dh = 1.5Ds

Eqn III.B.2-135

Lh = 1.25 ~ 2Ds

Eqn III.B.2-236

HUB DIAMETER

Substituting values of Ds for both the gear and the pinion to Eqn III.B.2-1

Pinion

Dhp = 1.50 1.80

Dhp = 2.70 in

Gear

Dhg = 1.50 3.00

Dhg = 4.50 in

HUB LENGTH

Substituting values of Ds for both the gear and the pinion to Eqn III.B.2-2

Pinion

Dhp = 1.7 5 1.80

Dhp = 2.25 in

Gear

Dhg = 1.25 3.00

Dhg = 3.75 in

35

36

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th

Design of Machine Elements, 4 ed., p. 388

3. BEARING SELECTION

Bearings are selected next for the design. Note that bearing selection may affect predetermined shaft dimensions according to size compatibility.

BEARING DYNAMIC LOAD CB

The bearing dynamic load is given by the formula:

CB = V(Nc/1E6)1/k

Eqn III.B.3-137

Where

CB = Rated bearing load

V = Shear force

Nc = Number of life cycle (See III.A.3, STRESS CYCLE FACTOR)

k = life-load ratio

Substituting the values accordingly for both the pinion and the gear, with k = 3.3 for

ball bearings, bearing dynamic load is evaluated as:

Pinion

CBp = 2116.26 (8.1E8/1E6)1/3.3

CBp = 16103.79 lbs

Gear

CBg = 2116.26 (1.6E8/1E6)1/3.3

CBg = 9851.09 lbs

SELECTION FROM BEARING CATALOGUE

For its local availability, this design will use bearings manufactured by Svenska

Kullagerfabriken (SKF). Select products from the catalogue are included in Appendix E.

37

th

The bearings are selected according to their dynamic load capacity and bore diameter

such that stress concentration will be minimized, i.e. the bore should be only slightly

smaller than the diameters at the gear pair section.

The figure38 should serve as a guide in selecting bearings with respect to their bore

diameter:

Fig III.B.3-1

Note that to achieve stress concentration factor Kt = 1.5, the step ratio of the shaft

diameters must not exceed 1.25. Therefore, for the pinion shaft, the minimum bore

diameter:

D1p = D2p/1.25 = 1.80/1.25

Eqn III.B.3-2

D1p = 1.44 in

while for the gear, minimum bore diameter

D1g = D2g/1.25 = 3.00/1.25

Eqn III.B.3-3

D1g = 2.40 in

38

th

For the pinion shaft, the SKF NUP 2208 ECP roller bearing will be used.

Fig III.B.3-2

For the gear shaft, the SKF NU 1014 ML roller bearing will be used

Fig III.B.3-3

ADJUSTED DIAMETERS

The shaft diameters for both the pinion and the gear shafts are adjusted to

accommodate the selected bearings. The new dimensions are tabulated as follows:

TABLE III.B.3-1

D1

D1s

D2

D3

PINION

1.5475 in

1.8504 in

1.80 in

1.5475 in

GEAR

2.7559 in

3.0709 in

3.00 in

2.7559 in

Tolerances shall be applied to the gear pair sections of the shafts while fits shall be

applied to the bearing sections. Given the design load and speed, a tolerance of RC5 and

a force fit of FN2 will be used. For convenience, only the shaft dimensions will be

adjusted while the dimensions of the holes are maintained.

