wave reflection and refraction

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Reflection and Refraction

wave reflection and refraction

© All Rights Reserved

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Let us consider a plane wave that obliquely incidents at the boundary of two media that

are characterized by their permittivity and permeability (see Figure 1). The plane

containing both the normal to the surface and the direction of propagation of the incident

wave is known as the plane of incidence.

Case A: The electric field of the incident wave is perpendicular to the plane of

incidence.

Case B: The electric field of the incident wave is in the plane of incidence.

Any other incident wave can be decomposed into linear combination of these two.

Fig. 1 shows a wave of either polarization incident on the boundary of two media. In this

Figure, the angle i between the normal to the boundary and the propagation direction is

the angle of incidence. We choose the plane of incidence to be the x z plane with the

axes directions shown in the Figure1, the y-axes is out of the page.

There may also be reflected and refracted (transmitted) waves, as shown in Fig. 1.

Directions of propagation of these waves have angles

r and

boundary. The unit wave vectors of the incident, reflected and transmitted waves can be

written as the following:

ki [sin i ,0,cosi ]

(1)

kr [sin r ,0,cosr ]

(2)

kt [sin t ,0,cost ]

(3)

The phasors of the traveling incident, reflected, and refracted plane waves can be written

in the following form

Ei (r ) E0 exp( iki r ) ,

Er (r ) E1 exp( ikr r ) ,

and

Et (r ) E2 exp( ikt r )

equations for phasors

E iH

H iE

(4)

i(k E ) iH

(4)

i(k H ) iE

(5)

Now we can write the wave fields for the cases A and B,

Ei , H i ~ exp{ik1 ( x sin i z cos i )}

Incident wave,

Case A ( E perpendicular to plane of incidence)

Ei jE0 exp{iki r }

1

sin ) exp{ik r}

H

E

(

i

cos

k

0

i

i

i

i

(6)

jE0 1 exp{iki r}

H

(7)

Reflected wave,

Er , H r ~ exp{ik1 ( x sin r z cos r )}

Er jE1 exp{ik r r }

1

sin ) exp{ik r}

H

E

(

i

cos

k

r

1

r

r

r

(8)

exp{ik r r }

H r jE1

(10)

Et , H t ~ exp{ik 2 ( x sin t z cos t )}

Et jE2 exp{ikti r }

2

sin ) exp{ik r}

H

E

(

i

cos

k

t

2

t

t

t

(11)

jE0 2 exp{ikt r}

H

(12)

Case B: Let us consider a plane wave with electric field E in the plane of incidence

The boundary conditions at z 0 are continuity of tangential components of electric and

E0 cos i exp( ik1 x sin i ) E1 cos r exp( ik1 x sin r ) E2 cos t exp( ik 2 x sin t )

2

E0 exp( ik1 x sin i ) 1 E1 exp( ik1 x sin r )

E exp( ik 2 x sin t )

1

1

2 2

(13)

Eqs. (13) must hold for all values of x , which is possible only if

k1 sin i k1 sin r k2 sin t

(14)

We see that

(15)

and

( 2)

sin t k1 11 v ph

n

(1) 1

sin i k 2 2 2 v ph n2

(16)

Eq. (16) is the familiar Snells law.

Canceling the exponential terms in (13), (14) by means of (15), we obtain

E0 cos i E1 cos i E2 cos t

2

E0 1 E1

E

1

1

2 2

(17)

We can now solve Eqs. (17) for E1 and E2 with the result

cos t 2 2 cos i

E1

1 1

E0

1 1 cos t 2 2 cos i

2 1 1 cos i

E2

E0

1 1 cos t 2 2 cos i

(18)

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