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Steps to a

Walkable Community
A Guide for Citizens, Planners, and Engineers

Steps to a
Walkable Community
A Guide for Citizens, Planners, and Engineers

Copyright © 2012 by Sam Schwartz Engineering PLLC and America Walks

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Steps to a Walkable Community

Table of Contents

Sam Schwartz Engineering Introduction
America Walks Introduction
How to Use This Guide
Acknowledgements

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Health
Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

1
3
5
7
9

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Establish an Executive Directive

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23

Establish an Advisory Council
or Safety Task Force—or Both

25

Prioritize Pedestrians
Develop a Pedestrian Master Plan
Use Measurable Performance Indicators
Incorporate PROWAG into Policies
Adopt a Complete Streets Policy
Conduct a Health Impact Assessment

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29
31
33
35
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Step 1: Assess Yourself
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Step 3: Set Goals
Step 4: Assess Resources & Opportunities
Step 5: Target Decision-­Makers
and Create a Champion
Step 6: Communicate
Step 7: Set Tactics and Timelines
Step 8: Manage Resources

13 

15
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20

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Support Street Life: Form-­Based Zoning
Manage Parking to Promote Walking
Add Street-­Connectivity Minimums
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Bicycle Connections
Create Transit-­Oriented Development
Provide LOS Exemptions for Pedestrian
Improvements
Diversify Suburban Land Use Regulations
Transform Underutilized Malls
Encourage Temporary Uses in
Vacant Sites and Buildings
Permit Park(ing) Day Every Day

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51
53
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57
59

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Design Guidance
Adopt Context-­Sensitive Street Design
Guidelines
Adopt Accessible and Attractive
Streetscape Design Guidelines
Narrow or Reduce Travel Lanes
Build a Comprehensive Sidewalk Network
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into Transportation Projects
Create Slow Zones
Turn Asphalt into Grass and Other Uses
Build Pedestrian and Cyclist Bridges
Redesign Arterial Streets for People

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67
69 

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77
79

Traffic-Analysis Techniques
Collect Pedestrian Data
Include Pedestrian LOS in Analyses
Analyze Person (not Vehicle) Delay

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85

63

Intersection Elements
Daylighting
Raised Crosswalks
Pedestrian Crossing Islands
Offset Crosswalks
High-­Visibility Crosswalks
Advance Stop Lines
In-­Road Pedestrian Signs

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Signal Treatments
Leading Pedestrian Intervals
Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Ban Right Turns on Red
Split Phasing
Pedestrian Scramble or Barnes Dance
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Rectangular Rapid-­Flashing Beacon
Pedestrian Hybrid or HAWK Beacon

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103
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109 

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115

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Create a SmartTrips Program
Seek Recognition
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Demonstrate Street Improvements
Create Open Streets
Create Play Streets
Activate Streetscapes through
Temporary Uses
Promote Park(ing) Day
Start Up Jane’s Walks
Use Apps to Encourage Walking
Expand Driver’s Ed into Mobility Ed
Create a Safe Routes to Schools Program
Create a Safe Routes to Transit Program
Create a Safe Routes for Seniors Program
Establish Walking Meetings at Work
Use Walk Score to Your Advantage

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Pass a Vulnerable-­Users Statute
Provide Training Instead of Fines
Install Red-­Light Cameras and
Speed Cameras
Strengthen Street-­Crossing Ordinances
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Organize Pedestrian Safety-­
Enforcement Operations 

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161 

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iii

Sam Schwartz Engineering
Introduction
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Community: A Guide for Citizens, Planners, and Engineers. This
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grassroots-­led solutions to improve the walking environment in U.S. cities
and suburbs.
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or transit right-­of-­way. Most of the Interstate System built in the past half-­
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Sam Schwartz is President and CEO
of Sam Schwartz Engineering (SSE),
a transportation planning and
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Commissioner and Chief Engineer/
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Professional
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and increased life expectancy. Walkable communities better retain
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Nearly a third of all car trips taken in this country are a mile or less in
length—the equivalent of at most a 20-­minute walk. Moving those trips
out of cars and onto sidewalks would solve many of our transportation
conundrums.
We as engineers have the technical know-­how to design and construct
walkable communities. The methods are deceptively easy: Build good
transit systems and integrate them into existing infrastructure. Design
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walkable communities. I’m proud to have Sam Schwartz Engineering
lead by example with this collaboration with America Walks.

Samuel I. Schwartz
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America Walks
Introduction
Walking is a distinctive and fundamental human activity that yields
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economic sense: They both command higher property values and are
more affordable when people have to spend less on transportation.
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to create this reality by making your community more walkable. At
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best and brightest strategies to move you toward a more walkable
community. We have worked to capture both time-­tested and new and
innovative tactics that are realistic and achievable. Dive in and learn
about these exciting initiatives.
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to learn about the newest innovations.
Finally America Walks is committed to working with you and your
community to make these projects reality. Chapter 1 of this guide
provides a basic outline for how to effectively organize your grassroots
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phone support.

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Scott Bricker is Executive Director of
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whose mission is making America a
Great Place to Walk!
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of experience helping communities
implement active transportation
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We wish you success in your efforts to Make America a Great Place to
Walk!

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How to Use This Guide
Why

GRZHQHHGSteps to a Walkable Community?
Walking is a fundamental form of transportation with far-­reaching
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given way to automobile-­oriented residential and circulation patterns.
The consequences of accommodating driving at the expense of
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dilemmas.

Steps to a Walkable Community is about building communities where
people are allowed the choice of getting to their destinations on
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should also be diverse. Steps to a Walkable Community compiles
multidisciplinary tactics that readers can assemble into custom
strategies designed for their community’s circumstances. The guide
contains tactics for building or rebuilding cities and suburbs in ways that
encourage walking. The guide is also about making walking in cities
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Steps to a Walkable Community also describes methods of organizing
advocacy to reach these goals.

Who

ZLOOXVHSteps to a Walkable Community?
Steps to a Walkable Community addresses everyone who plays a
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initiatives. The tactics contained here are intended to be applied and
adapted to suit the needs of communities across the country.

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How

VKRXOGUHDGHUVXVHSteps to a
Walkable Community?
Steps to a Walkable Community has been designed as a practical
resource for all those interested in promoting walking and improving the
walking environment in several ways:

1

The guide outlines how investing in walking and walking
infrastructure can help address many of our nation’s most pressing
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economic—and then distilled into two-­page fact sheets that
readers can use as talking points to help justify investments in
walking infrastructure improvements.

2

This guide is not intended to be a comprehensive guide
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in your community from a variety of different angles. These
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here has been successfully implemented in North America. Each
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3

While readers are encouraged to explore the whole range of
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in the PDF version permits readers to click on page number of an
individual tactic to be directed to that page in the document.

4

This guide is designed to allow readers to assemble multiple
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and circumstances of their community. Case studies illustrate
how tactics can be combined into successful strategies to
create meaningful change and improvements to a community’s
walking environment. Sam Schwartz Engineering and America
Walks are also creating a website (walksteps.org) to help readers
select among these tactics and other emerging ideas to create
innovative strategies to improve walking in their communities.

vii

Acknowledgements

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Scott Bricker | America Walks
Sam Schwartz | Sam Schwartz Engineering

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Laura MacNeil | Sam Schwartz Engineering

Jeanne Anthony | AARP
Janet M. Barlow | Accessible Design for the Blind
Janet Campbell | Sam Schwartz Engineering
Mark De La Vergne | Sam Schwartz Engineering
David Gurin | City Planner
Andy Hamilton | Walk San Diego
Monica Hobbs Vinluan | YMCA
Mark Kulewicz | AAA New York
Christopher Leinberger | Brookings Institution
David Levinger | Mobility Education Foundation
Jana Lynott | AARP
John Moffat | Pedestrian Safety Expert
Michael Monteleone | Sam Schwartz Engineering
Lisa Quinn | Feet First
Elosia Raynault | American Public Health Association
Richard Retting | Sam Schwartz Engineering
Jeff Riegner | Transportation Engineer
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Sarah Strunk | Active Living by Design
Arthur Wendell | National Centers for Disease Control
Jeff Zupan | Regional Plan Association

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Matt Bernstine | Sam Schwartz Engineering
Zeke Mermell | Sam Schwartz Engineering

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Eric Beaton | New York City Department of Transportation
Rajiv Bhatia | San Francisco Department of Public Health
Enid Breen | UNLV Safe Community Partnership
Paul Chasan | San Francisco Planning Department
Larry Corsi | Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Ethan Fawley | Complete Streets Coalition Minnesota
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Brian Gerber | Every Body Walk!
Brian Hare | Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
Naomi Hersson-­Ringskog | No Longer Empty
Deb Hubsmith | Safe Routes to School National Partnership
Kit Keller | Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals
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Matt Magnasco | Charlotte Department of Transportation
Ted Orosz | MTA New York City Transit
Margo Polley | Seattle Department of Transportation
Sean Quinn | New York City Department of Transportation
Thomas Rigler | Every Body Walk!
Jason Roberts | Better Block
Mary Catherine Synder | Seattle Department of Transportation
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Megan L. Wier | San Francisco Department of Public Health
Sarah Wolf | NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

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Jeremy Grandstaff | Alliance for Biking and Walking
Dawn Hanson | America Walks
Todd Litman | Victoria Transport Policy Institute
ix

Health Benefits of Walking
"Walking is our best strategy for improving health….The epidemic of chronic diseases is becoming the
number-one cost issue in almost every country in the world. We need a national agenda that creates
a culture of health and where people can walk. Walking can be done anywhere, all you need is shoes….
It can be done easily and has huge benefits."
— George Halvorson,
Chairman & CEO, Kaiser Permanente

Problem Overview

Walking as a Solution

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Benefits of Walking
Fact Sheets

Health
Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

Additional Resources
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)LJXUH7UDQVSRUWDWLRQDQG2EHVLW\5DWHVSource: John Pucher,
Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health:
Lessons from the Netherlands and Germany, 2003 http://www.
hsph.harvard.edu/healthdesign/ppt-­pdf/pucher_revised.pdf 

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Safety Benefits of Walking
"The fatalities on America’s roadways are equivalent to a midsize commercial airliner falling out of the
sky every other day. The magnitude of roadway crashes is not well publicized, while a single airplane
crash would make headlines across the nation."
— Scott Bricker,
Executive Director, America Walks

Problem Overview
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Source: Literature Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian
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Benefits of Walking
Fact Sheets

Health
Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

Walking as a Solution
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Transportation Benefits of Walking
"Walking is incredibly efficient. Nearly a third of all car trips taken in this country are a mile or less in
length—the equivalent of a 20-minute walk. Moving those trips out of cars and onto sidewalks would
solve many of our transportation conundrums."
— Samuel I. Schwartz, P.E.
President & CEO, Sam Schwartz Engineering

Problem Overview

Walking as a Solution

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Household Travel 

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Benefits of Walking
Fact Sheets

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Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

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Improved Walking
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Increased Walking
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More Walkable
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Social Equity Benefits of Walking
"…If you believe that society should strive to promote equality and happiness, you push to make your
roads integrated and humane, from space for walking to space for cars and transit. And in my mind,
the most advanced cities are the ones with the best-quality sidewalks."1
— Enrique Peñalosa,
former mayor of Bogotá, Colombia, and president of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

Problem Overview
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Benefits of Walking
Fact Sheets

Health
Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

Walking as a Solution
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5DFHSource: Dangerous by Design, Transportation for America,
2011

Additional Resources
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Economic Benefits of Walking
"The creation of safe and attractive walking and cycling environments in towns and cities is a necessary
condition for success and is central to improving them for shoppers, visitors, workers, and residents
alike. In other words, quite apart from pro-walking and pro-cycling arguments based on sustainability,
the environment, health, community cohesion, or social inclusion, there is a strong business case for
improving walking and cycling conditions."
— Dr. Rodney Tolley1
Conference Director of Walk21

Problem Overview
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Benefits of Walking
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Health
Safety
Transportation
Social Equity
Economic

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Smart Growth Reduces
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Additional Resources
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Source: Todd Litman, Evaluating Criticism of Smart Growth, 2012 

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Advocacy Tactics
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11

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

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Follow these steps to best advocate
for walking improvements:
1.

Assess your organization and
network of supporters 

'HÀQHWKHLVVXH
3.

Set (campaign) goals

4.

Assess resources and opportunities

5.

Target decision-­makers and create
a champion

6.

Communicate

7.

Set tactics and timelines

8.