Using the ANSI/ASME Clearance Fits and Force Fits charts39, the clearances/fits for the

diameter:

Pinion

TABLE III.B.4-1a

D1

Dimension

D1s

D2

D3

1.5475 in

1.8504 in

1.80 in

1.5475 in

Hole

+0

No Adjustment

+0

+0

Shaft

+.0024 in

No Adjustment

-.0030 in

+.0024 in

Gear

TABLE III.B.4-1b

D1

Dimension

39

D1s

D2

D3

2.7559 in

3.0709 in

3.00 in

2.7559 in

Hole

+0

No Adjustment

+0

+0

Shaft

+.0029 in

No Adjustment

-.0037 in

+.0029 in

See Appendix F

ORIGINAL SPECIFICATION FOR THE KEYS

The problem specifies that the material for the keys is AISI C1118 CD. Summarizing its

properties:

TABLE III.B.5-1

MATERIAL

AISI 1137 CD

80 ksi

YIELD STRENGTH

75 ksi

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

30E6 psi

MODULUS OF RIGIDITY

11.5E6 psi

For this design, the axial area for the shaft and coupling keys are empirically selected

from the TABLE III.B.5-240 whilst the key length is given by the formula:

Lk = (4TN)/(DsWSy)

Eqn III.B.5-141

Where

W = face width

Value of T, W, and D are different for both the pinion and the gear. Hence, they shall be

solved separately. In all cases, factor of safety N = 3.00

PINION KEY

Upon inspection at TABLE III.B.5-2, nominal face width and height for a square key

configuration for the pinion shaft Ds = 1.80 in is obtained:

Wp = Hp = in

Substituting the variables from Eqn III.B.5-1:

40

41

th

th

Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Mott, 4 ed., p. 500

TABLE III.B.5-2

Lkp = 1.12 in

GEAR KEY

Upon inspection at TABLE III.B.5-2, nominal face width and height for a square key

configuration for the pinion shaft Ds = 3.00 in is obtained:

Wg = Hg = .75 in

Substituting the variables from Eqn III.B.5-1:

Lkg = 2.26 in

PINION COUPLER KEY

For this design, the diameter of the shaft that elongates to the coupling is given the

same diameter as the diameter of the section of the shaft that is adjacent to the bearing.

In this regard, axial dimension of the pinion coupler key for Ds = 1.5475 in is given as:

Wpc = Hpc = .3125 in

Substituting the variables from Eqn III.B.5-1:

Lkpc = (4 6300 3)/( 1.5475 .3125 75000)

Lkpc = 2.084 in

GEAR COUPLER KEY

Axial dimension of the pinion coupler key for Ds = 2.7559 in is given as:

Wgc = Hgc = .75 in

Substituting the variables from Eqn III.B.5-1:

Lkgc = (4 31809.26 3)/( 2.7559 .75 75000)

Lkgc = 2.46 in

COUPLING SELECTION

Manufactured couplings are selected accordingly for this design. See Appendix G for a

select catalogue range from Svenska Kullagerfabriken.

The parameters for the flexible coupling selection are the minimum allowed shaft

diameter, torque capacity, and angular speed capacity. Assigning a value of 4.00 in as

the distance of the elongated portion of the shafts from their respective bearings to

their couplings also limits possible and practical choices. For this design, disc flexible

couplings are employed.

For the pinion, the SKF KD2-153 satisfies all parameters for the pinion coupling.

Fig III.B.5-1

For the gear, the SKF KD2-303 satisfies all parameters for the gear coupling.

Fig III.B.5-2

The key lengths are further adjusted in order to be compatible with their respective

hubs.

TABLE III.B.5-2

PINION KEY

GEAR KEY

PINION

GEAR

COUPLER KEY

COUPLER KEY

ORIGINAL

1.12 in

2.26 in

2.084 in

2.46 in

ADJUSTED

2.00 in

3.50 in

2.00 in

3.25 in

1. PRELIMINARY DIMENSIONS

For this design, only the gear will use rim and arms in order to reduce mass and cost.

Rim thickness and the number of arms are determined empirically. This design will also

incorporate the ring bead to the rim for easier manufacturing and to keep the material

homogenous.

RIM THICKNESS

A suggested empirical value for the rim thickness is given by the formula:

tR = .56Pc = .56/Pd

Eqn III.C.1-142

Since this design incorporates the bead to the rim, and the bead having the same

formula for the rim thickness, Eqn III.C.1-1 is modified to:

tR = 2(.56/Pd) = 2(.56/6)

Eqn III.C.1-2

tR = .5864 in

Note that this value of tR is within the prescribed range for the rim thickness factor

determined earlier. The radial distance will be subtracted from the dedendum line.

