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about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media."

An operation research (OR) is an analytical method of problem-solving and decision-making that is useful in the
management of organizations. In operations research, problems are broken down into basic components and then
solved in defined steps by mathematical analysis. Analytical methods used in OR include mathematical logic,
simulation, network analysis, queuing theory , and game theory . The process can be broadly broken down into three
steps.

Management is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization to
accomplish the goal. Management is the art of getting things done through others. Management is the social and
technical process that utilizes resources, influences human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish an
organization's goal.
Personality The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character.personality
as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interact with others.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation
of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving
predetermined goals.

Banking Terms
1.WhatisaRepoRate?
A:ReporateistherateatwhichourbanksborrowrupeesfromRBI.Wheneverthebankshaveanyshortage
offundstheycanborrowitfromRBI.Areductioninthereporatewillhelpbankstogetmoneyatacheaper
rate.Whenthereporateincreases,borrowingfromRBIbecomesmoreexpensive.
2.WhatisReverseRepoRate?
A:ThisisexactoppositeofReporate.ReverseReporateistherateatwhichReserveBankofIndia(RBI)
borrowsmoneyfrombanks.RBIusesthistoolwhenitfeelsthereistoomuchmoneyfloatinginthebanking
system.BanksarealwayshappytolendmoneytoRBIsincetheirmoneyisinsafehandswithagood
interest.AnincreaseinReversereporatecancausethebankstotransfermorefundstoRBIduetothis
attractiveinterestrates.
3.WhatisCRRRate?

A:CashreserveRatio(CRR)istheamountoffundsthatthebankshavetokeepwithRBI.IfRBIdecidesto
increasethepercentofthis,theavailableamountwiththebankscomesdown.RBIisusingthismethod
(increaseofCRRrate),todrainouttheexcessivemoneyfromthebanks.3
4.WhatisSLRRate?
A:SLR(StatutoryLiquidityRatio)istheamountacommercialbankneedstomaintainintheformofcash,
orgoldorgovt.approvedsecurities(Bonds)beforeprovidingcredittoitscustomers.
SLRrateisdeterminedandmaintainedbytheRBI(ReserveBankofIndia)inordertocontroltheexpansion
ofbankcredit.SLRisdeterminedasthepercentageoftotaldemandandpercentageoftimeliabilities.Time
Liabilitiesaretheliabilitiesacommercialbankliabletopaytothecustomersontheiranytimedemand.SLR
isusedtocontrolinflationandpropelgrowth.ThroughSLRratetuningthemoneysupplyinthesystemcan
becontrolledefficiently.
5.WhatisBankRate?
A:Bankrate,alsoreferredtoasthediscountrate,istherateofinterestwhichacentralbankchargesonthe
loansandadvancesthatitextendstocommercialbanksandotherfinancialintermediaries.Changesinthe
bankrateareoftenusedbycentralbankstocontrolthemoneysupply.
6.WhatisInflation?
A:InflationisasanincreaseinthepriceofbunchofGoodsandservicesthatprojectstheIndianeconomy.
AnincreaseininflationfiguresoccurswhenthereisanincreaseintheaveragelevelofpricesinGoodsand
services.InflationhappenswhentherearefewerGoodsandmorebuyers;thiswillresultinincreaseinthe
priceofGoods,sincethereismoredemandandlesssupplyofthegoods.
7.WhatisDeflation?
A:Deflationisthecontinuousdecreaseinpricesofgoodsandservices.Deflationoccurswhentheinflation
ratebecomesnegative(belowzero)andstaysthereforalongerperiod.
8.WhatisPLR?
A:ThePrimeInterestRateistheinterestratechargedbybankstotheirmostcreditworthycustomers
(usuallythemostprominentandstablebusinesscustomers).Therateisalmostalwaysthesameamongst
majorbanks.Adjustmentstotheprimeratearemadebybanksatthesametime;although,theprimerate
doesnotadjustonanyregularbasis.ThePrimeRateisusuallyadjustedatthesametimeandincorrelation
totheadjustmentsoftheFedFundsRate.Theratesreportedbelowarebasedupontheprimeratesonthe
firstdayofeachrespectivemonth.Somebanksusethename"ReferenceRate"or"BaseLendingRate"to
refertotheirPrimeLendingRate.
9.WhatisDepositRate?