Manage resources

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12

Step 1. Assess Your Organization
and Network of Supporters
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13

Tactics

Step 2.
Define the Issue

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

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14

Step 3.
Set (Campaign) Goals
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Short-­Term Goals:
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Medium-­Term Goals:
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Long-­Term Goal:
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Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Tactics

Step 4. Assess Your
Resources and
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Internal Analysis
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16

Step 5. Target Decision-Makers
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TARGET

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Tactics

Step 6.
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Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

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18

Step 7.
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Date of Completion

Update / Notes

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19

Tactics

Step 8.
Manage Resources

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Staff and Volunteers
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Policy Tactics
Introduction

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21

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Improving by Policy: San Francisco
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Tactics

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Assess Pedestrian Projects,
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Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Washington
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Land Use Tactics
Introduction

The term “land use” refers to the policies and programs that determine the size, use, location, and
density of buildings and development. The shape of suburbs and cities is determined by land use
SROLFLHVZKHWKHULQWKHIRUPRI]RQLQJUHJXODWLRQVVXEGLYLVLRQRUGLQDQFHVÀUHFRGHVRUSDUNLQJ
minimums. The following strategies and tactics attempt to reshape communities to better support
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FUHDWHWHPSRUDU\GHVWLQDWLRQVZRUWKZDONLQJWRLQZKDWXVHGWREHYDFDQWODQGRUEXLOGLQJV

39

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Cary Design Guidelines Manual depicting street connectivity in residential communities. Source: Town of Cary, NC

40

Support Street Life with
Mixed-Use, Form-Based Zoning
'HÀQLWLRQ

Form-­based zoning codes are legal regulations that direct the physical
form and placement of buildings within communities. Form-­based codes focus on
the relationship between buildings and the streetscape, generally with the goal of
creating appealing, pedestrian-­oriented public spaces. In contrast, traditional zoning
regulations focus on separating residential, commercial, and manufacturing uses and
GRQRWGHWHUPLQHWKHH[DFWIRUPDQGORFDWLRQDEXLOGLQJZRXOGWDNH)RUPEDVHG
codes typically include a regulating plan or map designating where different built-­
IRUPVWDQGDUGVDSSO\VSHFLÀFDWLRQVIRUUHTXLUHGVWUHHWVFDSHHOHPHQWVDQGEXLOWIRUP
standards, an explanation of the review process for applications and developments,
and a glossary of terms.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Creates quality, human-­scaled built forms and
public space

‡ Formulate an overall vision for the community
through a broad-­based public-­input process.
The vision can then be adopted into a
comprehensive plan to establish local land
use policies and create political momentum
for code reform

‡ 0DNHVWKHFRGHHDVLHUWRGLVFXVVMXGJHDQG
enforce because descriptions and visuals of
built-­form regulations are more accessible to
non-­planners
‡ Easily matches and maintains existing
neighborhood character
‡ Replaces single-­use areas with mixed-­use
zones

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‡ Since form-­based codes are binding laws,
DFRPPXQLW\FDQEHÀQDQFLDOO\OLDEOHIRU
litigious disputes
‡ Form-­based code includes technical terms
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‡ Historic districts
‡ Transit-­oriented developments
‡ Main Street corridors
‡ Revitalization districts

‡ Determine whether form-­based codes are
the best approach to meeting the community
vision, again through a broad-­based public-­
input process
‡ Write the code with regular revisions and
reviews through a public-­participation process
‡ &RQÀUPWKDWWKHFRGHLVFRQVWLWXWLRQDOLQLWV
language and application, especially relating
to the primary legal considerations of property
rights, due process, equal protection, and free
speech (relating to adult uses)1
‡ Revise existing regulations and incentives that
contradict the goals and envisioned outcomes
of the form-­based code initiative
‡ 7UDLQGHYHORSHUVJRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUVDQG
FRPPXQLW\PHPEHUVRQKRZWKHFRGHZRUNV

‡ Downtown areas

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ Commercial centers in existing neighborhoods

‡ The American Planning Association gave its
2011 National Planning Excellence Award to
the Miami21 form-­based code

‡ New developments
‡ Campus developments
‡ Mixed-­use districts

41

‡ Examine existing codes to see where they fail
to guide development toward the established
community vision

Division 51A-13.500. Minor Streets and Streetscapes.

Tactics

Sec. 51A-13.502. New Minor Streets.

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

(3) Residential Streets.
The following requirements apply to the construction of new residential
streets within a RTN district. All streets must be two-way and be constructed with a maximum design speed of 30 mph. When RTN applies to either side of a street and the other
side of the street is in a WMU or WR district, both sides of the street must use the RTN
cross-section.
(A) Parallel Parking (MS-2A).

Planting Zone

Sidewalk

8’

Parking

6’

Travel Lanes

Parking

varies 6-10’

Planting Zone

Sidewalk

Case Study: Standish

17’

8’

6’

6-10’

varies

Right-of-Way 57’

Planting Zone

Sidewalk

6’

Parking

6-10’

Travel Lanes

Planting Zone

varies

Sidewalk

$QH[DPSOHRIIRUPEDVHGFRGHVSHFLÀFDWLRQVIRU
(B)streets.
Yield with
Parallel Parking
(MS-2B).
residential
Source:
City of
Dallas Article XIII
Form Districts

15’

8’

6’

6-10’

A town of about 10,000 citizens 18 miles west of Portland, ME, adopted
a new comprehensive plan in 2006 with the main goal of conserving
the town’s rural character while directing most of its future growth
into village centers. While the plan set the policy direction for future
JURZWKPDQ\GHWDLOVRIKRZWKDWIXWXUHJURZWKVKRXOGORRNZHUHQ·W
VSHFLÀHG7RKHOS6WDQGLVKEHWWHUFODULI\DQGGLUHFWLWVIXWXUHJURZWK
WKHSODQQLQJQRQSURÀWRUJDQL]DWLRQGrowSmartMaine led sessions to
help the community come up with visions for Standish Corner, an area
intended to be the community’s primary commercial and residential
growth center. To help residents understand the impacts of different
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simulations of two different growth scenarios that attendees could vote
on. Once the community understood and established a vision, the
town selected a form-­based code for implementing ordinances and
KLUHGDFRQVXOWLQJÀUPWRGUDIWWKHODQJXDJHRIWKHFRGH7KDQNVWR
its broad base of support, the town council approved the form-­based
code unanimously.2

varies

Right-of-Way 47’

([DPSOHV
Many U.S. neighborhoods, cities, and
counties have adopted form-­based codes,
5-6 | Article XIII. Form Districts
LQFOXGLQJ

DCA 078-011 (Creation of Article XIII)

‡ Albuquerque, NM
‡ Arlington, WA
‡ 0LDPL)/
‡ Davidson, NC
‡ Woodford County, KY

1. :KLWH0DUN)RUP%DVHG&RGHV3UDFWLFDODQG/HJDO&RQVLGHUDWLRQV,QVWLWXWHRQ3ODQQLQJ=RQLQJ (PLQHQW'RPDLQ1RYHPEHUS
KWWSZZZSODQQLQJDQGODZFRPXSORDGV60:B3DSHU3UHVHQWDWLRQSGI  

2. GrowSmartMaine. Maine Model Town—Standish. June 8, 2011. KWWSZZZJURZVPDUWPDLQHRUJVWDQGLVK

42

Manage Parking to
Promote Walking
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$FRPELQHGVHWRISROLFLHV RIWHQXQGHUWKHMXULVGLFWLRQRIPXOWLSOH
PXQLFLSDODJHQFLHV WRPDQDJHWKHVXSSO\RISDUNLQJLQRUGHUWRUHGXFHFDUXVHDQG
HQFRXUDJHGHYHORSPHQWZKHUHSHRSOHFDQZDONWRWKHLUGHVWLQDWLRQV/DQGXVH]RQLQJ
tax policies, curbside regulations, and subdivision ordinances are all means of regulating
WKHSURYLVLRQDQGXVHRISDUNLQJ

%HQHÀWV

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‡ +HOSVFUHDWHPRUHZDONDEOHGHYHORSPHQW

‡ (QFRXUDJHVLQÀOOGHYHORSPHQW

‡ At every step, engage, educate, and learn
from the public, especially businesses, at the
city and local scale to gain support for policy
implementation and maintenance

‡ Eases redevelopment of older urban centers
where buildings were often built without
SDUNLQJSURYLVLRQV

‡ 5HGXFHRUUHPRYHPLQLPXPSDUNLQJ
UHTXLUHPHQWVDQGVHWSDUNLQJPD[LPXPVLQ
urban centers and urban villages

‡ 5HGXFHVXQGHUXVHGSDUNLQJIDFLOLWLHVZKLFK
reduces costs to taxpayers and developers
and encourages additional development

‡ 3URYLGHLQFHQWLYHVIRUSDUNLQJUHGXFWLRQ
SURJUDPVVXFKDVSDUNLQJFDVKRXWVKDUHG
SDUNLQJDQGSDUNDQGULGH

‡ 5HGXFHVWUDIÀFDQGFRQJHVWLRQ

‡ 5HVWULFWWKHORFDWLRQRISDUNLQJWRUHGXFHLWV
impact on street life

‡ Improves pedestrian safety

‡ Potentially increases retail sales with faster
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‡ Overcomes an impediment for affordable-­
housing construction

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‡ Policies that change the supply, price,
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implemented alongside improvements to
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most effectively reduce car use
‡ Determining the appropriate amount of
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RIWHQYDULHVE\DFRPPXQLW\·VVSHFLÀFFRQWH[W
and goals

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Regional transportation plans
‡ Municipal master plans
‡ Transportation-­demand-­management studies
‡ =RQLQJXSGDWHVDQGUH]RQLQJV
‡ Community transportation plans

43

» 3URKLELWIURQWVXUIDFHSDUNLQJORWVEHWZHHQ
EXLOGLQJVDQGWKHVWUHHWUHTXLUHSDUNLQJ
behind or underneath buildings
» Restrict the number and size of driveways
(create alleys to consolidate driveway
access to the street or consolidate
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intersections)
‡ 5HTXLUHELF\FOHSDUNLQJLQQHZGHYHORSPHQWV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIRIÀFLDOHQGRUVHPHQWVIURP
national associations or governments, cities
are turning to best practices employed by
other municipalities
‡ EndorsedZLWKLQWKHJXLGHERRN5HIRUPLQJ
3DUNLQJ3ROLFLHVWR6XSSRUW6PDUW*URZWK
7RROER[+DQGERRNRI3DUNLQJ%HVW3UDFWLFHV
and Strategies for Supporting Transit Oriented
'HYHORSPHQWLQWKH6DQ)UDQFLVFR%D\$UHD1

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Seattle
6HDWWOH·VSDUNLQJPDQDJHPHQWVWUDWHJ\GDWHVEDFNWRLWVÀUVW
Comprehensive Plan, adopted in 1994 in response to Washington State’s
1990 Growth Management Act. The state mandated city and county
FRPSUHKHQVLYHSODQVDQGGHÀQHGWKHLUJRDOVZKLFKLQFOXGHGUHGXFLQJ
XUEDQVSUDZODQGHQFRXUDJLQJLQÀOOGHYHORSPHQW:LWKLQWKDWSROLWLFDO
IUDPHZRUN6HDWWOHFUHDWHGD&RPSUHKHQVLYH3ODQEDVHGRQDQ
“urban village” development model whose purpose was to direct new
development into existing urban centers and villages.2%RWKWKHFLW\
departments of transportation (SDOT) and planning and development
'3' FUHDWHGSDUNLQJSROLFLHVWRZDUGWKDWHQG

6HDWWOHHQGHGSDUNLQJPLQLPXPVWDQGDUGVLQLWV
downtown. Source: Puget Sound Regional Council

([DPSOHV
‡ Seattle, WA
‡ San Francisco, CA
‡ Washington, DC

'3'HQGHGSDUNLQJPLQLPXPVWDQGDUGVIRUGRZQWRZQ3 and
implemented a one-­space-­per-­1,000-­square-­feet-­of-­nonresidential-­
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EHVLGHEXLOGLQJV3DUNLQJUHTXLUHPHQWVFRXOGEHZDLYHGDOWRJHWKHU
in a development along a designated pedestrian corridor. The plan
provides incentives for large development programs, including
SDUNLQJFDVKRXWVKDUHGSDUNLQJDQGSDUNDQGULGH4 SDOT began by
articulating a priority system for curb space depending on district type.
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RUGLQDU\SULYDWHFDUSDUNLQJ 5
5HVLGHQWLDOFXUEVSDFHZHQWÀUVWWRWUDQVLWWKHQORDGLQJWKHQORFDO
UHVLGHQWDQGVKDUHGYHKLFOHSDUNLQJDQGÀQDOO\LQGLYLGXDOSXEOLF
use.6 “It helps to have these goals articulated in a plan,” says Margo
3ROOH\6WUDWHJLF$GYLVRUIRU6'27·V3DUNLQJ2SHUDWLRQVDQG7UDIÀF
Permits Section. “I can’t tell you how many times I’ve cited them
ZKHQUHVSRQGLQJWRFRPSODLQWVDERXWODFNRIUHVLGHQWLDOSDUNLQJLQ
commercial districts. It helps people see the bigger picture.” SDOT
then created a Transportation Strategic Plan in response to the city’s
Comprehensive Plan.