NUMBER OF ARMS

The number of arms is also empirically suggested43:

TABLE III.C.1-1

Gear diameter(mm)

42

43

Arms

300-500

4-5

500-1500

th

th

Design of Machine Elements, Bhandari, 4 ed., p. 670

1500-2400

>2400

10-12

= 4 ~ 5. For this design, NA = 4.

The figure illustrates the preliminary dimensions of the gear pitch diameter, hob, rim,

and shaft bore.

Fig III.C.1-1

2. ARM GEOMETRY

Appropriate arm dimensions are calculated such that the arms, acting as cantilever

beams, will be able to withstand the applied tangential forces. To proceed with the

design, the shape of the cross section must be determined. Faires lists common cross

section shapes for gear arms44. For this design, elliptical arms are selected for their

smaller tendency for stress concentration.

Using the stress formula for beams:

= M/S = Sy/N = M/S

Eqn III.C.1-3

Where

M = Moment

S = Section modulus

N = Factor of safety = 4

S = 4M/(270 ksi)

Solving for the value of the moment evenly distributed to the four arms:

M = WtL/NA = 3977.27 4.955 /5

Eqn III.C.1-4

M = 3941.48 lbs-in

The section modulus of an elliptical cross section in which the major diameter is twice

the minor diameter is given by the formula:

S = h3/64

Eqn III.C.1-545

h3/64 = 4M/(270 ksi)

h = ((64 4 3941.48)/(270E3 ))1/3

44

45

th

th

Design of Machine Elements, Faires, 4 ed., p. 389

h = 1.06 in

TABULAR SUMMARY

TABLE III.C.2-1

RIM THICKNESS

.5864 in

RIM BEAD

INCORPORATED IN RIM

HUB BEAD

NONE

NUMBER OF ARMS

ARM LEGNTH

ARM GEOMETRY

To illustrate the assembly, consider the figure:

Fig III.C.1-2

5

4.955 in

ELLIPTICAL (h = 1.06 in)

D. HOUSING

1. INITIAL ILLUSTRATION

To proceed with the gearbox design, an initial illustration, determined by other

dimensions previously designated, e.g., bearings, is provided in order to have a general

idea of the gearbox configuration. Also note that a .5 in clearance from the gear pair is

provided.

Fig III.D.1-1

material selection.

2. GEARBOX DIMENSIONS

Actual gearbox dimensions are solved as follows:

GEARBOX THICKNESS

Professors Gopinath and Mayuram of the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras,

provide a rule of thumb in determining gear house thickness. 46

TABLE III.D.1-1

Wall thickness s in mm of the

gearboxes Material

Non-case hardened

gears

CI castings

0.007L + 6 mm

0.010 L + 6 mm

Steel castings

0.005L + 4 mm

0.007L + 4 mm

Welded construction

0.004L + 4 mm

0.005L + 4 mm

For this design, cast iron castings will be used. Using the empirical formula for CI

castings and case hardened gear, gearbox thickness s is determined:

s = 0.010 L + 6 mm

Where

L = largest dimension of the housing

L = 20.167 in = 532.18 mm

s = 0.010 (532.18) + 6 mm

s = 11.122 mm = .44 in

s . 45 in

46

Eqn III.D.1-1

2. OTHER DIMENSIONS

Other necessary dimensions for the gearbox are as follows47:

TOP COVER THICKNESS

sc = .8s = .8 .45 in

Eqn III.D.1-2

sc = .36 in

COVER FLANGE THICKNESS

scf = 2s = 2 .44

Eqn III.D.1-3

scf = .9 in

COVER FLANGE BOLT DIAMETER

Eqn III.D.1-4

Dcb = .675 in

Dcb = .75 in (standard)

