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## INTERACTION CURVES FOR

SECTIONS UNDER
COMBINED BIAXIAL BENDING
AND AXIAL FORCE

FRITZ EJ\JGfNEERING
ORAl'ORY L'BRA~'~V

by
Wai F. Chen

## INTERACTION CURVES FOR SECTIONS UNDER

COMBINED BIAXIAL B.ENDING AND AXIAL FORCE

by

Wai F. Chen

This work has been carried out as a part of an investigation sponsored jointly by the Welding Research Council and the Department of the Navy with funds furnished
by the following:
American Iron and Steel Institute
Naval Ship Systems Command
Naval "Facilities Engineering Command

## Reproduction of this report in whole or in part is

permitted for any purpose of the United States Government.

## Fritz Engineering Laboratory

Department of Civil Engineering
Lehigh University
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

August 1968

## Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. 331.3

331.3

SYNOPSIS
Limit analysis is applied to obtain. interaction equations for rectangular and wide-flange sections under combined biaxial bending and
axial force.

## Some of the results are presented in terms of interaction

curves and comparisons are made for various weights and sizes of common-

331.1

ii

SYNOPSIS

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.1

2.2

4-.

11

5.

CONCLUSION

17

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

18

NOMENCLATURE

19

8.

APPENDIX

21

22

10

REFERENCES

45

331.3

-1

1.

INTRODUCTION

## In'a recent review paper on the theory of biaxially loaded columns

which

usually exist

~n

a space structure"

1*

## even a reasonable approximate solution involves considerable

numerical calculations and hence limits its practical use.

labor in

On the other

## hand, the present pl&stic analysis and design.procedures take no account

of biaxial loading,2 and hence have an unknown amount of inaccuracy when
applied to space frame analysis and design.
A compromise between these two approaches is to consider the concept of the interaction curve or surface relating the axial force and two
bending moments under the condition that the entire section will be fully
plastic.

## and the manner of loading of the entire member is important.

Neverthe-

less, the resulting theory will certainly be an improvement on the present theory ~or planar structures which c~mpleteiy neglects the additional
bending moment resulting from space action of the entire framing system.

hav~

## been made by Ringo,4 by Sharma,S by Bruinette,6 by Pfrang and Toland,?

and by Morris and Fenves.

## But not much information in terms of inter-

action curves for the commonly used wide-flange sections has been presented.

b~sed

## solution) and therefore yield.a lower bound solution to the, problem.

*Superscript is used to denote reference number

-2

331.3
The rectangular section and the wide-flange section will be considered in what follows.

## The maximum safe do-

main and the minimum collapse domain will be obtained by use of the

## variational calculus and the minimum procedure respectively .. The upper

bound results will be presented as integrals for wide-flange sections
including warping moment and will be evaluated explicitly for the particular case of biaxial loading and

co~parison

The influence

clearer.

-3

331.3

2.

analys~s

## are applied to obtain .interaction relationships relating normal force P

and bending .moments Mx and My acting in two perpendicular direction on
a rectangular section under the condition that the e"ntire section will
be fully plastic.

2.1

## Lower Bound Solution

The lower bound theorem of limit analysis states that the load
computed on the basis of an assumed

equilibr~um stat~

## bution which does not violate the yield

condit~on

of stress distri-

condition

~imple

This has

## posiy = f(x). The axial force P and the bending moments

. Mx and Mare
y

tive when the axial force causes tension and the bending moments produce
tensile stress in the first quadrant of the coordi'nate system shown.

The

f2
-2

cr

f(x) dx

( 1)

331.3

-4

~
2

M
x

l~cry

M
y

2
f(x) ]

[4

dx

(2)

+-

-);2 ~
b

-Z

x f(x) dx

(3)

## interaction curve may now be stated as follows:

and M , determine a function f(x)

x

So

## the constraint conditions P and M.

Given a value of P

2

f(x)] - Ai

[2 cry

x f(x)] - A2

[2 cry

f(x)]

(4)

## of its derivatives, the Euler differential equation will be finite

1
rather than d i ff erentia.
.Q!L.

of (x)

h t he
W~t
d

equat~on

oR

dx [of'(x) ]

10

(5)

it follows that
f(x)

(6)

x

( 7)

(8)

-5

331.3

(9)

M
Y

Eliminating'

~l

~2

and

p

(10)

m
x

(11)

M
px
M

=J..