1. 0HWURSROLWDQ7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ&RPPLVVLRQ5HIRUPLQJ3DUNLQJ3ROLFLHVWR6XSSRUW6PDUW*URZWK7RROER[+DQGERRNRI3DUNLQJ%HVW3UDFWLFHVDQG6WUDWHJLHVIRU6XSSRUWLQJ
7UDQVLW2ULHQWHG'HYHORSPHQWLQWKH6DQ)UDQFLVFR%D\$UHD-XQHKWWSZZZPWFFDJRYSODQQLQJVPDUWBJURZWKSDUNLQJSDUNLQJBVHPLQDU7RROER[+DQGERRNSGI
2. City of Seattle. Toward a Sustainable Seattle Comprehensive Plan. Adopted July 25, 1994. Revised 2004.
KWWSZZZVHDWWOHJRY'3'FPVJURXSVSDQ#SDQ#SODQ#SURMGRFXPHQWV:HEB,QIRUPDWLRQDOFRVBSGI
3. &LW\RI6HDWWOH7LWOH/DQG8VH&RGH6XEWLWOH,,,/DQG8VH5HJXODWLRQV'LYLVLRQ$XWKRUL]HG8VHVDQG'HYHORSPHQW6WDQGDUGV
&KDSWHU'RZQWRZQ=RQLQJ6HDWWOH0XQLFLSDO&RGH
4. :DON)ULHQGO\&RPPXQLWLHV:DON)ULHQGO\&RPPXQLWLHV3URÀOH6HDWWOH:$QGKWWSZZZZDONIULHQGO\RUJFRPPXQLWLHVSURÀOHV:)&B6HDWWOHSGI
5. Seattle Department of Transportation. Curb Use Priorities in Seattle. KWWSZZZVHDWWOHJRYWUDQVSRUWDWLRQSDUNLQJSDUNLQJFXUEKWP
6. Ibid. 
3ROOH\0DUJR6'273DUNLQJ2SHUDWLRQVDQG7UDIÀF3HUPLWV6HFWLRQ3HUVRQDOFRUUHVSRQGHQFH6HSWHPEHU

44

Add Street-Connectivity
Minimums into Subdivision
Ordinances
'HÀQLWLRQ

Subdivision and zoning ordinances can establish a minimum level of
street connectivity for future residential developments to create neighborhoods that
DUHFRQGXFLYHWRZDONLQJELF\FOLQJDQGWUDQVLWXVH6WUHHWFRQQHFWLYLW\FRQVLVWVRID
URDGDQGRUSDWKQHWZRUNWKDWSURYLGHVPXOWLSOHURXWHVDQGFRQQHFWLRQVEHWZHHQ
destinations. It includes parallel routes, cross connections, many points of access,
DQGVKRUWEORFNOHQJWKV0LQLPXPVWDQGDUGVRIVWUHHWFRQQHFWLYLW\FDQEHEDVHG
RQPD[LPXPDOORZDEOHOHQJWKVRIEORFNVRUE\FRQQHFWLYLW\LQGH[HVRIVWUHHWOLQNVWR
intersections.

%HQHÀWV
» Provides shorter, more direct routes between
GHVWLQDWLRQVZKLFKHQFRXUDJHVZDONLQJDQG
cycling as a means of transportation
» Reduces vehicle speeds
» Reduces severity of accidents
» +HOSVNHHSORFDOWULSVRQORFDOVWUHHWVUDWKHU
than clogging arterial roads and highways
» Provides route alternatives to drivers to avoid
congestion and construction delays
» Reduces travel distances as well as vehicle
miles of travel
» Improves both emergency access and
response times
» $OORZVIRUPRUHHIÀFLHQWXWLOLW\FRQQHFWLRQV
» &UHDWHVHIÀFLHQWWUDVKDQGUHF\FOLQJURXWHV
» Facilitates bus-­route and transit planning

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Public and developer education about
WKHQHHGIRUDQGEHQHÀWVRIIUHTXHQWVWUHHW
connections
‡ Developers may resist street connectivity
requirements due to the potential decrease in
developable land

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Subdivision ordinances for new developments
‡ Comprehensive Plan as the basis for future
regulations
‡ =RQLQJSURYLVLRQV

45

*XLGDQFH
‡ Street-­connectivity standards for new
GHYHORSPHQWVRIWHQWDNHWKHIRUPRI
PD[LPXPDOORZDEOHEORFNOHQJWKRUDQLQGH[
EDVHGRQWKHQXPEHURIVWUHHWOLQNVGLYLGHGE\
the number of street nodes
‡ 0D[LPXPEORFNOHQJWKGHWHUPLQDWLRQV
VKRXOGIDFWRULQH[LVWLQJEORFNGLPHQVLRQV
topography, and the desired scale, character,
and connectivity the community aims to
achieve. For example, in Portland, OR, the
PD[LPXPEORFNOHQJWKLV·LQ$XVWLQ7;LW·V
600’;; and in Ft. Collins, CO, it’s 660’1
‡ One-­way streets operate best in pairs that are
no more than a quarter-­mile apart 2
‡ Align with existing local street grid to create
four-­way intersections
‡ ,QWURGXFHSROLFLHVDQGSUDFWLFHVWRKHOSNHHS
travel speeds down
‡ The Charlotte, NC, subdivision ordinance
VSHFLÀHV
» Preferred street spacing ranges from 400’ to 
·E\FRQWH[WUHTXLULQJVD\WKUHHEORFNV
for a 1,400 ft-­wide property within a transit-­
station area
» 1RLQGLYLGXDOEORFNIDFHVKRXOGH[FHHG
1,000’ (with certain exceptions)

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Endorsed by the American Planning
Association’s Model Street Connectivity
Standards Ordinance3
‡ Endorsed by the Congress for the New
8UEDQLVP%HQHÀWV &18 WKURXJKLWV
&RQQHFWHG6WUHHW1HWZRUNV
‡ Supported by the Institute of Transportation
Engineers through its alliance with the
&18RQLWVSURSRVDOIRUIHGHUDO´QHWZRUNµ
designation of areas meeting connectivity
criteria. The proposal requested that all
VWUHHWVLQDQHWZRUNLQFOXGLQJVLGHZDONV
ZRXOGEHHOLJLEOHIRULQYHVWPHQWIRUSURMHFWV
that maintain or improve the function of the
QHWZRUN

([DPSOHV
‡ )UDQNOLQ71
‡ Cary, NC
‡ $XVWLQ7;
‡ Portland, OR

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Cary
7KURXJKWKHSURFHVVRIFUHDWLQJLWV/DQG8VH3ODQWKHWRZQRI
&DU\1&IRUPXODWHGJRDOVIRULWVHOIUHWDLQDVHQVHRISODFHKDYH
a more human-­scale and pedestrian-­oriented environment, avoid
strip development along arterials, focus commercial activity into
discrete nodes, and increase connectivity. Street connectivity was
seen as a way to foster a sense of community by creating places that
encouraged informal, casual interactions and meetings.4
The town emphasized street-­connectivity standards when creating its
'HVLJQ*XLGHOLQHVZKLFKLPPHGLDWHO\IROORZHGWKH/DQG8VH3ODQ7KH
guidelines outlined connectivity characteristics, such as developments
VKRXOGEHOLQNHGE\URDGVDQGFRQWLQXRXVVLGHZDONVDQGKDYHHDV\WR
XVHLQWHUQDOFLUFXODWLRQQHWZRUNVIRUDOOPRGHVRIWUDYHO7KHJXLGHOLQHV
also divided developments into different categories and provided
GHYHORSHUVZLWKLOOXVWUDWLYHSODQVDQGDFKHFNOLVWRIGHVLUHGHOHPHQWV
for each development type. For residential subdivisions, the design
guidelines recommended reducing the use of cul-­de-­sacs or adapting
them to include pedestrian or bicycle connections. 5
7KHXSGDWHWR&DU\
V/DQG'HYHORSPHQW2UGLQDQFHPDQGDWHG
WKDWEORFNVVKRXOGEHQRPRUHWKDQ 
LQOHQJWKWRFUHDWHPLQLPXP
street-­connectivity standards for new residential development.6
7KHWRZQ
V3HGHVWULDQ3ODQUHFRPPHQGHGIXUWKHUXSGDWHV
WRWKH'HVLJQ*XLGHOLQHVDQG/DQG'HYHORSPHQW2UGLQDQFHWR
improve pedestrian connectivity standards throughout the town.
Recommended edits included requiring vehicular and pedestrian
access to at least two public streets for all developments with more
than 100 residential units and creating a pedestrian connectivity index
to supplement the existing vehicular-­oriented street connectivity index.

Cary Design Guidelines illustrating how developments
should provide multiple route choices. Source: Town
of Cary, NC
1. 0HFN6WXDUW0RUULV0DU\D.HOO\(ULF'DPLDQ%LVKRS.LUN0RGHO6PDUW*URZWK&RGHV,QWHULP3ODQQLQJ$GYLVRU\6HUYLFH5HSRUW&KLFDJR$PHULFDQ3ODQQLQJ$VVRFLDWLRQ
2. 3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU
3. 0HFN6WXDUW0RUULV0DU\D.HOO\(ULF'DPLDQ%LVKRS.LUN0RGHO6PDUW*URZWK&RGHV,QWHULP3ODQQLQJ$GYLVRU\6HUYLFH5HSRUW&KLFDJR$PHULFDQ3ODQQLQJ$VVRFLDWLRQ
4. The Town of Cary, North Carolina. Cary Design Guidelines. 2001. KWWSZZZWRZQRIFDU\RUJ$VVHWV3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW&DU\GHVLSGI
5. Ibid.
6. 7RZQRI&DU\1RUWK&DUROLQD&KDSWHU'HYHORSPHQWDQG'HVLJQ6WDQGDUGV/DQG'HYHORSPHQW2UGLQDQFHKWWSZZZDPOHJDOFRPSGIÀOHV&DU\BSGI/'2B&+SGI 
7RZQRI&DU\1RUWK&DUROLQD6HFWLRQ([LVWLQJ3ODQVDQG3ROLFLHV&DU\3HGHVWULDQ3ODQKWWSZZZWRZQRIFDU\RUJ$VVHWV3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW
3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW3')VSHGHVWULDQGUDIW&DU\6HFWLRQ([LVWLQJ3ODQVDQG3ROLFLHVSGI

46

Retrofit Street, Walking, and
Bicycle Connections into
Existing Suburbs
'HÀQLWLRQ

7KHFRQVWUXFWLRQRIQHZVWUHHWELF\FOHDQGRUSHGHVWULDQVFRQQHFWLRQV
between existing streets on municipal land or private property.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Provides shorter, more direct routes between
GHVWLQDWLRQVZKLFKHQFRXUDJHVZDONLQJDQG
cycling as a means of transportation

» 7KRVHWKDWZRXOGVLJQLÀFDQWO\UHGXFHWKH
ZDONLQJF\FOLQJGLVWDQFHWRUHDFKLPSRUWDQW
land use destinations

‡ Reduces vehicle speeds and severity of
accidents

» 7KRVHWKDWZRXOGVLJQLÀFDQWO\UHGXFHWKH
ZDONLQJF\FOLQJGLVWDQFHWRUHDFKH[LVWLQJ
SHGHVWULDQDQGRUELF\FOHQHWZRUNV

‡ ,QFUHDVHVPRELOLW\RSWLRQVIRUNLGVDQGIDPLOLHV
‡ +HOSVNHHSORFDOWULSVRQORFDOVWUHHWVUDWKHU
than clogging arterial roads and highways

*XLGDQFH

‡ Provides route alternatives to drivers to avoid
congestion and construction delays

‡ Finish connecting on existing rights-­of-­way
paired with infrastructure improvements for
community cooperation

‡ Reduces travel distances and vehicle miles
traveled
‡ Improves emergency-­response times
‡ $OORZVIRUPRUHHIÀFLHQWXWLOLW\FRQQHFWLRQV
‡ &UHDWHVHIÀFLHQWWUDVKDQGUHF\FOLQJURXWHV
‡ Facilitates bus-­route and transit planning

‡ Investigate potential utility easements,
alleyways, and planned streets that were
never constructed as potential rights-­of-­way
for connections
‡ Purchase private land lots, construct the
GHVLUHGVWUHHWVLGHZDONRUPXOWLXVHSDWKDQG
then resell the property

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

‡ /LQHXSSROLWLFDOVXSSRUW

‡ Educating the public about the need for and
EHQHÀWVRIIUHTXHQWVWUHHWFRQQHFWLRQV

‡ %HWKHÀUVWWRIUDPHWKHGLVFXVVLRQDERXW
VWUHHWSHGHVWULDQELF\FOHFRQQHFWLYLW\

‡ Funding and logistics for procuring the
necessary right-­of-­way

‡ Anticipate potential arguments and sources of
resistance, and address them from the outset
WKURXJKDYDULHW\RIZD\VLQFOXGLQJ