COVER FLANGE WIDTH

Eqn III.D.1-5

Wcf = 1.875 in

COVER FLANGE BOLT SPACING

wcs = 6Dcb = 6 .75

wcs = 4.5 in

FOUNDATION FLANGE BOLT DIAMETER

Dfb = (1.38E-5Tg)1/3 = (1.38E-5 31809.26)1/3

Dfb = .7598 in

Dfb = .8750 in (standard)

47

Eqn III.D.1-6

Eqn III.D.1-7

sff = 1.3125 in

Eqn III.D.1-8

Wfc = 2.1875

BEARING HOUSING DIAMETER

Bearing housing diameter on the gearbox is given by:

Dbh = 1.2Dob

Eqn III.D.1-10

Pinion

Dpbh = 1.2 3.1496

Dpbh = 3.80 in

Gear

Dgbh = 1.2 4.3307

Dgbh = 5.20 in

TABULAR SUMMARY

Summarizing the computed values of gearbox dimensions:

TABLE III.D.1-2

WALL THICKNESS

.45 in

.36 in

.90 in

.75 in

1.875 in

4.5 in

.875 in

1.3125 in

2.1875 in

3.80 in

5.20 in

To illustrate a general idea for the gearbox dimensions, consider the figure below. Note

that the illustration excludes the top cover and the holes.

Fig III.D.1-2

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Improve alignment upon assembly to avoid stress due to misalignment

2. Operate according to prescribed temperature determined for the temperature factor.

Properly insulate if extreme temperatures are unavoidable.

3. Apply lubricant appropriate with the operating temperature

4. Ensure case hardening is properly conducted.

5. Improve surface finish of shaft.

6. Refer to Fig III.B.3-1 for the appropriate fillet radii.

7. Also apply fillet radii on gear arm joints to avoid stress concentration.

8. Drill horizontal sluice on gearbox cover for ease of lubricant application.

9. Regular, commercially available retaining ring may be used for the unit.

10. Conduct cleaning according to the working environment of the unit.

V. APPENDIX

A. DERIVATION OF THE CONTACT RATIO FORMULA

CR = AB/Pb

AB = AB + PB

Pb = /(Pdcos)

CR = (AB + PB)/ (cos/Pd) = (AOgsin3 + BOpsin2)/(sin cos/Pd)

AOg = Rg + 1/Pd

BOp = Rp + 1/Pd

CR = ((Rg + 1/Pd)sin(180 - ( + 3)) + (rp +1/Pd)sin(180 - ( + 2)))/(sin cos/Pd)

CR = ((Rg + 1/Pd)sin(180 - - sin-1(Rgsin/(Rg + 1/Pd))) + (rp +1/Pd) sin(180- - sin-1

(Rpsin/(Rp + 1/Pd)))/(sin cos/Pd)

Note that:

= 90 +

c = Rg + Rp

Substituting these values yields a function for the contact ratio in terms of either the

pinion or the gear radius.

From ANSI/AGMA 2001-D04, clause 15.3:

The face load distribution factor accounts for the non--uniform distribution of load

across the gearing face width. The magnitude of the face load distribution factor is

defined as the peak load intensity divided by the average load intensity across the face

width.

This factor can be determined empirically or analytically. This standard provides an

empirical method only, but includes a theoretical discussion for analytical analysis in

annex D. Either method can be used, but when using the analytical approach, the

calculated load capacity of the gears should be compared with past experience since it

may be necessary to re--evaluate other rating factors to arrive at a rating consistent with

past experience. Also see AGMA 927--A01.

The empirical method requires a minimum amount of information. This method is

recommended for relatively stiff gear designs which meet the following requirements:

-- Net face width to pinion pitch diameter ratio, F/d, 2.0. (For double helical gears the

gap is not included in the face width).

-- The gear elements are mounted between bearings (see following paragraph for

overhung gears).

-- Face width up to 40 inches.

-- Contact across full face width of narrowest member when loaded.

CAUTION: If F/d > 2.4 -- 0.002Kwhere K = the contact load factor (see equation 6), the

value of Km determined by the empirical method may not be sufficiently conservative.