(12)

py

where
p ,
y

px

M
py

cr bd

-cr bd
4 y

'(13)

1
4

-0'

d,b

(14)

(15)

m
x

+ -4

m
y

(16)

valid for

< mx
Equatio~

## 16 is derived for the particular case the neutral axis

passing through the two vertical sides of the rectangle (Fig. 2a).

There

are also two other possible locations of the neutral axis (Figs. ,2b
and 2c) depending upon the relative magnitude of p, m

andm.
,y

Their

## A somewhat similar tech-

-6

331.3

nique has been used by Hodge for the interaction curves for shear and bending

of p1ast1c' beams.
2.2

11 12
'

## Upper Bound Solution

The upper bound theorem of limit analysis states that the load

## computed on the basis of an assumed fully plastic velocity field by equating

of the external and internal rate of ,work for such a field will give an
upper bound solution for the collapse or limit load.
In Fig. 4,

eo

o

## The generalized stresses

which are associated with these strain.and curvature rates are axial force

P, and the bending moment M which can be resolved into two components
of moment M and M about the principal axes.
x
y

## the deformation pattern (velocity field) is a pure bending and hence

specified completely by e

and K.
0

## The stress distribution associated

with this pattern of deformation is exactly the same as the lower bound
stress distribution.

331.3

-7

## Figure 5 shows a fully plastified wide-flange section.

= f(x) or x = ~(y)

axis y

The neutral

The

-- +t

-J2: cry

0(Y) dy

. --t

w.

-2:

J22 cry

y (li(y) dy

d'

-f~

## cry y 0(Y) dy +Jcr;

[(2 - t)

2
- f(x)] dx .

(18)

-2

-2"
d

--+t
} cry'2[(2')
b 2 2
b 2
- 0(Y) ] dy +} :y2[(2)
--t
2
_

(17)

.f(x) dx

--+t

--t
2

-J22' cry

-J2:cry 0(Y) dy

-2

M =
x

-Z

w
2

b(y)] dy

-J22'cry x f(x) dx

(19)

w
2

The first two integrals of Eqs. 17, 18 and 19 are the cdntribution
due to the top and bottom flanges, and the last integral is due to the web.
In order to derive a lower bound on the interaction curve, an ar-

bitrary function of f(x) is assumed and substituted into Eqs. 17, 18 and
19.

## Guided by the results for a rectangular" sectio~, f(x) or ~(y) is

chosen as follows

(20)

(21)

331.3

-8

## With the simplification of the stress distribution in the web as

shown in Fig. 6, the following interaction equations are obtained

(22)

(23)

(24)
Y

where
(25)

## If dimensionless quantities are defined by Eqs. 10, 11 and 12,

with
p

aA

cr

Mpx =aZ
y x

[2bt + w (d - 2t)J
d

py.

(J

YY

cry

cry

[t~ +

(26)

(27)

f w2 (d-2t)J

(28)

(29)

~ (~)

1
[
3 _
m =- {
2
x
Zx 3

m
y

(~2

_ t) 3 ] Ie

w [(

~2

_ t) 2 _ Y 2
1

J} .

(30)

(31)

-9

331.3

valid for

o
w

"2

## Once the values of p and m are given, the values of X and Y1

3
x
which define the location of the neutral axis can be determined by Eqs.'
29 and 30.

y

## valid for the case in which the neutral axis

the web. and the bottom flange (Fig. 6).

pa~ses

The solution is

~lange,

## axis are shown in Fig. 7.and their corresponding interaction equations

are summarized in Table 2.

## The interaction curves corresponding to Eqs.

29, 30 and 31 are shown in Figs. 8 and 9 for l2W31 and 14~426 respectively.
Comparison between these two sectionsis given'in Fig. 10.
of various weights of 12W section with the ratio
to '0.975 is given in Fig.' 11.

b/~

Comparison

## the section, the stronger the moment-carrying capacity m and m

.
x
y.
Pfrang and Toland, using a somewhat similar approacp, obtai'ned the

## interaction curves for a few particular Wide-flange sections.]

the analytical expressions are not avai lab Ie in their paper.

However,
Compa~ison

between their results and the present solution is given in Fig. 12 and
close agreement is observed from this figure.

## The same problem wa"s also considered by Ringo, Sharma, Bruinette,

4 5 6 8
Morris and Fenves. ' , , Although the interaction ".equations are avai lab le,

## Most of the solutions considered

-10

331.3

the effective depth of the web measured from the center of the top flange
to the center of the bottom flange as was
uniaxial bending.

usua~ly

## This approximation was fo'und to be in considerable

error compared with the present solution, especially for large flange
thickness and large axial force.