‡ Ensuring connections are accessible to people
with disabilities

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Subdivision stub streets that were planned as
through-­streets and approved by the local
government but never completed
‡ Potential street connections that would
OLQNLPSRUWDQWODQGXVHVVXFKDVUHVLGHQWLDO
neighborhoods to elementary schools
‡ Potential street connections that would
improve access to transit or greenways
‡ )RUVWUHHWFRQQHFWLYLW\
» 7KRVHWKDWZRXOGGLYHUWWUDIÀFIURP
congested streets or intersections
» 7KRVHWKDWZRXOGVLJQLÀFDQWO\UHGXFHGULYLQJ
distances for residents 

‡ )RUSHGHVWULDQRUELF\FOHFRQQHFWLYLW\

» 7DONLQJSRLQWVLQWUDGLWLRQDODQGVRFLDOPHGLD
outreach
» 3URDFWLYHVWDNHKROGHUPHHWLQJVZLWK
potential opponents
» 7DONLQJSRLQWVLQSXEOLFHGXFDWLRQFDPSDLJQ
material
‡ Contextualize local opposition through
broad-­based surveys revealing the general
SHUVSHFWLYHRIDUHDUHVLGHQWV:RUNZLWKORFDO
politicians or community partners to survey a
large community base
‡ %XLOGLQÁH[LELOLW\LQWKHSURMHFW
VVFRSHDQG
timeline to accommodate public concerns
‡ &UHDWHDQGDUWLFXODWHVSHFLÀFEHQHÀWV
for neighborhoods both “upstream” and
´GRZQVWUHDPµRIDSURSRVHGVWUHHWOLQN

%HIRUH

$IWHU

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Charlotte
In 2006, the city of Charlotte, NC, created a Street Connectivity
program within its Department of Transportation (CDOT) to run
the “inventory and implementation of needed street connections
within and between neighborhoods as well as the construction of
new connectors and local streets to provide improved access and
connectivity for future development.” The program is funded primarily
through federal Congestion Mitigation Air Quality (CMAQ) grant
PRQH\7KH&'276WUHHW&RQQHFWLYLW\3URJUDPÀOWHUVH[LVWLQJVWUHHW
connections that fail to meet its new subdivision-­ordinance standards
through an engineering analysis and prioritization process.
Potential street connections are analyzed through a geographic-­
LQIRUPDWLRQV\VWHPV *,6 PDSSLQJWRROIRU
‡ 3RWHQWLDOODQGXVHOLQNDJHV:KDWVWUHHWSDLUVZRXOGEHFRQQHFWHGZLWKLQ
DGLVWDQFHRIDQGPLOH"
‡ 0RGHLPSDFW:RXOGWKHUHEHQHZDFFHVVWRWUDQVLWRUDJUHHQZD\"

Drivers created an informal dirt path between
/DZLQJ6FKRRO5GDQG1RUWKZRRGV)RUHVW'UXQWLO
Charlotte DOT constructed the street connection.
Source: Charlotte DOT, vc.charmeck.org

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ EndorsedE\WKH3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH
Information Center1
‡ A 6SUDZO5HWURÀW strategy endorsed by the
Congress for the New Urbanism2
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIRIÀFLDOHQGRUVHPHQWV
from national associations or governments,
cities are turning to best practices
employed by other municipalities

([DPSOHV
‡ Charlotte, NC
‡ Cary, NC

‡ 5RDGQHWZRUNLPSDFW:RXOGWKHFRQQHFWLRQGLYHUWGULYHUVDZD\IURP
FRQJHVWHGLQWHUVHFWLRQVRUURDGZD\VHJPHQWV"
‡ 5RXWHGLUHFWQHVVLPSDFW:KLFKFRQQHFWLRQZRXOGPDNHWKHELJJHVW
change in the ratio of route lengths between any two destinations as the
FURZÁLHVYHUVXVWKHURDGQHWZRUN"

7KH&'27UHYLHZVKLJKUDQNLQJSRWHQWLDOVWUHHWFRQQHFWLRQFDQGLGDWHV
IRUFRQVWUXFWLRQIHDVLELOLW\WRÀOWHURXWDQ\WKDWFRQWDLQIDWDOÁDZVRU
VLJQLÀFDQWHQYLURQPHQWDORUFRVWSURKLELWLRQV3URMHFWVWKDWDOUHDG\
have local community and political support are then prioritized. CDOT’s
6WUHHW&RQQHFWLYLW\SURJUDPKRZHYHUKDVHQFRXQWHUHGVLJQLÀFDQW
SXEOLFUHVLVWDQFHWRQHZVWUHHWOLQNV2EVWDFOHVWRSXEOLFDSSURYDO
LQFOXGHSHUFHSWLRQVWKDWVWUHHWFRQQHFWLRQVZLOOLQFUHDVHWUDIÀFVSHHGV
or volumes, affect neighborhood crime rates, or lower property values.
6WUHHWFRQQHFWLRQUHWURÀWSURMHFWVWKDWZLQFRPPXQLW\VXSSRUWQHHG
WRKDYHSROLWLFDOVXSSRUWÁH[LELOLW\LQWKHVFRSHDQGWLPHOLQHRIWKH
SURMHFWWRDFFRPPRGDWHFRPPXQLW\FRQFHUQVDQGUHTXHVWVDQG
FOHDUWDQJLEOHEHQHÀWVIRUQHLJKERUKRRGVERWK´XSVWUHDPµDQG
´GRZQVWUHDPµRIDSURSRVHGVWUHHWOLQN 3

1. 3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU+RZ&DQ:H0DNH3HGHVWULDQ%LF\FOH&RQQHFWLRQVLQ&XOGH6DF'HYHORSPHQWV"8QLYHUVLW\RI1RUWK&DUROLQD+LJKZD\6DIHW\
Research Center. Nd. KWWSZZZELF\FOLQJLQIRRUJIDTVDQVZHUFIP"LG 
2. &RQJUHVVIRUWKH1HZ8UEDQLVP6SUDZO5HWURÀW&RQJUHVVIRUWKH1HZ8UEDQLVPKWWSZZZFQXRUJVSUDZOUHWURÀW
3. Matt Magnasco. Street Connectivity Program Manager. Charlotte DOT. Personal correspondence. March 26, 2012.

48

Create Transit-Oriented
Development (TOD)
'HÀQLWLRQ

72'LVDFRPSDFWKLJKGHQVLW\PL[HGXVHGHYHORSPHQWEHQHÀWLQJIURP
LWVSUR[LPLW\WRWUDQVLWE\VXSSRUWLQJWUDQVLWXVHZDONLQJDQGF\FOLQJ

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ &UHDWHVZDONDEOHPL[HGXVHQHLJKERUKRRGV

‡ Create a strategic station-­area development
plan incorporating public input, and ideally
EDFNHGE\H[LVWLQJ]RQLQJUHJXODWLRQVWKDW
recognize TOD principles

‡ Reduces automobile dependence
‡ Expands transportation options
‡ 5HGXFHVWUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQ
‡ Increases transit ridership
‡ Reduces combined housing and
transportation cost burden for households
‡ Potentially revitalizes neighborhoods

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Higher square-­footage costs and lending
UHTXLUHPHQWVIRULQÀOOGHYHORSPHQW
‡ Existing zoning policies that hinder TOD
SURMHFWV
‡ /RFDORSSRVLWLRQWRQHDUE\KLJKHUGHQVLW\
developments
‡ Coordinating between transit agencies and
developers
‡ $FFRPPRGDWLQJSDUNDQGULGHEXVVHUYLFH
and rail service without compromising
pedestrian access and safety
‡ 1HJRWLDWLQJUHGXFHGSDUNLQJQHHGVRI72'
UHVLGHQWVZLWKLQFUHDVHGSDUNLQJGHPDQGVRI
SDUNDQG²ULGHWUDQVLWXVHUV

‡ Where existing regulations do not encourage
TOD, proposed zoning exemptions could
LQFOXGHUHGXFHGSDUNLQJPLQLPXPV
suggested densities of 30 dwelling units per
UHVLGHQWLDODFUHPDQGDWRU\ELF\FOHSDUNLQJ
density bonuses for affordable housing, or
expedited entitlement reviews1
‡ 0DUNHW72'SURMHFWVWRWKHOHQGLQJFRPPXQLW\
E\KLJKOLJKWLQJWKHLUPDUNHWYLDELOLW\DQG
development designs that feature direct, safe,
and appealing connections to transit 2

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 7&535HSRUW7UDQVLW2ULHQWHG
'HYHORSPHQWLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV
Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects3

([DPSOHV
Many US cities and counties have adopted
transit-­oriented development concepts,
LQFOXGLQJ
‡ Arlington County, VA
‡ %DOWLPRUH0'

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ &KLFDJR,/

‡ Fixed-­rail and bus-­rapid-­transit nodes

‡ 'DOODV7;

‡ High-­frequency bus-­transit nodes

‡ (O3DVR7;

‡ Ferry landings

‡ /RV$QJHOHV&$
‡ Montgomery County, MD
‡ Portland, OR
‡ 6DQ)UDQFLVFR%D\$UHD&$

49

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Arlington

Clarendon Metro station, Arlington, VA.
Source: Joe Loong, Flickr

Arlington County, VA, is one of the most successful examples of transit-­
oriented development (TOD) in the United States. In a case study
SUHSDUHGIRUWKH7UDQVLW&RRSHUDWLYH5HVHDUFK%RDUG4 the authors
zeroed in on successful TOD tactics employed by Arlington County
RIÀFLDOV2QHRIWKHFRXQW\·VÀUVWVWHSVZDVWRFUHDWHDJHQHUDOODQG
XVHSODQ */83 WKDWVHWWKHEURDGSROLF\IUDPHZRUNIRUJXLGLQJ
development decisions along the Metrorail corridor. The county then
LQWURGXFHGVHFWRUSODQVIRULQGLYLGXDOVHFWRUSODQVWKDWVSHFLÀHGODQG
use and zoning ordinances, as well as urban design, transportation,
and open-­space guidelines for each station area. These plans
included density bonuses, as-­of-­right zoning overlays, and supportive
infrastructure investments to help achieve transit-­oriented development

ZLWKLQDTXDUWHUPLOHUDGLXVDURXQGHDFK0HWURUDLOVWDWLRQ$UOLQJWRQ&RXQW\RIÀFLDOVUHJXODUO\UHYLHZHGDQGUHYLVHG
WKH*/83DQGVHFWRUSODQVWRPDNHVXUHSURYLVLRQZHUHXSWRGDWHPDUNHWUHVSRQVLYHDQGDOLJQHGZLWKFRPPXQLW\
goals. Subsequent revisions added mixed-­use designations, emphasized urban design, and promoted higher-­density
development along the Metrorail corridors while maintaining lower residential density elsewhere in the county. The
report also highlighted other factors believed to have contributed to the success of TOD in Arlington County, including
a politically progressive residential base and the structure of the county’s political system. In Arlington, county board
members are elected at-­large on staggered terms.
In addition, the county manager is appointed by the board rather than elected, which eliminates the usual tension that
H[LVWVEHWZHHQOHJLVODWLYHDQGH[HFXWLYHRIÀFLDOVDWWKHORFDOOHYHO6LQFHPHPEHUVVHUYHDWODUJHWKHDXWKRUVDUJXHWKH\
IHHOOHVVSUHVVXUHWRUHVSRQGWRSDUWLFXODUFRQVWLWXHQWGHPDQGVDQGJULSHVDERXWVSRWWUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQ 5 The Metrorail
FRUULGRUDOVRUDQWKHOHQJWKRI:LOVRQ%RXOHYDUGZKLFKDWWKHWLPHZDVGHFOLQLQJLQWRDVXEXUEDQVOXPOLQHGE\PRWHOV
DQGGDWHGVWULSPDOOV7KHFRXQW\RIÀFLDOVUHFRJQL]HGWKHRSSRUWXQLW\IRUUHGHYHORSPHQWDQGWD[EDVHEHQHÀWVWKDW72'
could provide for local schools and services.
7KHUHVXOWVRIWKHVHSROLFLHVDUHLPSUHVVLYH6LQFHWRWDORIÀFHVSDFHLQWKHFRXQW\KDVGRXEOHGWRPRUHWKDQ
PLOOLRQVTXDUHIHHWZLWKRIWKHRIÀFHVSDFHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHFRXQW\·VWZR0HWURUDLOFRUULGRUV$GGLWLRQDOO\WKH
QXPEHURIKRXVLQJXQLWVLQ0HWURUDLOFRUULGRUVLQFUHDVHGIURPWRPRUHWKDQRYHUWKHSDVW\HDUV7KH
5RVVO\Q%DOOVWRQFRUULGRUKDVDOVRHPHUJHGDVRQHRI1RUWKHUQ9LUJLQLD·VSULPDU\UHWDLODGGUHVVHV6