In this case, it may be necessary to modify the lead or profile of the gears to arrive at a

satisfactory result. The empirical method shall not be used when analyzing the effect of a

momentary overload. See 16.3.

When gear elements are overhung, consideration must be given to shaft deflections and

bearing clearances. Shafts and bearings must be stiff enough to support the bending

moments caused by the gear forces to the extent that resultant deflections do not

adversely affect the gear contact. Bearing clearances affect the gear contact in the same

way as offset straddle mounted pinions. However, gear elements with their overhang to

the same support side can compound the effect. This effect is addressed by the pinion

proportion modifying factor, Cpm. When deflections or bearing clearances exceed

reasonable limits, as determined by test or experience, an analytical method must be

used to establish the face load distribution factor.

When the gap in a double helical gear set is other than the gap required for tooth

manufacture, for example in a nested design, each helix should be treated as a single

helical set.

Designs which have high crowns to centralize tooth contact under deflected conditions

may not use this method.

This method will give results similar to those obtained in previous AGMA standards.

Designs falling outside the above F/d ranges require special consideration.

Rockwell

60kg

Brale

Rockwell Superficial

100kg

100kg

150kg 100kg

1/16"

1/8"

Brale Brale

Ball

Ball

Brinell

Vickers

Shore

15-N

30-N

45-N

30-T

3000 kg

500 kg

136

60kg

1/16"

Ball

15kg

Brale

30kg

Brale

45kg

Brale

30 kg

1/16"

Ball

10mm

Ball

Steel

10mm

Ball Steel

Diamond

Pyramid

Scieroscope

Approx

Tensile

Strength

(psi)