331.3

-11

4.

## According to the theorems of limit analysis, the consideration of

the problem from the .viewpoint of the lower bound theorem alone is not
sufficient to guarantee that the solution so obtained is correct unless
the result is confirmed from the viewpoint of the upper bound theorem.
, It is assumed that the deformation pattern is a pure bending for
each"of the three-thin-wall flat plates, that is, the plane cross sections
remain plane after deformation for the two flanges as well as for the web
(Fig. 13).

## upon one another except the compatibility

tween the flange and the web.

Then if

cond~tions

.
K is

## the rate of curvature and

the strain rate at the centr9id for each of the three thin-wall plates
and if the subscripts t, band w denote the top flange, bottom flange
and web

respect~ve1y,

~ach

## of the three plates.

The six variables are not completely.independent and must satisfy the compatibility conditions (Fig. 14)
=

ew +

h
2

K
w

where h is the distance from center of the top flange to the center of
the bottom flange.

(32)

(33)

331.3

-12
The rate of energy dissipation across the section is

Wi

J
0

I E: I

(34)

dA

first~

e ::::

Cy

is given by

K
w

(35)

where

ew
K

web .(See

~ig.

(36)

poi~t

14).

## Thus, the rate of dissipation of energy in the web is

2

IT

. Kw

e
~J

(37)

Simi1arily, the rate of energy dissipation for the top and the
bottom flanges are
2
b
(J t [K +
t
y
4

(~+ ~)2 ~J
w

'
(J

~)2

(38)

--w J
l<b

(39)

The rates'of external work for the web and the flanges are

P
w w

M K
w w

PtC-w +~K)+MK
2 w
t t

(40)

(41)

-13

331.3

(42)

K )
w

## The upper bound solution is obtained by equating the total rate

of work done by the external forces to the total rate of dissipation.
W
e

w.1

(43)

or
2

[~ iz +

cr t
y

+ cr t
y

[~ ~

+cryw [(h-t)
4

K 2

~~+ ~W)2 ~J
K
w

+ (~
2

~)2 ~]
~

'E: w

+- ]

(44)

where
p

(45)

h
2

(46)

(47)

M
Y

## In order to derive an upper bound solution on the interaction

curve, arbitrary values of strain rate and curvature rate can be assumed.
However, each different deformation pattern assumed may result in a'different set of stress resultants over the wide-flange section and hence
will correspond to a different stress boundary value problem solved.
example, if the entire wide-flange section is assumed to remain plane

For

-14

331.3

## (Fig. 15), the associated stress field corresponding to the deformation

pattern is the one used for the lower bound calculations.
stress resultants are P, M and M.
x
y

Hence the

## general deformation pattern of Fig. 13 is used, additional warping moments

acting in the planes of each of the two flanges, equal in magnitude but
opposite in sense, will result from the associated stress field.

There-

## fore, a different stress boundary value problem is solved.

The lower bound interaction curve relating P, M and M is the
x
y
true curve which is the main concern of the present paper.

Since the

associated stress field corresponditl:g to the particular deformation pattern of Fig. 15 is the same as for the lower bound calculations, it is
thought that the upper bound formulation for the wide-flange section is
the more interesting.

## This is true not only because it will provide some

physical insight into the problem but also because it will be more convenient to obtain for the interaction curve including warping moments
over the section which is of more fundamental concern to space frame
analysis.

simpl~city,

## formation pattern of Fig. 15 as an illustrative example of evaluating

these integrals.

With

Eq. 44 reduces to

x w +M

+M

'y

.
K

0"

[4"

2
K

2
h
K +4
f

+ cr yw

[(h-t)

-. ]
f

.2

+ ~J
K
w

(48)

-15

331.3

## According to the upper bound theorem of limit analysis, the best

choice of the deformation pattern corresponds to the minimum value of the

and M.
y

It

(49)

ow.

(50)

~
w

ow.

(51)

OKf

and A3 (=

Kw/Kf )
2

..
Yl ]

A [2t A3 Y1 +

m
x

1 { 2
Z
th

[(h t) 2

m
y

2
Z

. y

A3 +w

2
b
t [4

h
4

(52)

.2

""3

A~

Y/]}
2

Y1 ]

(53.)

(54)

valid for

o < ~l

d
<- 2

. and
w

## The results of upper bound solutions for other cases corresponding

to the lower bound solutions are also given in Table 2.