1. 7UDQVLW&RRSHUDWLYH5HVHDUFK3URJUDP5HSRUW7UDQVLW2ULHQWHG'HYHORSPHQWLQWKH86([SHULHQFHV&KDOOHQJHVDQG3URVSHFWVV²
KWWSRQOLQHSXEVWUERUJRQOLQHSXEVWFUSWFUSBUSWBSGI
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid. 248.
6. ,ELG²

50

Provide LOS Exemptions for
Pedestrian, Transit, and Bicycling
Infrastructure Improvements
'HÀQLWLRQ

7KLVODQGXVHSROLF\PRGLÀHVKRZWUDQVSRUWDWLRQLPSDFWVDUHDQDO\]HG
DQGPLWLJDWHG:KHQDSURSRVHGGHYHORSPHQWZRXOGKDYHDVLJQLÀFDQWLPSDFWRQ
PRWRUYHKLFOHOHYHOVRIVHUYLFH /26 LQFHUWDLQDUHDV WUDQVLWFRUULGRUVWUDQVLWVWDWLRQV
neighborhoods, or protected intersections), the policy would allow developers to
UHSODFHDXWRPRELOH/26PLWLJDWLRQZLWKLPSURYHPHQWVIRUSHGHVWULDQVWUDQVLWRUF\FOLVWV

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ (QFRXUDJHVZDONLQJDQGF\FOLQJ

‡ ,GHQWLI\VSHFLÀFDUHDVZKHUHWKHSROLF\ZRXOG
be appropriate

‡ Encourages higher-­density development
where desired
‡ Provides transparent, predictable process of
transportation analysis for developers
‡ Encourages smart-­growth development

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 3RWHQWLDOFRQJHVWLRQDQGWUDIÀFGHOD\V

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Transit corridors, transit station areas
‡ Planned communities
‡ Transit-­oriented development
‡ Areas zoned for moderate-­to-­high densities

‡ Create a reasonable and predictable process
IRUWUDIÀFLPSDFWDQDO\VLVIRUGHYHORSHUVWR
IDFWRULQWRÀQDQFLDODQGSODQQLQJGHFLVLRQV
‡ 8VHWUDGLWLRQDO/26DQDO\VLVPHWKRGVWR
GHWHUPLQHHIIHFWRQWUDIÀF
‡ 'HÀQHWKHWKUHVKROGVIRUVLJQLÀFDQWLPSDFWV
based on commonly agreed upon standards,
such as state or federal guidelines
‡ Determine and announce up front how
these transportation-­impact fees would be
calculated and assessed through a publicized
IHHVWUXFWXUHWKDWLQFOXGHVDQDQQXDOLQÁDWLRQ
factor1

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIRIÀFLDOHQGRUVHPHQWVIURP
national associations or governments, cities
are turning to best practices employed by
other municipalities

([DPSOHV
‡ San Jose, CA

51

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: San José
In the 1960’s, San José, CA, grew rapidly in automobile-­oriented growth
patterns until roadways became congested and undeveloped land
more scarce. San José updated its transportation policy in 2005 to
JLYHSULRULW\WRSHGHVWULDQVWUDQVLWDQGELF\FOLVWVLQVSHFLÀFORFDWLRQV
Those areas included parts of the city zoned for higher densities,
planned communities, and transit-­oriented development. All proposed
development, whether in a Special Planning Area (SPA) or not, had to
HYDOXDWHZKHWKHULWZRXOGVXEVWDQWLDOO\LQFUHDVHWUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQ
6WULSHGSDUNLQJODQHVDQGSHGHVWULDQVVLJQVKHOS
create multimodal streets in San José, CA.
Source: Richard Masoner / Cyclelicious, Flickr

Traditional methodologies evaluate motor-­vehicle delays at an
intersection. Any proposed development (above a threshold size)
WKDWZRXOGUHVXOWLQDVXEVWDQWLDOLQFUHDVHLQWUDIÀFPXVWSUHSDUHD
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ,PSDFW$QDO\VLV 7,$ 7KHQHZSROLF\PRGLÀHVKRZ
transportation-­impact analyses and mitigations are conducted in
SPAs. In addition to describing existing vehicular facilities, the TIA for
a proposed development in an SPA must also identify the existence,
status, and condition of pedestrians, bicycle, and transit facilities and
V\VWHPV,IDSURSRVHGGHYHORSPHQWLQDQ63$FUHDWHVDVLJQLÀFDQW
YHKLFOH/26LPSDFWWKHQWKHSURMHFWPXVWLQFOXGHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ
V\VWHPLPSURYHPHQWVEHQHÀWLQJWUDQVLWELF\FOLVWVRUSHGHVWULDQV6DQ
-RVpGHÀQHVDVLJQLÀFDQWYHKLFOH/26LPSDFWDVHLWKHU  FDXVLQJWKH
/26DWDQLQWHUVHFWLRQWRIDOOEHORZ'RU  FRQWULEXWLQJWKHHTXLYDOHQW
RIRUPRUHWRH[LVWLQJWUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQDWDQLQWHUVHFWLRQDOUHDG\
RSHUDWLQJDW/26(RU)
)RUSURMHFWVWKDWZLOOSURGXFHRQHLPSDFWIRUXSWRWULSVWKHIHH
is $2,000 per trip;; for two or more impacts for up to 400 trips, the fee is 
SHUWULS)RUSURMHFWVSURGXFLQJPRUHWKDQWULSVWKHIHHVDUH
assessed during the California Environmental Quality Act analysis. The
net effect of the policy is that when a development proposal would
KDYHVLJQLÀFDQWLPSDFWVRQLGHQWLÀHG7UDQVLW&RUULGRUV7UDQVLW6WDWLRQV
Neighborhoods, or Protected Intersections, automobile mitigation is
replaced with improvements for pedestrians, transit, or bicyclists.2

1. %UD]LO-RKQ$GGUHVVLQJ3HGHVWULDQVLQ5RDGZD\/HYHORI6HUYLFH$QDO\VLV$6DQ-RVp&DOLIRUQLD&DVH6WXG\ 
KWWSZZZZDONFRPSDSHUV%UD]LO-RKQ$GGUHVVLQJ3HGHVWULDQVLQ5RDGZD\/HYHORI6HUYSGI    

2. %UD]LO-RKQ$GGUHVVLQJ3HGHVWULDQVLQ5RDGZD\/HYHORI6HUYLFH$QDO\VLV$6DQ-RVp&DOLIRUQLD&DVH6WXG\ 
KWWSZZZZDONFRPSDSHUV%UD]LO-RKQ$GGUHVVLQJ3HGHVWULDQVLQ5RDGZD\/HYHORI6HUYSGI    

52

Diversify
Suburban Land Use Regulations
'HÀQLWLRQ

/DQGXVHUHJXODWLRQDPHQGPHQWVLGHDOO\EDVHGRQDYLVLRQFUHDWHG
with broad-­based public input, can encourage higher density and more diverse land
uses in low-­density residential developments.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ &RQWULEXWHVWRZDONDEOHG\QDPLFVWUHHWV

‡ Consider zoning amendments that
HQFRXUDJH

‡ Improves transit service and use
‡ ,PSURYHVHIÀFLHQF\RIHQHUJ\ODQGDQG
infrastructure use
‡ Creates a larger customer base for local retail
and services
‡ Increases opportunities for affordable housing

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Potential to change the character of
neighborhoods
‡ Increased demand for amenities and open
space in areas with increased densities
‡ 3RWHQWLDOSXVKEDFNWRKLJKHUGHQVLWLHVIURP
developers and residents

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Single-­family housing developments

» ,QÀOODQGURZKRXVHGHYHORSPHQW
» New and diverse housing types, such as the
construction of small homes in alleyways,
above garages in single-­family housing
developments, or in the form of secondary
suites within single-­family houses or multi-­
family apartment buildings (i.e., basement
apartments or smaller suites within multi-­
family buildings)
» Increased density and greater allowable
EXON KLJKHUDOORZDEOHEXLOGLQJKHLJKWVDQG
sizes) in areas close to transit
» /RZLPSDFWFRPPHUFLDORUPDQXIDFWXULQJ
XVHVDWVSHFLÀFORFDWLRQVVXFKDVD
convenience store, day-­care facility, or
studio space
‡ Establish a context-­sensitive approach to
]RQLQJDPHQGPHQWVZLWKÁH[LELOLW\IRUVSHFLÀF
neighborhood needs, historical built form, and
concerns
‡ Amend associated amendments in city
bylaws, policies, and development incentives
to support these zoning changes
‡ Address provision of the increased needs for
open space and public amenities associated
with anticipated higher densities

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ A 6SUDZO5HWURÀW strategy endorsed by the
Congress for the New Urbanism1

([DPSOHV
‡ 9DQFRXYHU%&

53

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Vancouver
The Vancouver City Council approved and adopted former Mayor Sam
Sullivan’s EcoDensity initiative in 2008 in an effort to increase the city’s
housing density while reducing its environmental impact. The council’s
approval capped a two-­year-­long process of public and legislative
outreach and discussion. The resulting EcoDensity charter outlined the
JRDOVRILWVLQLWLDWLYHWRRYHUKDXOODQGXVHUHJXODWLRQVZKLFKLQFOXGHG

/DQHZD\KRPHVLQ9DQFRXYHU%&UHSODFH
traditional garages and face onto an alleyway.
Source: Michael Geller

‡ Strategically achieving greater densities in land use patterns and
locations where biggest environmental, affordability, and livability are
possible
‡ Promoting forms of density that respect neighborhood character
‡ (QFRXUDJLQJWKHFUHDWLRQRIZDONDEOHFRPPXQLWLHVLPSURYLQJELNLQJ
and transit infrastructure, and reducing automobile use and ownership
‡ (QVXULQJGLYHUVHMREVDQGHFRQRPLFDFWLYLW\FORVHWRKRPHIRUPLQLPDO
commuting

The EcoDensity initiative required developers to give pedestrians priority
LQWUDQVSRUWDWLRQGHPDQGPDQDJHPHQWVWUDWHJLHVIRUQHZSURMHFWV
The initiative was associated with earlier city decisions to allow auxiliary
rental units within single-­family detached homes, such as basement
apartments;; and later, the city gave most homeowners the ability to
build “laneway houses,” or free-­standing rental units along the rear lane
or alley of their properties.
In order for these policies to increase density without radically
changing the character of the neighborhoods, the city placed
regulations on the size and location of these additional rental units.
To that end, basement suites should create minimal impact on the
outward appearance of single-­family homes. For laneway houses, city
UHJXODWLRQVVSHFLI\WKDWWKHVWUXFWXUHVFDQEHXSWRVTXDUHIHHWLQ
size, one-­and-­a-­half stories in height, and on lots that have to be at
least 33 feet wide;; laneways cannot become separate condominiums
but must remain part of the main property. EcoDensity measures also
included a mandate to create a “Five-­Minute City” where shopping,
SDUNVUHVWDXUDQWVDQGEDVLFVHUYLFHVDUHZLWKLQDÀYHPLQXWHZDONIURP
the homes of city residents.2

1. &RQJUHVVIRUWKH1HZ8UEDQLVP6SUDZO5HWURÀWKWWSZZZFQXRUJVSUDZOUHWURÀW
2. &LW\RI9DQFRXYHU(FR&LW\,QLWLDWLYHV(FR'HQVLW\KWWSYDQFRXYHUFDFRPPVYFVHFRFLW\

54

Transform Underutilized Malls into
Walkable Destinations
'HÀQLWLRQ

8QGHUXWLOL]HGVWULSFHQWHUVPDOOVDQGDJLQJRIÀFHSDUNVDUHLGHDO
ORFDWLRQVWRWUDQVIRUPLQWRGHQVHPL[HGXVHZDONIULHQGO\GHVWLQDWLRQV7KHHIIRUWXVXDOO\
requires revising funding priorities, zoning regulations, and urban design guidelines in
RUGHUWRLPSOHPHQWWKDWZDONDEOHYLVLRQ

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,QFUHDVHVZDONLQJDQGF\FOLQJRSSRUWXQLWLHV

‡ Reduces congestion

‡ $SSRLQWDWDVNIRUFHWRRUJDQL]HUHJXODUDQG
meaningful public participation, such as a
VHULHVRIFRPPXQLW\ZRUNVKRSVRXWUHDFK
events, and public meetings

‡ Reduces expenditures on transportation,
water, and utility infrastructure

‡ %XLOGEULGJHVEHWZHHQHOHFWHGRIÀFLDOVDQG
land owners

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

‡ Develop alternative long-­term development
scenarios to be used as the basis of public
discussion

