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Polynomials

Polynomials are sums of the "variables and exponents" expressions. Each piece of the polynomial, each
part that is being added, is called a "term". Polynomial terms have variables which are raised to whole-
number exponents (or else the terms are just plain numbers); there are no square roots of variables, no
fractional powers, and no variables in the denominator of any fractions. Here are some examples:

This is NOT ...because the variable has


6x –2 a polynomial term... a negative exponent.

1 This is NOT ...because the variable is


/x2 a polynomial term... in the denominator.

This is NOT ...because the variable is


sqrt(x) a polynomial term... inside a radical.

...because it obeys all the


4x2 This IS a polynomial term...
rules.

Here is a typical polynomial:

Notice the exponents on the terms. The first term has an exponent of 2; the second term has an
"understood" exponent of 1; and the last term doesn't have any variable at all. Polynomials are usually
written this way, with the terms written in "decreasing" order; that is, with the largest exponent first, the
next highest next, and so forth, until you get down to the plain old number.
Any term that doesn't have a variable in it is called a "constant" term because, no matter what value you
may put in for the variable x, that constant term will never change. In the picture above, no matter what
x might be, 7 will always be just 7.
The first term in the polynomial, when it is written in decreasing order, is also the term with the biggest
exponent, and is called the "leading term".
The exponent on a term tells you the "degree" of the term. For instance, the leading term in the above
polynomial is a "second-degree term" or "a term of degree two". The second term is a "first degree" term.
The degree of the leading term tells you the degree of the whole polynomial; the polynomial above is a
"second-degree polynomial". Here are a couple more examples:
When a term contains both a number and a variable part, the number part is called the "coefficient". The
coefficient on the leading term is called the "leading" coefficient.
In the above example, the coefficient of the leading term is 4; the coefficient of the second term is 3; the
constant term doesn't have a coefficient. Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2006-2008 All Rights Reserved
The "poly" in "polynomial" means "many". I suppose, technically, the term "polynomial" should only refer
to sums of many terms, but the term is used to refer to anything from one term to the sum of a zillion
terms. However, the shorter polynomials do have their own names:
• a one-term polynomial, such as 2x or 4x2, may also be called a "monomial" ("mono" meaning
"one")
• a two-term polynomial, such as 2x + y or x2 – 4, may also be called a "binomial" ("bi" meaning
"two")
• a three-term polynomial, such as 2x + y + z or x4 + 4x2 – 4, may also be called a "trinomial" ("tri"
meaning "three")

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO


VARIABLES
A linear equation is an algebraic equation in which each term is either a constant or
the product of a constant and (the first power of) a single variable.

Linear equations can have one or more variables. Linear equations occur with great
regularity in applied mathematics. While they arise quite naturally when modeling many
phenomena, they are particularly useful since many non-linear equations may be
reduced to linear equations by assuming that quantities of interest vary to only a small
extent from some "background" state.

A common form of a linear equation in the two variables x and y is

where m and b designate constants. The origin of the name "linear" comes from the
fact that the set of solutions of such an equation forms a straight line in the plane.
In this particular equation, the constant m determines the slope or gradient of that
line, and the constant term b determines the point at which the line crosses the y-
axis.

Since terms of a linear equations cannot contain products of distinct or equal


variables, nor any power (other than 1) or other function of a variable, equations
involving terms such as xy, x2, y1/3, and sin(x) are nonlinear.
General form

Where A and B are not both equal to zero. The equation is usually written so
that A ≥ 0, by convention. The graph of the equation is a straight line, and every
straight line can be represented by an equation in the above form. If A is
nonzero, then the x-intercept, that is the x-coordinateof the point where the graph
crosses the x-axis (y is zero), is −C/A. If B is nonzero, then the y-intercept, that is
the y-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the y-axis (x is zero), is
−C/B, and the slope of the line is −A/B.
Standard form

where A, B, and C are integers whose greatest common factor is 1, A and B are
not both equal to zero, and A is non-negative (and if A = 0 then B has to be
positive). The standard form can be converted to the general form, but not
always to all the other forms if A or B is zero. It is worth noting that, while the
term occurs frequently in school-level US textbooks, it makes little mathematical
sense since most lines cannot be described by such equations. For instance, the

line cannot be described by a linear equation with integer

coefficients since is irrational.

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS in TWO VARIABLES


A system of equations is a collection of two or more equations
with the same set of unknowns. In solving a system of equations,
we try to find values for each of the unknowns that will satisfy
every equation in the system.

The equations in the system can be linear or non-linear. This


tutorial reviews systems of linear equations.
A problem can be expressed in narrative form or the problem can
be expressed in algebraic form.

Suppose there are two linear equations with two variables x and y
such as:

ax+by=r
cx+dy=s
where a,b,c and d are coefficients of x and y

then we can solve these two equations for the value of x and y by
the following methods:-

1)Substitution Method:-
In this method, first we find the value of x in terms of y from any
of the given equations and then substitute this value in other
eqaution, then the other equation becomes as linear equation in
one variable y and we can easily find the value of y and then find
x by substituting the value of y in any of given equation.

2)Equating the Coefficient Method:-


In this method, we equate the coefficient of x in both equations
by multiplying one equation by p and other with q such that
apx=cqx.
after it,we subtract any one eqation from other and the equation
again converts into linear equation in one variable y and we can
easily find the value of y and then find x by substituting the value
of y in any of given equation.

For your practice here is an example of two linear equations in


two variables,
just try to solve them for the values of x and y:
2x+5y=24
7x+3y=26
Answer:- x=2 and y=4