As can be seen

331.3

-16

the difference between the lower and the upper bound solutions is the
value of n

## is small, this value is negligible .

. Tables 3 and 4 are the comparison of the numerical results obtained
from the lower and the upper bound solution.s for 12W31 and 14W426. Small
difference is observed from

14~426.

bound solution.
solution that

t~e

in

of the upper
the upper bound

Equations 52,

## 53 and 54 may also be derived directly from lower bound approach by

assuming the stress distribution shown in Fig. 16.

33l~3

-17

5.

CONCLUSION

## The application of upper and lower bound theorems of limit analysis

to obtain the interaction curves for sections under combined biaxial bending
and axial force, and the general formulation of the upper bound solution
including the warping moment, should prove both interesting and useful.
It should be kept in mind, however, that results are correct only for compression members of zero length or for members with sufficient lateral
bracing.

## ,They may have no relevance for the plastic analysis of space

frames in which column length is relatively long and the effect of the
geometriGal change of the column on the ultimate strength of the column
becomes .appreciable.

woul~

## sider the instability effect and engage in a complete elastic-plastic

stability analysis.

## first step in extending planar structural analysis 'and design to a more

realistic space frame

an~lysis

and design.

331.1

-18

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

## The work described herein Was first suggested by Professor L. W.

Lu, Dire,ctor of the project - "S pa.c .e Frame with Biaxia 1 Loading in Co lumng" ,

University.

## This investigation is sponsored jointly by the Welding Research Council

and the Department of the Navy, with

~unds

## furnished by the American

Iron and Steel Institute, Naval Ship Systems Command, and Naval
Facilities Engineering Command.
Technical guidance for the. project is

~rovided

by the

~ehigh

## Project Subcommittee of the Structural Steel Committee of the Welding

Research Council.

Subcommittee.

spe~ial

Birnstiel (New

## Dr. T. R. Higgins (AISC), Professor B. G. Johnston (University of

Mi~higan), and Dr.

## The authors would like to thank Professors G. C. Driscoll, Jr.

and L. W. Lu for their review of the manuscript.

## Thanks are also extended

to Miss K. Philbin for typing the manuscript; to Mr. J. Cera for the

drafting.

331.3

-19

7.

width

depth

~, K t , Kw

respectively

Kf

la~ge,

.:::

bending moment

~, Mt , Mw

respectively

NOMENCLATURE

x
y

px

M
py

M 1M
x
px

m
y

M 1M
y py

P
P , P
b
t' w

respectively

## yield load when no moment is acting

piP

thickness of flange

-20

331.3

w.1.

## total rate of internal energy dissipation

thickness of web

x, y

coordinate axes
distance from the point of zero strain to the center of the web

Y1
Z
Z

x
Y

b'

t'

ew

## strain rate at tht center of bottom flange, top flange

and web respectively
strain rate at the centroid of rectangular section

axis

""3
cr

yield stress

331.3

-21

8.

APPENDIX

.
x
y

ew ,:,' Kw

respectively.

and

Kf

=rw1

[w. ~

(55)

M K .} My K ]
x w

when oP/Ow = 0,

that is

[w.

1.

M K
x

(49)

## It can also be shown that the conditions oP/oK

oP/oK

= 0 and

= 0 are equivalent to
M

oW.
oKw
~

(50)

oW.
M

(51)

Similarly, it can be proved 'that Eqs. 49, 50 and 51 are also the
required conditions for the smallest upper bound values of M and M .
x
y

331.3

-22

9.

## FIGURES AND TABLES

-23

331.3

y
-0;

~Y

=f(x)

---IIl~'-"""""""""~"""''-------X

Fig. 1

## Rectangular Section subjected to

Two Bending Moments and An Axial Force

-24

331.3

N.A.
(0)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2

. N.A.

N.A.

331.3

-25

---x

-~-+-.........

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2~__

0.2

Fig. 3

0.4

0.6

0.8

## Interaction Curve for Biaxial Bending

(Rectangular or Square 'Section)

1.0

331~3

-26

N.A.
C.A.