‡ Improves economic vitality of an area

‡ Costs and resources required for public
education and outreach
‡ Funding for adapting or creating new street
QHWZRUNV
‡ &RRUGLQDWLRQDPRQJPXOWLSOHMXULVGLFWLRQVDQG
agencies

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Underutilized strip centers, malls, and aging
RIÀFHSDUNV
‡ 8QGHUXWLOL]HGLQGXVWULDOSDUNVRUZDUHKRXVHV

‡ Use transit-­oriented development principles as
WRRONLWIRUDFRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHDSSURDFKWKDW
FRQVLGHUVRWKHUQRGHVDQGRUIRUPVRIWUDQVLW
including bus rapid transit and ferries
‡ ,QYHVWLJDWHDQGDGGUHVVDOORWKHUMXULVGLFWLRQDO
regulations and incentives that might
affect or be effected by proposed land use
amendments

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ A 6SUDZO5HWURÀW strategy endorsed by the
Congress for the New Urbanism1

([DPSOHV
‡ 0L]QHU3DUN%RFD5DWRQ)/
‡ %HO0DU/DNHZRRG&2
‡ Mashpee Commons, MA
‡ Surrey Central City9DQFRXYHU%&2
‡ Tysons Corner, Fairfax County, VA

55

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Tysons Corner
7\VRQV&RUQHU9$LVDVSUDZOLQJFOXVWHURIVKRSSLQJPDOOVDQGRIÀFH
SDUNVDWWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQRIIRXUPDMRUKLJKZD\VLQ1RUWKHUQ9LUJLQLD·V
Fairfax County. The regional economic hub contains more than 100,000
MREVEXWKRVWVIHZHUWKDQUHVLGHQWV(YHU\GD\WKRXVDQGVRI
FRPPXWHUVÁRRGKLJKZD\VHQURXWHWRMREVLQ7\VRQV&RUQHUDQGFUHDWH
congestion throughout the area. With forecasts for continued growth
LQWKHUHJLRQWKH)DLUID[&RXQW\%RDUGRI6XSHUYLVRUVODXQFKHGD
multiyear revisioning campaign for Tysons Corner.
Tysons Corner, VA, 2010. Source: La Citta Vita, Flickr

,QWKH%RDUGDPHQGHG)DLUID[&RXQW\·VFRPSUHKHQVLYHSODQWR
call for high-­density, mixed-­use development around four new Tysons
Corner Metro Rail stations to be created in an extension of Metro Rail’s
6LOYHU/LQHVHUYLFH7KHSODQ·VPDLQORQJWHUPJRDOLVWRPDNH7\VRQV
&RUQHUKRPHWRMREVDQGUHVLGHQWVE\7RZDUG
WKDWDLPWKHSODQDOVRLQFOXGHVDGGLQJSDUNVRSHQVSDFHDQGWUDLOV
and creating local recreation and cultural centers.
7RKHOSLPSOHPHQWWKHUHYLVHGFRPSUHKHQVLYHSODQWKH%RDUGRI
Supervisors created a new zoning district with new transportation-­
design standards and urban design guidelines. A new development
review process prioritizes pedestrian circulation, pedestrian
perspectives, and the public realm in future site and building designs,
transportation plans, and utility plans, with the goal of “an urban street
grid, appropriately dimensioned and designed streetscape, and well-­
ORFDWHGKLJKIXQFWLRQLQJSDUNVDQGRSHQVSDFHVµ3

1. &RQJUHVVIRUWKH1HZ8UEDQLVP6SUDZO5HWURÀWQGKWWSZZZFQXRUJVSUDZOUHWURÀW
2. 6SUDZO5HSDLUDQG5HJHQHUDWLRQ3URMHFWV0DVWHULQ8UEDQLVP5HJHQHUDWLQJ,QWHUPHGLDWH/DQGVFDSHV0D\
KWWSLQWHUPHGLDWHODQGVFDSHVFRPVSUDZOUHSDLUDQGUHJHQHUDWLRQSURMHFWV
3. Tysons Corner Urban Design Guidelines. January 24, 2012. 13. KWWSZZZIDLUID[FRXQW\JRYW\VRQVGHVLJQGRZQORDGW\VRQVBXGJSGI

56

Encourage Temporary Uses in
Vacant Buildings and Sites
'HÀQLWLRQ

/RFDOJRYHUQPHQWVFDQFUHDWHSROLFLHVRUSURJUDPVWRGLUHFWRUIXQG
temporary programming in privately or publicly owned vacant buildings or lots in order
WRFUHDWHVDIHUPRUHG\QDPLFVWUHHWVDQGVLGHZDONV7HPSRUDU\XVHVFDQUDQJHIURP
pop-­up retail and art exhibitions to urban farms and community gardens.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Establishes a standard how-­to process for
community groups organizing temporary uses
LQYDFDQWVSDFHVDQGRUORWV

‡ /RJLVWLFVDQGFRVWVRIXWLOLWLHV

‡ Provides funding streams for temporary uses in
vacant structures or lots

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Directs temporary programming to meet
governmental goals

‡ 1HLJKERUKRRGVWKDWKDYHEHHQLGHQWLÀHGIRU
redevelopment in local master plans

‡ *RYHUQPHQWDOEDFNLQJFDQJLYHWHPSRUDU\
programs and programmers a greater sense
of legitimacy with property owners

‡ Underutilized spaces, such as empty stores,
YDFDQWORWVXQUHQWHGRIÀFHVDQGDEDQGRQHG
warehouses or factories

‡ Provides city-­owned land and buildings as
potential locations

‡ Neighborhoods with access to transit

‡ 7HPSRUDU\XVHVLQYDFDQWEXLOGLQJVDQGORWV
» Attracts people to the site, creating a more
G\QDPLFZDONDEOHDQGVDIHUVWUHHW
» Creates new economic development and
cultural opportunities
» Helps establish a community hub
» Discourages vandalism and illegal
occupation of a vacant space

*XLGDQFH
‡ &UHDWHDZRUNLQJJURXSZLWKSURSHUW\RZQHUV
artist organizations;; representatives from
municipal, cultural, equity, food-­security,
planning, and permitting departments;; and
regulatory agencies to investigate barriers to
WHPSRUDU\XVHVDQGUHFRPPHQGVROXWLRQVIRU
» Permitting processes
» Code variances

» Improves appearance of the vacant space,
improving residents' quality of life

» Real estate negotiation and lease templates

» Potentially attracts investors to the site

» Connecting temporary space to tenants

» Insurance coverage

» Creates a potential incubator for start-­up
businesses, new community organizations,
DQGQRQSURÀWJURXSV

‡ %XLOGDQRQOLQHGDWDEDVHRIDYDLODEOHVSDFHV
for artists, studios, entrepreneurs, urban-­
gardening groups, or farms

» Potentially increases residents’ access to
support services

‡ 'HVLJQDVHOHFWLRQPHFKDQLVPOLNHDUHTXHVW
for proposal (RFP) for distributing seed funding
to spur temporary uses of vacant spaces

» Potentially increases access to fresh food

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Existing codes and permitting processes are
geared toward long-­term use and permanent
tenants, unsuited to temporary uses
‡ /DFNRIODQGORUGWHQDQWOHDVHWHPSODWHVIRU
ÁH[LEOHWLPHIUDPHV 

‡ Cost of general liability coverage, potentially
offset by existing coverage of participating
FRPPXQLW\RUQRQSURÀWRUJDQL]DWLRQV

‡ 6HOHFWDSURMHFWPDQDJHUWRVSHDUKHDG
community collaborations and schedule
programming for the temporary space
‡ Determine and measure appropriate data
measurements to evaluate the impact of the
WHPSRUDU\XVHZKHWKHUWKURXJKIRRWWUDIÀF
number of visitors, real estate availability or
values, local perceptions of safety or vibrancy
of streetscape, etc.

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Washington, DC

7KHIRUPHU5/&KULVWLDQ/LEUDU\WUDQVIRUPHGLQWRD
"Temporium" in Washington, DC. Source: Daquella
Manera, Flickr

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from
national associations or governmental
departments, cities are turning to best
practices employed by other municipalities
‡ Urban-­farming uses endorsed by the
United States Department of Agriculture’s
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
&RPPXQLW\)RRG3URMHFWV&RPSHWLWLYH
Grant Program

([DPSOHV

7KH:DVKLQJWRQ'&2IÀFHRI3ODQQLQJ 23 ODXQFKHGLWV7HPSRUDU\
Urbanism initiative in 2010 to help transform vacant spaces into
dynamic destinations. The initiative emerged out of a 2009 OP forum
that brainstormed ways to “catalyze collaborative action across the
FUHDWLYHJUHHQWHFKQRORJ\QRQSURÀWHGXFDWLRQDQGWHFKQRORJ\
sectors.”2 The OP’s current Temporary Urbanism program is the
$UW3ODFHJUDQWSURJUDPZKLFKSURYLGHVIRUHDFKRIIRXU$UW
and Culture “Temporiums” that would open for three to six months
LQWKHQHLJKERUKRRGVRI$QDFRVWLD%URRNODQG&HQWUDOWK6WUHHW
and Deenwood. The funding for the program comes from a national
private-­public partnership that aims to revitalize neighborhoods across
the country by using the arts as an economic-­development tool.
The OP requires applicants to partner with other, ideally DC-­based,
RUJDQL]DWLRQVOLQHXSWKUHHWRÀYHSRWHQWLDOYDFDQWVLWHVZLWKZULWWHQ
approval from the property owners;; draft a proposal and budget
for the future programming;; and possess relevant past experience.
The current program builds on three previous OP-­organized retail
7HPSRULXPV7KHÀUVWWRRNSODFHLQDYDFDQWFLW\OLEUDU\NLRVNRQ
H Street in 2010;; the latter two opened in vacant storefronts in the
neighborhoods of Mt. Pleasant and Shaw.
While the ArtPlace program provides funding and direction for
WHPSRUDU\XVHVWKH23FODULÀHVWKDWDSSOLFDQWVDUHUHVSRQVLEOHIRU
obtaining their own permits, leases, and liability insurance for these
spaces. DC’s zoning and building-­code regulations, however, aren’t
suited to the needs and time frames of temporary tenants. The OP
points to a need for new short-­term lease templates and regulations
better suited to temporary uses. It sees a business opportunity for
EURNHUVZKRKHOSFRQQHFWVKRUWWHUPWHQDQWVZLWKVKRUWWHUPUHDOHVWDWH
DYDLODELOLW\,WDOVRLVORRNLQJLQWRDGDSWLQJLWVUHJXODWLRQVWRSURYLGH
zoning and regulatory exceptions for short-­term uses. 3

‡ :DVKLQJWRQ'&2IÀFHRI3ODQQLQJ
Temporary Urbanism1
‡ 'HWURLW0,Detroit Food Policy Council

1. :DVKLQJWRQ'&2IÀFHRI3ODQQLQJ7HPSRUDU\8UEDQLVP,QLWLDWLYH    

KWWSSODQQLQJGFJRY'&3ODQQLQJ$FURVVWKH&LW\2WKHU&LW\ZLGH,QLWLDWLYHV7HPSRUDU\8UEDQLVP,QLWLDWLYH    

2. :DVKLQJWRQ'&2IÀFHRI3ODQQLQJ´$FWLRQRPLFV>GF@µ      

KWWSSODQQLQJGFJRY'&3ODQQLQJ$FURVVWKH&LW\2WKHU&LW\ZLGH,QLWLDWLYHV$FWLRQRPLFVFL$FWLRQRPLFV%GF'SULQW   

3. Fidler, Eric. “Temporary uses can enliven city neighborhoods.” Greater Greater Washington.org. November 8, 2011.
KWWSJUHDWHUJUHDWHUZDVKLQJWRQRUJSRVWWHPSRUDU\XVHVFDQHQOLYHQFLW\QHLJKERUKRRGV

58

Permit Park(ing) Day
Every Day
'HÀQLWLRQ

,QVSLUHGE\3DUN LQJ 'D\WKHDQQXDOHYHQWWKDWLQYLWHVFLWL]HQVWR
WUDQVIRUPPHWHUHGSDUNLQJVSRWVLQWRWHPSRUDU\SXEOLFSDUNVFDIHVDQGRQVWUHHWELNH
SDUNLQJDORFDOMXULVGLFWLRQFDQFUHDWHDVLPSOHVWDQGDUGSHUPLWSURFHVVWRWUDQVIRUP
SDUNLQJVSRWVLQWRORQJHUWHUPSXEOLFVSDFHV

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Creates new dynamic, pedestrian-­oriented
public space

‡ 6HHNDFRPPXQLW\SDUWQHUWRHGXFDWHDQG
engage the public

‡ Increases pedestrian right-­of-­way, often
FUHDWLQJZLGHUHIIHFWLYHVLGHZDONFOHDUDQFHV
IRUIRRWDQGZKHHOFKDLUWUDIÀF