86.5

---

70

78.5

---

---

94.0

86.0

77.6

---

---

---

1076

101

---

86.0

---

69

77.7

---

---

93.5

85.0

76.5

---

---

---

1044

99

---

85.6

---

68

76.9

---

---

93.2

84.4

75.4

---

---

---

940

97

---

85.0

---

67

76.1

---

---

92.9

83.6

74.2

---

---

---

900

95

---

84.5

---

66

75.4

---

---

92.5

82.8

73.2

---

---

---

865

92

---

83.9

---

65

74.5

---

---

92.2

81.9

72.0

---

739

---

832

91

---

83.4

---

64

73.8

---

---

91.8

81.1

71.0

---

722

---

800

88

---

82.8

---

63

73.0

---

---

91.4

80.1

69.9

---

705

---

772

87

---

82.3

---

62

72.2

---

---

91.1

79.3

68.8

---

688

---

746

85

---

81.8

---

61

71.5

---

---

90.7

78.4

67.7

---

670

---

720

83

---

81.2

---

60

70.7

---

---

90.2

77.5

66.6

---

654

---

697

81

320,000

80.7

---

59

69.9

---

---

89.8

76.6

65.5

---

634

---

674

80

310,000

80.1

---

58

69.2

---

---

89.3

75.7

64.3

---

615

---

653

78

300,000

79.6

---

57

68.5

---

---

88.9

74.8

63.2

---

595

---

633

76

290,000

79.0

---

56

67.7

---

---

88.3

73.9

62.0

---

577

---

613

75

282,000

78.5

120

55

66.9

---

---

87.9

73.0

60.9

---

560

---

595

74

274,000

78.0

120

54

66.1

---

---

87.4

72.0

59.8

---

543

---

577

72

266,000

77.4

119

53

65.4

---

---

86.9

71.2

58.6

---

525

---

560

71

257,000

76.8

119

52

64.6

---

---

86.4

70.2

57.4

---

500

---

544

69

245,000

76.3

118

51

63.8

---

---

85.9

69.4

56.1

---

487

---

528

68

239,000

75.9

117

50

63.1

---

---

85.5

68.5

55.0

---

475

---

513

67

233,000

75.2

117

49

62.1

---

---

85.0

67.6

53.8

---

464

---

498

66

227,000

74.7

116

48

61.4

---

---

84.5

66.7

52.5

---

451

---

484

64

221,000

74.1

116

47

60.8

---

---

83.9

65.8

51.4

---

442

---

471

63

217,000

48

73.6

115

46

60.0

---

---

83.5

64.8

50.3

---

432

---

458

62

212,000

73.1

115

45

59.2

---

---

83.0

64.0

49.0

---

421

---

446

60

206,000

72.5

114

44

58.5

---

---

82.5

63.1

47.8

---

409

---

434

58

200,000

72.0

113

43

57.7

---

---

82.0

62.2

46.7

---

400

---

423

57

196,000

71.5

113

42

56.9

---

---

81.5

61.3

45.5

---

390

---

412

56

191,000

70.9

112

41

56.2

---

---

80.9

60.4

44.3

---

381

---

402

55

187,000

70.4

112

40

55.4

---

---

80.4

59.5

43.1

---

371

---

392

54

182,000

69.9

111

39

54.6

---

---

79.9

58.6

41.9

---

362

---

382

52

177,000

69.4

110

38

53.8

---

---

79.4

57.7

40.8

---

353

---

372

51

173,000

68.9

110

37

53.1

---

---

78.8

56.8

39.6

---

344

---

363

50

169,000

68.4

109

36

52.3

---

---

78.3

55.9

38.4

---

336

---

354

49

165,000

67.9

109

35

51.5

---

---

77.7

55.0

37.2

---

327

---

345

48

160,000

67.4

108

34

50.8

---

---

77.2

54.2

36.1

---

319

---

336

47

156,000

66.8

108

33

50.0

---

---

76.6

53.3

34.9

---

311

---

327

46

152,000

66.3

107

32

49.2

---

---

76.1

52.1

33.7

---

301

---

318

44

147,000

65.8

106

31

48.4

---

---

75.6

51.3

32.5

---

294

---

310

43

144,000

65.3

105

30

47.7

---

---

75.0

50.4

31.3

---

286

---

302

42

140,000

64.7

104

29

47.0

---

---

74.5

49.5

30.1

---

279

---

294

41

137,000

64.3

104

28

46.1

---

---

73.9

48.6

28.9

---

271

---

286

41

133,000

63.8

103

27

45.2

---

---

73.3

47.7

27.8

---

264

---

279

40

129,000

63.3

103

26

44.6

---

---

72.8

46.8

26.7

---

258

---

272

39

126,000

62.8

102

25

43.8

---

---

72.2

45.9

25.5

---

253

---

266

38

124,000

62.4

101

24

43.1

---

---

71.6

45.0

24.3

---

247

---

260

37

121,000

62.0

100

23

42.1

---

---

71.0

44.0

23.1

82.0

240

201

254

36

118,000

61.5

99