A:InterestRatespaidbyadepositoryinstitutiononthecashondeposit.
PolicyRates:
BankRate:6.00%
RepoRate:5.25%
ReverseRepoRate:3.75%
ReserveRatios:
CRR:6.00%
SLR:25.0%
Lending/DepositRates:
PLR:11.00%12.00%.
DepositRate:6.00%7.50%.
.SavingsBankrate:3.5%.
Note:Ratesason140510.
10.WhatisFII?
A:FII(ForeignInstitutionalInvestor)usedtodenoteaninvestor,mostlyintheformofaninstitution.An
institutionestablishedoutsideIndia,whichproposestoinvestinIndianmarket,inotherwordsbuyingIndian
stocks.FII'sgenerallybuyinlargevolumeswhichhasanimpactonthestockmarkets.Institutional
Investorsincludespensionfunds,mutualfunds,InsuranceCompanies,Banks,etc.
11.WhatisFDI?
A:FDI(ForeignDirectInvestment)occurswiththepurchaseofthephysicalassetsorasignificantamount
ofownership(stock)ofacompanyinanothercountryinordertogainameasureofmanagementcontrol
(Or)AforeigncompanyhavingastakeinaIndianCompany.
12.WhatisIPO?
A:IPOisInitialPublicOffering.Thisisthefirstofferingofsharestothegeneralpublicfromacompany
wishestolistonthestockexchanges.
13.WhatisDisinvestment?
A:TheSellingofthegovernmentstakeinpublicsectorundertakings.

14.WhatisFiscalDeficit?
A:Itisthedifferencebetweenthegovernmentstotalreceipts(excludingborrowings)andtotalexpenditure.
Fiscaldeficitin200910isproposedat6.8%ofGDP.
15.WhatisRevenuedeficit?
A:Itdefinesthat,wherethenetamountreceived(bytaxes&otherforms)failstomeetthepredictednet
amounttobereceivedbythegovernment.Revenuedeficitin200910isproposedat4.8%ofGDP.
16.WhatisGDP?
A:TheGrossDomesticProductorGDPisameasureofalloftheservicesandgoodsproducedinacountry
overaspecificperiod;classicallyayear.GDPduring200809is6.7%.
17.WhatisGNP?
A:GrossNationalProductismeasuredasGDPplusincomeofresidentsfrominvestmentsmadeabroad
minusincomeearnedbyforeignersindomesticmarket.
18.WhatisNationalIncome?
A:NationalIncomeisthemoneyvalueofallgoodsandservicesproducedinacountryduringtheyear.
19.WhatisPerCapitaIncome?
A:Thenationalincomeofacountry,orregion,dividedbyitspopulation.Percapitaincomeisoftenusedto
measureacountry'sstandardofliving.Percapitaincomeduring200809estimatedbyCSO:Rs.25,494.
20.WhatisVoteonAccount?
A:Avoteonaccountisbasicallyastatement,wherethegovernmentpresentsanestimateofasumrequired
tomeettheexpenditurethatitincursduringthefirstthreetofourmonthsofanelectionfinancialyearuntila
newgovernmentisinplace,tokeepthemachineryrunning.
21.DifferencebetweenVoteonAccountandInterimBudget?
A:Voteonaccountdealsonlywiththeexpendituresideofthegovernment'sbudget,aninterimBudgetisa
completesetofaccounts,includingbothexpenditureandreceipts.
22.WhatisSDR?
A:TheSDR(SpecialDrawingRights)isanartificialcurrencycreatedbytheIMFin1969.SDRsare
allocatedtomembercountriesandcanbefullyconvertedintointernationalcurrenciessotheyserveasa
supplementtotheofficialforeignreservesofmembercountries.Itsvalueisbasedonabasketofkey
internationalcurrencies(U.S.dollar,euro,yenandpoundsterling).

23.WhatisSEZ?
A:SEZmeansSpecialEconomicZoneistheoneofthepartofgovernmentspoliciesinIndia.Aspecial
Economiczoneisageographicalregionthateconomiclawswhicharemoreliberalthantheusualeconomic
lawsinthecountry.Thebasicmottobehindthisistoincreaseforeigninvestment,developmentof
infrastructure,jobopportunitiesandincreasetheincomelevelofthepeople