‡ Determine who is eligible to apply for the
QHZXVHRIWKHFXUEVLGHSHUPLW1HZ<RUN
City restricts applicants to local businesses
or institutions that own or operate on the
JURXQGÁRRURIDEXLOGLQJIDFLQJWKDWFXUEVLGH
location;; San Francisco permits business
improvement districts as applicants

‡ Activates streetscapes
‡ Improves pedestrian safety
‡ 5HGXFHVWUDIÀF
‡ Creates public improvements with minimal
public expense
‡ Gives businesses and organizations a new way
to interact with their community
‡ Encourages local businesses and commercial
organizations to have a broader civic
engagement

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 5HGXFHVFXUEVLGHSDUNLQJ
‡ Requires multiple agency approvals
‡ Drainage study may be needed
‡ Requires ongoing maintenance and
supervision

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ :RUNZLWKFRPPXQLW\SDUWQHUVWRSXEOLFL]HWKH
program and its request for applications or
proposals (RFP)
‡ (QFRXUDJHDSSOLFDQWVWRUHJXODUO\FKHFNLQ
with city staff to clarify expectations, learn
about resources, and understand design
requirements early in the process
‡ Focus the program on the creation of new
public space and ensure its public use
‡ Develop ongoing maintenance agreements
obligating the maintenance partner to clean
and maintain the space

‡ 5RDGZD\VZLWKFXUEVLGHSDUNLQJODQHV

‡ Create a sample maintenance agreement for
interested partners

‡ Curbside location in close proximity to the
applicant's establishment or organization

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ Relatively level roadway surface
‡ Curbside locations at least 20 feet from the
corner of an intersection or driveway
‡ Roads with permitted speeds under 25 mph1

59

‡ &UHDWHDSLORWSURMHFWDQGXVHLWVVXFFHVV
to pave the way for changing permitting
processes to extend the pilot into an ongoing
program

‡ The 3DUNOHW,PSDFW6WXG\ from the San
)UDQFLVFR*UHDW6WUHHWV3URMHFWIRXQGWKDW
the number of people stopping to socialize
and engage in positive behavior increased
VLJQLÀFDQWO\DWDOOWKUHHVWXGLHGORFDWLRQV2

([DPSOHV

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: San Francisco

‡ /RV$QJHOHV&$
‡ 1HZ<RUN1<

7KHFLWLHVRI1HZ<RUNDQG6DQ)UDQFLVFRKDYHWDNHQWKHFRQFHSWRI
3DUN LQJ 'D\DQGFUHDWHGRIÀFLDOSURJUDPVWRUHSXUSRVHFXUEVLGH
SDUNLQJLQWRSXEOLFVSDFHRQDORQJHUWHUPEDVLV7KH6DQ)UDQFLVFR
3DUNOHWSURJUDPVHHNVDSSOLFDWLRQVIURPEXVLQHVVLPSURYHPHQWGLVWULFWV
retail stores, and restaurants for the opportunity to design, construct,
and maintain the spaces for one-­year leases that can be renewed
RQDQXQOLPLWHGEDVLV7KHSURJUDPVSHFLÀHVGHVLJQVWDQGDUGVIRUWKH
3DUNOHWZKLOHVWUHDPOLQLQJWKHSHUPLWWLQJSURFHVVUHGXFLQJIHHVWRD
PLQLPXP7KH3DUNOHWFDQIHDWXUHWDEOHVDQGFKDLUVDVORQJDVWKH\DUH
GLVWLQFWIURPWKHH[LVWLQJIXUQLWXUHRIWKHSDUNOHW·VVSRQVRUELNHSDUNLQJ
benches, and landscaping features.

‡ 2DNODQG&$
‡ Philadelphia, PA
‡ San Francisco, CA

While privately sponsored, the program explicitly states that all seating
within repurposed curbside spaces must not be reserved for customers
EXWUHPDLQIUHHDQGRSHQWRDQ\PHPEHURIWKHSXEOLF3DUNOHWSHUPLW
holders are required to maintain the site, secure any moveable furniture
overnight, and show proof of $1 million in liability insurance.
7KHSURJUDPLVDUHVRXQGLQJVXFFHVV7KHFLW\KDVUHFHLYHGDERXW
applications for each of the three rounds of requests for proposals (RFP)
LWKDVSXWRXWVRIDUDQGWKHUHDUHPRUHEXVLQHVVHVRQDOLVWWREH
QRWLÀHGZKHQWKHQH[W5)3LVUHOHDVHG6LQFHWKHSURJUDP·VLQFHSWLRQLQ
ODWH3DUNOHWVKDYHEHHQLQVWDOOHG3DUNOHWSURMHFWVDUHDERXW
WRJRLQWRLPSOHPHQWDWLRQDQGPRUHSURMHFWVDUHLQYDU\LQJVWDJHV
of the design and permitting process. 3

Mayor Gavin Newsom
at the 2010 opening of
&DIH0RMR3DUNOHWLQ6DQ
Francisco, CA. Source:
SFCitizen.com

1. 6DQ)UDQFLVFR3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW5HTXHVWIRU3URSRVDOVIRU7HPSRUDU\6LGHZDON([WHQVLRQ´3DUNOHWVµ1RYHPEHU
KWWSVISDYHPHQWWRSDUNVVISODQQLQJRUJLPDJHV3DUNOHWB&DOOBIRUB3URMHFWVBSGI    

2. 3UDWW/L]D3DUNOHW,PSDFW6WXG\6DQ)UDQFLVFR*UHDW6WUHHWV3URMHFWKWWSVIJUHDWVWUHHWVRUJZSFRQWHQWXSORDGV3DUNOHWB,PSDFWB6WXG\SGI
3. 6DQ)UDQFLVFR3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW5HTXHVWIRU3URSRVDOVIRU7HPSRUDU\6LGHZDON([WHQVLRQ´3DUNOHWVµ1RYHPEHU
KWWSVISDYHPHQWWRSDUNVVISODQQLQJRUJLPDJHV3DUNOHWB&DOOBIRUB3URMHFWVBSGI    

60

Design & Engineering
Tactics
Introduction
This collection of design and engineering tactics is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather
highlight the innovative, nonmandatory tactics that accommodate or encourage walking.
7KH\DUHJURXSHGLQWRIRXUFDWHJRULHVGHVLJQJXLGDQFHWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVWHFKQLTXHVLQWHUVHFWLRQ
elements, and signal treatments. 
‡'HVLJQJXLGDQFHIRFXVHVRQSK\VLFDOOD\RXWVDQGHOHPHQWVRIVWUHHWVVLGHZDONVDQGFURVVLQJV 
‡7UDIÀFDQDO\VLVWHFKQLTXHVFRXQWDQGDFFRXQWIRUSHGHVWULDQVLQWUDIÀFDQDO\VLV 
‡,QWHUVHFWLRQHOHPHQWVOLVWSK\VLFDODGGLWLRQVWRURDGFURVVLQJVWKDWLPSURYHVDIHW\ 
‡6LJQDOWUHDWPHQWVOLVWWKHW\SHVDQGWLPLQJSODQVRIWUDIÀFOLJKWVWKDWFDQLPSURYHWKHVDIHW\
of walkers. We do not include pedestrian countdown signals, although we recommend that
communities adopt them. Why? Countdown signals are now standard within the Manual on
8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHV 087&' ZKLFKPHDQVWKDWGHSDUWPHQWVRIWUDQVSRUWDWLRQDUH
already obliged to use countdown signals whenever they add or replace pedestrian signals.
This chapter includes some Federal Highway Administration–recommended treatments;; the full list
of federal “proven countermeasures,” or safety elements, can be found at
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/
61

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

$SHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJLVODQGZLWKDFFHVVLEOHGHVLJQIHDWXUHVLQFOXGLQJDOHYHO
FXWWKURXJKSHGHVWULDQSDWKDQGGHFWDEOHZDUQLQJVLQWKHIRUPRIWUXQFDWHG
domes, New York, NY. 6RXUFH*HUDUG6RIÀDQ

3HGHVWULDQIULHQGO\VLGHZDONDQGVWUHHWVFDSHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHLQ6DQWD%DUEDUD
CA. 6RXUFH.HQ/XQG)OLFNU
62

Design Guidance

Adopt Context-Sensitive
Street Design Guidelines
'HÀQLWLRQ

&RQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVWUHHWGHVLJQJXLGHOLQHVUHTXLUHDFROODERUDWLYH
approach to transportation planning. They need a shared stakeholder vision,
FRPSUHKHQVLYHXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIFRQWH[WVDQGGHVLJQÁH[LELOLW\WREDODQFHWKH
transportation needs of multiple modes while enhancing community and natural
environments.

%HQHÀWV

» Address community and social issues

‡ Helps integrate land use and transportation
planning

» Address aesthetic treatments and
enhancements

‡ Helps preserve environmental, scenic,
aesthetic, historic, and natural resources
‡ Accommodates all road users
‡ Generally improves safety
‡ Helps make communities more livable
‡ ,QFUHDVHVVWDNHKROGHUUHFHSWLYHQHVV
‡ ,QFUHDVHVZDONLQJRSSRUWXQLWLHV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Accommodating competing uses within a
limited amount of space

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local street design guidelines
‡ 6WDWHDQGORFDOGHSDUWPHQWVRIWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ
VWUDWHJLFSODQDQGSURMHFWPDQDJHPHQW
manuals
‡ )HGHUDODQGVWDWHSURMHFWPDQDJHPHQW
guidance

*XLGDQFH
‡ Guidelines should address both the planning
process and design considerations
‡ 1&+535HSRUW4XDQWLI\LQJWKH%HQHÀWVRI
&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV provides 15 guiding
SULQFLSOHVIRUFRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVROXWLRQV
including1:
» Use interdisciplinary teams
» ,QYROYHVWDNHKROGHUV
» 6HHNEURDGEDVHGSXEOLFLQYROYHPHQW
» Achieve consensus on purpose and need
» Address alternatives and all travel modes
» Consider a safe facility for users and
community
» Maintain environmental harmony

63

‡ Consider designing roads to meet a target,
or desired travel speed, rather than a ‘design
speed,’ or essentially the maximum speed that
can be maintained by the design features of
the roadway.2&RQVLGHUUHWURÀWWLQJURDGVWR
achieve those target speeds

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ EndorsedZLWKLQWKH)HGHUDO6$)(7($/8
WUDQVSRUWDWLRQELOO6HFWLRQ6HFWLRQ F   
RIWLWOH86&FRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVROXWLRQV3
‡ Endorsed by the Federal Highway
Administration &RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV
program4
‡ Endorsed within the NCHRP Report 642:
4XDQWLI\LQJWKH%HQHÀWVRI&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH
6ROXWLRQV5
‡ (QGRUVHGE\WKH,QVWLWXWHRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ
Engineers within its publication 'HVLJQLQJ
:DONDEOH8UEDQ7KRURXJKIDUHV$&RQWH[W
6HQVLWLYH$SSURDFK
‡ Endorsed by -RLQW$$6+72)+:$
&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV6WUDWHJLF3ODQQLQJ
Process6

([DPSOHV
‡ 1-'273HQQ'276PDUW7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ
Guidebook
‡ 2UHJRQ1HLJKERUKRRG6WUHHW'HVLJQ7
‡ 6HDWWOH:$
‡ New York, NY
‡ Charlotte, NC
‡ Elk Grove, CA

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: PA and NJ

$UHQGHULQJRIWKH0DQD\DQN%ULGJH3DWKSURMHFW
to be funded by the Pennsylvania Community
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ,QLWLDWLYHZKLFKVXSSRUWV6PDUW
Transportation goals. 6RXUFH-RKQ%R\OH%LF\FOH
&RDOLWLRQRI*UHDWHU3KLODGHOSKLD

,QWKH3HQQV\OYDQLDDQG1HZ-HUVH\GHSDUWPHQWVRI
WUDQVSRUWDWLRQLQFROODERUDWLRQZLWKWKH'HODZDUH9DOOH\5HJLRQDO
Planning Commission, published 7KH6PDUW7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ*XLGHERRN.
7KHSXEOLFDWLRQSURYLGHGWKHIUDPHZRUNIRUXSGDWLQJDOORWKHU'27
processes around six tenants: Adapt solutions to the context, tailor the
DSSURDFKSODQSURMHFWVZLWKFRPPXQLW\FROODERUDWLRQDFFRPPRGDWH
DOWHUQDWLYHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQPRGHVXVHVRXQGSURIHVVLRQDOMXGJPHQW
and scale the solution to the size of the problem. The guidebook played
DVWURQJUROHLQVKDSLQJXSGDWHVWR3HQQ'27·V'HVLJQ0DQXDO3DUW
DQG7KHXSGDWHGSURFHGXUHVHPSKDVL]HGGHVLJQÁH[LELOLW\EDVHGRQ
surrounding land uses and street users. The new design processes now
encourage engineers to consider the needs of all road users in addition
to their surrounding land uses and integrate them into designs.  As
DUHVXOWPRUHWKDQRQHSURMHFWFRXOGEHUHHYDOXDWHGXVLQJ6PDUW
Transportation principles and redesigned for vehicle speeds and street
geometry more suitable to the cyclists and pedestrians who would be
sharing the roadway.