Fig. 4

Strain Distribution

-27

331.3

-0:

---....11II-......1---------- X

y :: f (X)
b

Fig. 5

or x 8: 4>

(y)

331.3

-28

N.A.

x! = ton 8
b

Fig. 6

-29

331.3

Case

Cale 2

-I

Case 3

'Case, 4

'.
Case 5

Fig. 7

Case 6

-30

0.8

12W=-31

0.6
my
0.4

0.2
0.8

0.9

0.2

Fig. 8

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.8

1.0

-31

331.3

I.O..-_~

0.8

14YF426
0.6~

my

0.4

0.2

0.2

'0

Fig. 9

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

331.3

-32

12 'IF 31

0.8

0.6

0.4

,,

0.2

0.31

0.2

0.4

0.6

mx

Fig. 10

## Comparison of Interaction Curves

Between Heavy and Light Sections

0.8

1.0

-33

331.3

-------

----

..! =0.540

12 'IF 31
12YF45
12 'IF 53
'2 YF 79

d =0.667
=0.830
=0.975

1.0r---~

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.4"

Fig. 11

0.6

0.8

## Comparison of Interaction Curves of

b
Biaxial Bending fbr Various Ratios of ~

1.0

331.3

-34

Present Solution

----1+01-----

0.8

14 VF426

0.6
my

0.4

0.2

......

I
I

,,

I
I
I

0.61

0.9

I
I

0.2

Fig. 12

0.4

0.6

0.8

mx

1.0

--35

331.3

Fig. 13

## A Failure Mechanism with A Warped Section

331.3

-36

y
r---,

Fig. 14

Strain Distribution

331.3

-37

N.A~

Plane Section

Fig. 15

331.3

-38

Fig. 16

-39

331 3
0

TABLE 1

## INTERACTION EQUATIONS FOR RECTANGULAR SECTION

Case

Location of N.A.

Equation

Valid for

>-(l-p)

x - 3

,,~

~
~ ~~

2
P

+ mx + 4" my

= 1
my ~

3"

(l.,.p)

N.A.

\
2

2
m ~3 (l-p)
x

~
~~

232

+4
.

m +m
x
y

1
2

my ~

'3

m ~
x

3"

(l-p)

''\ N.A.

\ ..
"3

x
~

'\ N.A.

"9

+ 4"

ffi X

(l-p)

[1-2(1_p) J [ ] = l
m

>"-(l-p}
y -3

UJ
UJ
I---l

TABLE 2

UJ

Equation

## Case I Location of N.A.

y

1 I

= A [2t

~3 Y1

m
x

1
=zx {4~

03 X3 +

=zy

4 3 A3
=3 - -Z -

3E-

t A3 Y1]

~2

(2:- t )]

mx =

(d-t)

tb

[~-

+r2 u3

"2

d 2
2}
A3 - 2 1,.3 Y1+ w [(I- t )- Y1 J

~ Y1 ~

'2 + Y1

2" -

2
2
n 3 A3+ n 2 A3 Y1 -

A3 Y1 J

~ A3

2" -

~
o

y 1+

"2

%--r-

2-'2 +

Y1

Y1

Y1+ -d2 - t

~.
2
~1 <:-~ 1\3-d
Yl+z - t
2" - Y1

'2 -

~ Y1 ~-

2"

Yl+z - t

Bound

'2 - :2

~A3~

2 2
A3 Y1 J

Y1+

Y
1

"2

[b t - 02 A3 + 2 t ""3 Y1 + 2 w y 1 ]

z'1 {bt
:2

- t

~ ""3 5 d
Y1+z - t
2+ Y1

2
tb
1
2
[~ - 3 3 A3 Y

2" -

2}
- Y1 J

=Z

## 4:' - 3" n 3 1,.3 --

A [2t "') Y1 +

my

[(I- t )

Y1 .:::;

a :::;

+ w Y1 J

m
y

(tb

Valid for
'Upper

Lower Bound

<:"- -

1..3 -d !. + Y
-22
1

~ Y1 ~

2 -

.
t

2"

2"

~A3~dt

2 - 2"

2-2 -

y1

+'

C)

l.J.J
l.J.J
t--"-

TABLE 2 (cant' d)

VJ

Valid for
Case

Equation

Location of N.A.

P =

~Ex

A [bt
bt

[-z

m =z
x
;x

"
Ex
-

-Z

= 0

+ 2w (I- t )]

3 A3 - n 2 A3 Y1 ]

2
tb
1
2
2
2
2]
[~ - 3 3 A3 + 2 A3 Y1 - t A3 Y1

m
y

- 2 A3 + 2t A3 Y1

(d-t) +

Upper Bound

Lower Bound
t

2" - 2"

2" -

~ Y1

2-~

Y1

2"

"2

2"

2"

Y1+z - t

~ A3

d t.05 A"3~

Yl - 2 + t

Y1+I-Z

d-

Yl-2

Sa

L-

A
m - 2Z
x

A
[d(l-p) - x

2b

2
(l-p) ]

w (d-2t)