22

41.6

---

---

70.5

43.2

22.0

81.5

234

195

248

35

115,000

61.0

98

21

40.9

---

---

69.9

42.3

20.7

81.0

228

189

243

35

112,000

60.5

97

20

40.1

---

---

69.4

41.5

19.6

80.5

222

184

238

34

109,000

59.0

96

18

---

---

---

---

---

---

80.0

216

179

230

33

106,000

58.0

95

16

---

---

---

---

---

---

79.0

210

175

222

32

103,000

57.5

94

15

---

---

---

---

---

---

78.5

205

171

213

31

100,000

57.0

93

13

---

---

---

---

---

---

78.0

200

167

208

30

98,000

56.5

92

12

---

---

---

---

---

---

77.5

195

163

204

29

96,000

56.0

91

10

---

---

---

---

---

---

77.0

190

160

196

28

93,000

55.5

90

---

---

---

---

---

---

76.0

185

157

192

27

91,000

55.0

89

---

---

---

---

---

---

75.5

180

154

188

26

88,000

54.0

88

---

---

---

---

---

---

75.0

176

151

184

26

86,000

53.5

87

---

---

---

---

---

---

74.5

172

148

180

26

84,000

53.0

86

---

---

---

---

---

---

74.0

169

145

176

25

83,000

52.5

85

---

---

---

---

---

---

73.5

165

142

173

25

81,000

52.0

84

---

---

---

---

---

---

73.0

162

140

170

25

79,000

51.0

83

---

---

---

---

---

---

72.0

159

137

166

24

78,000

50.5

82

---

---

---

---

---

---

71.5

156

135

163

24

76,000

50.0

81

---

---

---

---

---

---

71.0

153

133

160

24

75,000

49.5

80

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

70.0

150

130

---

---

73,000

49.0

79

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

69.5

147

128

---

---

---

48.5

78

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

69.0

144

126

---

---

---

48.0

77

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

68.0

141

124

---

---

---

47.0

76

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

67.5

139

122

---

---

---

46.5

75

---

---

---

99.5

---

---

---

67.0

137

120

---

---

---

46.0

74

---

---

---

99.0

---

---

---

66.0

135

118

---

---

---

45.5

73

---

---

---

98.5

---

---

---

65.5

132

116

---

---

---

45.0

72

---

---

---

98.0

---

---

---

65.0

130

114

---

---

---

44.5

71

---

---

100.0

97.5

---

---

---

64.2

127

112

---

---

---

44.0

70

---

---

99.5

97.0

---

---

---

63.5

125

110

---

---

---

43.5

69

---

---

99.0

96.0

---

---

---

62.8

123

109

---

---

---

43.0

68

---

---

98.0

95.5

---

---

---

62.0

121

107

---

---

---

42.5

67

---

---

97.5

95.0

---

---

---

61.4

119

106

---

---

---

42.0

66

---

---

97.0

94.5

---

---

---

60.5

117

104

---

---

---

41.8

65

---

---

96.0

94.0

---

---

---

60.1

116

102

---

---

---

41.5

64

---

---

95.5

93.5

---

---

---

59.5

114

101

---

---

---

41.0

63

---

---

95.0

93.0

---

---

---

58.7

112

99

---

---

---

40.5

62

---

---

94.5

92.0

---

---

---

58.0

110

98

---

---

---

40.0

61

---

---

93.5

91.5

---

---

---

57.3

108

96

---

---

---

39.5

60

---

---

93.0

91.0

---

---

---

56.5

107

95

---

---

---

39.0

59

---

---

92.5

90.5

---

---

---

55.9

106

94

---

---

---

38.5

58

---

---

92.0

90.0

---

---

---

55.0

104

92

---

---

---

38.0

57

---

---

91.0

89.5

---

---

---

54.6

102

91

---

---

---

37.8

56

---

---

90.5

89.0

---

---

---

54.0

101

90

---

---

---

37.5

55

---

---

90.0

88.0

---

---

---

53.2

99

89

---

---

---

37.0

54

---

---

89.5

87.5

---

---

---

52.5

---

87

---

---

---

36.5

53

---

---

89.0

87.0

---

---

---

51.8

---

86

---

---

---

36.0

52

---

---

88.0

86.5

---

---

---

51.0

---

85

---

---

---

35.5

51

---

---

87.5

86.0

---

---

---

50.4

---

84

---

---

---

35.0

50

---

---

87.0

85.5

---

---

---

49.5

---

83

---