::;p~

5b

r
. r--l
~

I I

L.;

m = 0
y
x

2
2
p
A
m =1--x
- 4wZ
x

~ p ~

w(d-2t)
A

.po..
t--'-

LA,)

TABLE 2 (cant'd)

VJ
t----'LA,)

Equation

## Location of- N.A.

Case

Valid

for

y
ill

6a

~Ex

wd

A
m

= -2Z

[b (l-p) Y

::;

wd

4t (l-p) }
,

Y
I

Jt

6b

m
x

0
0

m
y

1 - -4d Z

::;

p;-:

Remarks:

-y

A = tan
3

e
,

y
l

A
4
::::1
A
3

-Y1

-A 3 y - A4

= 2bt +

Zx

= bt (d-t) + w (2 -

= - tb

w (d-2t)
d

t)

1 - 2
1 2
+ - w (d-2t)
2
4
d 2

Z = (2")
= t

(d-t)

( 2- t)

Lower Bound
d 3
d
3
n = (-) - (- - t ),
322
3
3
2 t
= 4" t (d-t) + 4"
Upper Bound

2
n

= "43

t (d_t)2

+'
N

-43

331.3

TABLE 3

## Comparison of Lower and Upper Bound Solutions

(12W31)
my

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

0.2

0.929

0.2

0.836

0.303

0.303

0.2

0.743

0.473

0.472

0.2

0.651

0.617

0.617

0.2

0.558

0.737

0 ..737

0.2

0.465

0.832

0.832

0.2

0.,372

0.903

0.903

0.2

0.279

0.950

0.950

0.2

0.186

0.975

0.975

0.2

0.993

0.993

-44

331.3

TABLE 4
Comparison of Lower and Upper Bound Solutions
(14F426)
m

Lower Bound

y
Upper Bound

0.2

0.904

0.2

0.814

0.315

0.313

0.2

0.678

0.530

0.524

0.2

0.588

U.646

0.642

0.2

0.497

0.743

0.741

0.2

0.407

0.823

0.821

0.2

0.316

0.885

0.-884

0.2

0.226

0.930

0.929

0.2

0.136

0.958

0.958

0.2

0.981

0.981

331.3

-45

10 .

REFERENCES

1.

## Chen, W. F. and Santathadaporn, S.

RECENT DEVELO:EMENTS IN THE STUDY OF COLUMN BEHAVIOR UNDER BIAXIAL

2.

## Driscoll, G. C., Jr. and others

PLASTIC DESIGN OF MULTI-STORY FRAMES, Lecture Notes of the 1965
Summer Conference, Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. 273.20,
August, 1965.

3.

Drucker, D. C.
THE EFFECT OF SHEAR ON THE PLASTIC BENDING OF BEAMS, Journal
of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 23, Transactions, ASME, Vol. 78,
1956.

4.

Ringo, B. C.
EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH TO THE ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF A B"IAXIALLY
LOADED BEAM-COLUMN, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of MichIgan
1964, University Mic'rofilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

5.

Sharma, S. S.
ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF STEEL COLUMNS UNDER BIAXIALLY ECCmTRIC
LOAD, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1965, University Mi~rofi1ms, Inc., Ann Arbor,. Michigan.

6.

Bruinette, K. E.
A GENERAL FORMULATION OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF SPACE
FRAMEWORKS, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1965,
University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

7.

## Pfrang-, E. O. and To land, R. H.

CAPACITY OF WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS S-UBJECTED TO AXIAL AND BIAXIAL
BENDING, Departmen-t of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware,
Newark, Delaware, 1966.

8.

## Morris, G. A. and Fenves, S. J.

A GEN'ERAL PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC AND PLASTIC
FRAMEWORKS, Structural Research Series No. 325, University of
Illinois, 1967.

9.

Drucker, D. C.,

10.

## )?rager, W. and Greenberg, H. J.

.
EXTENDED LIMIT DESIGN THEOREMS FOR CONTINUOUS MEDIA, Quarterly
of Applied Mathematic; Vol. 9, p. 381-389, January, 1952.

Weinstock, R.
CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS, McGraW-Hill, New York, 1952.

331.3

-46

11.

## Hodge, P. G., Jr.

INTERACTION CURVES FOR SHEAR AND BENDING OF PLASTIC BEAMS,
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 24, p. 453-456, 1957.

12.

## Hodge, p. G., Jr~

PLASTIC 'ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.