---

---

34.8

49

---

---

86.5

85.0

---

---

---

49.1

---

82

---

---

---

34.5

48

---

---

85.5

84.5

---

---

---

48.5

---

81

---

---

---

34.0

47

---

---

85.0

84.0

---

---

---

47.7

---

80

---

---

---

33.5

46

---

---

84.5

83.0

---

---

---

47.0

---

79

---

---

---

33.0

45

---

---

84.0

82.5

---

---

---

46.2

---

79

---

---

---

32.5

44

---

---

83.5

82.0

---

---

---

45.5

---

78

---

---

---

32.0

43

---

---

82.5

81.5

---

---

---

44.8

---

77

---

---

---

31.5

42

---

---

82.0

81.0

---

---

---

44.0

---

76

---

---

---

31.0

41

---

---

81.5

80.5

---

---

---

43.4

---

75

---

---

---

30.8

40

---

---

81.0

79.5

---

---

---

43.0

---

74

---

---

---

30.5

39

---

---

80.0

79.0

---

---

---

42.1

---

74

---

---

---

30.0

38

---

---

79.5

78.5

---

---

---

41.5

---

73

---

---

---

29.5

37

---

---

79.0

78.0

---

---

---

40.7

---

72

---

---

---

29.0

36

---

---

78.5

77.5

---

---

---

40.0

---

71

---

---

---

28.5

35

---

---

78.0

77.0

---

---

---

39.3

---

71

---

---

---

28.0

34

---

---

77.0

76.5

---

---

---

38.5

---

70

---

---

---

27.8

33

---

---

76.5

75.5

---

---

---

37.9

---

69

---

---

---

27.5

32

---

---

76.0

75.0

---

---

---

37.5

---

68

---

---

---

27.0

31

---

---

75.5

74.5

---

---

---

36.6

---

68

---

---

---

26.5

30

---

---

75.0

74.0

---

---

---

36.0

---

67

---

---

---

26.0

29

---

---

74.0

73.5

---

---

---

35.2

---

66

---

---

---

25.5

28

---

---

73.5

73.0

---

---

---

34.5

---

66

---

---

---

25.0

27

---

---

73.0

72.5

---

---

---

33.8

---

65

---

---

---

24.5

26

---

---

72.5

72.0

---

---

---

33.1

---

65

---

---

---

24.2

25

---

---

72.0

71.0

---

---

---

32.4

---

64

---

---

---

24.0

24

---

---

71.0

70.5

---

---

---

32.0

---

64

---

---

---

23.5

23

---

---

70.5

70.0

---

---

---

31.1

---

63

---

---

---

23.0

22

---

---

70.0

69.5

---

---

---

30.4

---

63

---

---

---

22.5

21

---

---

69.5

69.0

---

---

---

29.7

---

62

---

---

---

22.0

20

---

---

68.5

68.5

---

---

---

29.0

---

62

---

---

---

21.5

19

---

---

68.0

68.0

---

---

---

28.1

---

61

---

---

---

21.2

18

---

---

67.5

67.0

---

---

---

27.4

---

61

---

---

---

21.0

17

---

---

67.0

66.5

---

---

---

26.7

---

60

---

---

---

20.5

16

---

---

66.5

66.0

---

---

---

26.0

---

60

---

---

---

20.0

15

---

---

65.5

65.5

---

---

---

25.3

---

59

---

---

---

---

14

---

---

65.0

65.0

---

---

---

24.6

---

59

---

---

---

---

13

---

---

64.5

64.5

---

---

---

23.9

---

58

---

---

---

---

12

---

---

64.0

64.0

---

---

---

23.5

---

58

---

---

---

---

11

---

---

63.5

63.5

---

---

---

22.6

---

57

---

---

---

---

10

---

---

62.5

63.0

---

---

---

21.9

---

57

---

---

---

---

---

---

62.0

62.0

---

---

---

21.2

---

56

---

---

---

---

---

---

61.5

61.5

---

---

---

20.5

---

56

---

---

---

---

---

---

61.0

61.0

---

---

---

19.8

---

56

---

---

---

---

---

---

60.5

60.5

---

---

---

19.1

---

55

---

---

---

---

---

---

60.0

60.0

---

---

---

18.4

---

55

---

---

---

---

---

---

59.0

59.5

---

---

---

18.0

---

55

---

---

---

---

---

---

58.5

59.0

---

---

---

17.1

---

54

---

---

---

---

---

---

58.0

58.0

---

---

---

16.4

---

54

---

---

---

---

---

---

57.5

57.5

---

---

---

15.7

---

53

---

---

---

---

---

---

57.0

57.0

---

---

---

15.0

---

53

---

---

---

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Gear

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