1. 6WDPDWLDGLV1LNLIRURV.LUN$GDP+DUPDQ'RQ+RSZRRG7KHRGRUH3LJPDQ-HUU\1&+535HSRUW4XDQWLI\LQJWKH%HQHÀWVRI&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ
5HVHDUFK%RDUGRIWKH1DWLRQDO$FDGHPLHV-XQH         

KWWSFRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVROXWLRQVRUJFRQWHQWUHDGLQJQFKUSBUHSRUWBBBQGDVKBBTXDQWLBUHVRXUFHVQFKUSBUSWBSGI
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6SHHG&RQFHSWV,QIRUPDWLRQDO*XLGH6HSWHPEHUKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYVSHHGPJWUHIBPDWVIKZDVD
3. Federal Highway Administration. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/what.cfm
4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQVhttp://contextsensitivesolutions.org/
5. 1&+535HSRUW4XDQWLI\LQJWKH%HQHÀWVRI&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ5HVHDUFK%RDUGRIWKH1DWLRQDO$FDGHPLHV
KWWSFRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVROXWLRQVRUJFRQWHQWUHDGLQJQFKUSBUHSRUWBBBQGDVKBBTXDQWLBUHVRXUFHVQFKUSBUSWBSGI   

6. &HQWHUIRU7UDQVSRUWDWLRQDQGWKH(QYLURQPHQW5HVXOWVRI-RLQW$$6+72)+:$&RQWH[W6HQVLWLYH6ROXWLRQV6WUDWHJLF3ODQQLQJ3URFHVV6XPPDU\5HSRUW0DUFK 
KWWSFRQWH[WVHQVLWLYHVROXWLRQVRUJFRQWHQWUHDGLQJUHVXOWVBRIBMRLQWBDDVKWRBIKZDBFRBUHVRXUFHVSRUWODQGVXPPDU\BÀQDOBSGI
7. 1HLJKERUKRRG6WUHHWV3URMHFW6WDNHKROGHUV1HLJKERUKRRG6WUHHW'HVLJQ*XLGHOLQHV$Q2UHJRQ*XLGHIRU5HGXFLQJ6WUHHW:LGWKV1RYHPEHU
KWWSZZZRUHJRQJRY/&'GRFVSXEOLFDWLRQVQHLJKVWUHHWSGI"JD W   

+DUH%ULDQ&KLHIRI'HVLJQ6HUYLFHV'LYLVLRQ3HQQ'273HUVRQDOFRUUHVSRQGHQFH6HSWHPEHU 
,ELG

64

Design Guidance

Adopt Accessible & Attractive
Streetscape Design Guidelines
'HÀQLWLRQ

The shape and amenities of sidewalks, crosswalks, and plazas are often
GHWHUPLQHGE\VWUHHWVFDSHGHVLJQJXLGHOLQHV7KHVHJXLGHOLQHVFDQUHTXLUHWKDWZDONLQJ
infrastructure is accessible to all persons regardless of ability or stature, and they can
help create a safe, pleasant place for people to walk, sit, stand, and move around.

%HQHÀWV
‡ ,QFUHDVHVDFFHVVLELOLW\IRUDOOSHRSOHRQWKH
street, especially those with visual or mobility
impairments
‡ Creates safe, accessible, and convenient
walking connections
‡ Encourages walking for all ages and abilities
‡ 6XSSRUWVWUDQVLWXVHIRUDOODJHVDQGDELOLWLHV
‡ Helps create an appealing and comfortable
streetscape

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Accommodating competing uses within a
limited amount of space
‡ Accommodating curbside parking

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ $Q\MXULVGLFWLRQWKDWLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUWKH
design of the streetscape beyond the portion
RIWKHULJKWRIZD\XVHGIRUYHKLFOHSXUSRVHV

*XLGDQFH
‡ Create a community advisory committee to
meet regularly with guidelines staff during the
FUHDWLRQRISHGHVWULDQHQYLURQPHQWGHVLJQ
guidelines

» Create safe access to transit
‡ Guidelines should address aesthetic and
accessibility concerns simultaneously where
IHDVLEOHDVH[HPSOLÀHGLQWKHVH6DQ)UDQFLVFR
%HWWHU6WUHHWVVXJJHVWLRQV1:
» Add street trees, landscaping, stormwater
facilities, and furnishings to:
- 3URMHFWVWKDWGLJXSVLGHZDONV
- 7UDIÀFFDOPLQJSURMHFWV
» ,QFOXGHFXUEH[WHQVLRQVLQFXUEUDPS
FRQVWUXFWLRQSURMHFWV
» $GGSHGHVWULDQRULHQWHGOLJKWLQJZKHQ
upgrading roadway lighting
» Consolidate utilities, parking meters, signs,
and poles to widen sidewalk clearances on
DQ\VWUHHWVFDSHLPSURYHPHQWSURMHFW
» ,QFOXGHSXEOLFDUWRQSURMHFWVWKDWFUHDWH
QHZVWUXFWXUHVLQWKHULJKWRIZD\

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIQDWLRQDODFDGHPLFRU
DVVRFLDWLRQVWDQGDUGVMXULVGLFWLRQVDUHORRNLQJ
WREHVWSUDFWLFHVRIRWKHUMXULVGLFWLRQV

‡ Reach out to the general public for input
through community meetings, surveys, and an
interactive website

([DPSOHV

‡ Collaborate with technical agency staff to
ensure feasibility of proposed guidelines

‡ 6HDWWOH:$6HDWWOH'HVLJQ*XLGHOLQHV

‡ Guidelines should:
» ,QFRUSRUDWHSURSRVHG3XEOLF5LJKWVRI:D\
$FFHVVLELOLW\*XLGHOLQHV 352:$* WRHQVXUH
universal access
» Minimize pedestrian risk from vehicles
» Address pedestrian concerns, like safety,
lighting, shade, seating, and sidewalk
clearances and crossings
» Create safe public space and seating
65

» Address ecological concerns, including
RQVLWHVWRUPZDWHUPDQDJHPHQWDQGWKH
creation of local habitats where feasible

‡ 6DQ)UDQFLVFR&$7KH%HWWHU6WUHHWV3ODQ

‡ New York, NY: 1<&'276WUHHW'HVLJQ0DQXDO
‡ Los Angeles County, CA: 0RGHO'HVLJQ
0DQXDOIRU/LYLQJ6WUHHWV

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

This street cross section illustrates how streetscape elements can be integrated to create pleasant, safe environments for multiple modes
of travel. 6RXUFH0LFKHOH:HLVEDUW0RGHO'HVLJQ0DQXDOIRU/LYLQJ6WUHHWV

1. 6DQ)UDQFLVFR3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW7KH%HWWHU6WUHHWV3ODQ'HFHPEHUKWWSZZZVISODQQLQJRUJIWS%HWWHU6WUHHWVGRFV),1$/BB6WUHHWB'HVLJQVSGI

66

Design Guidance

Narrow or Reduce
Travel Lanes
'HÀQLWLRQ

6WUHHWVIUHTXHQWO\KDYHPRUHVSDFHDOORWWHGWRFDUVWKDQLVQHFHVVDU\7KLV
tactic entails redesigning new or existing roadways to reduce the width and number of
WUDYHOODQHVZKHUHYHUSRVVLEOH7HFKQLTXHVIRUDFKLHYLQJWKLVLQFOXGH´URDGGLHWVµDQG
UHGXFLQJWUDYHOODQHZLGWKV$´URDGGLHWµW\SLFDOO\UHIHUVWRFRQYHUWLQJDURDGZD\ZLWK
two lanes in each direction to one lane in each direction with a center turning lane and
bike lanes on the side.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Provides more roadway width for sidewalks
and bicycle lanes
‡ 2IWHQVKRUWHQVFURVVLQJGLVWDQFHVIRU
pedestrians
‡ Creates more space for medians, bike
ODQHVRQVWUHHWSDUNLQJWUDQVLWVWRSVDQG
landscaping
‡ ,PSURYHVSHGHVWULDQDQGF\FOLVWVDIHW\
‡ 0DNHVPRUHHIÀFLHQWXVHRIXQGHUXVHG
pavement
‡ May slow vehicular speeds

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ %HFDXWLRXVRI·²·WUDYHOODQHVLQWKH
following contexts:
» )RXUODQHDUWHULDOURDGV
» )RXUOHJVWRSFRQWUROOHGDUWHULDO
intersections1
» +LJKVSHHGURDGZD\VZLWKQDUURZVKRXOGHUV2
» +LJKVSHHGFXUY\URDGZD\V3
» Locations with high volumes of buses and/or
trucks

» 8UEDQDQGVXEXUEDQFRPPHUFLDOFHQWHUV·5
» Urban and suburban commercial
QHLJKERUKRRGV·²·

*XLGDQFH
‡ 7UDYHOODQHZLGWKVVKRXOGQRWEHEDVHGRQWKH
widest width allowable, but on the narrowest
safe width
‡ Evaluate transit routes, the number and design
of intersections along the corridor, the number
of driveways, and operational characteristics
before implementing a road diet
‡ Consider designing local streets that are too
narrow for two full lanes to accommodate
DOWHUQDWLQJWZRZD\WUDIÀF
‡ Analyze and understand the effects of the
proposed change, and obtain input from the
community stakeholders
‡ ,QFOXGHFRQWH[WXDOVDIHW\LPSURYHPHQWVLQWKH
SURMHFWVXFKDVLQWHUVHFWLRQWXUQODQHVVLJQLQJ
pavement markings, signals or stop signs,
transit stops, medians, sidewalk improvements,
and bike lanes

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ 5RDGZD\VZLWKDYHUDJHGDLO\WUDIÀF $'7 
RIYHKLFOHVRUOHVVPD\EHJRRG
candidates for a road diet

‡ $$6+72SHUPLWVODQHZLGWKPLQLPXPVRI 

on urban arterial and collector roadways with
SRVWHGVSHHGOLPLWVRIPSKRUOHVVDQG·
ODQHZLGWKPLQLPXPVRQORFDOURDGV6

‡ 7KH$PHULFDQ$VVRFLDWLRQRI6WDWHDQG
+LJKZD\7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ2IÀFLDOVUHFRPPHQGV
the following minimum travel lane widths by
context4:
» Freeways: 12’
» 8UEDQDQGVXEXUEDQDUWHULDOV·
» Rural arterials: 11’
» &ROOHFWRUURDGZD\V·
» /RFDOURDGV·
67

» 5HGXFHGVSHHGXUEDQDUHDV PSKDQG
XQGHU ·

‡ Endorsed by Federal Highway Administration
‡ (QGRUVHGE\3HQQ'271-'27·V6PDUW
Transportation Guidebook, which encourages
designers to “make full use of the normal
range of travel lane widths….depending on
FRQWH[WDQGSURMHFWJRDOVµ

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

([DPSOHV
0DQ\FLWLHVVWULSH·ODQHVRQXUEDQ
arterials, including:
‡ $UOLQJWRQ9$
‡ Charlotte, NC
‡ (XJHQH25
‡ 3RUWODQG25
‡ 6DQWD0RQLFD&$
‡ %XUEDQN&$
‡ New York, NY

%HIRUHUHVWULSLQJQDUURZHUWUDYHOODQHVRQWK6WUHHWLQ2DNODQG&$ZRUNHUV
ÀUVWVNHWFKHGRXWWKHQHZVWUHHWGLPHQVLRQV6RXUFH(ULF)LVFKHU)OLFNU

1. 3RWWV,QJULG%+DUZRRG'RXJODV+5LFKDUG.DUHQ55HODWLRQVKLSRI/DQH:LGWKWR6DIHW\IRU8UEDQDQG6XEXUEDQ$UWHULDOV75%$QQXDO0HHWLQJ6XEPLVVLRQ
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\/DQH:LGWKVhttp://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/geometric/pubs/mitigationstrategies/chapter3/3_lanewidth.htm
3. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\/DQH:LGWKVhttp://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/geometric/pubs/mitigationstrategies/chapter3/3_lanewidth.htm
4. 3HQQ'271-'276PDUW7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ*XLGHERRN0DUFKKWWSZZZVPDUWWUDQVSRUWDWLRQFRPDVVHWVGRZQORDG6PDUW7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ*XLGHERRNSGI
5. $PHPEHURIWKH,QVWLWXWHRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ(QJLQHHUVLVPRUHFDXWLRXVDERXW·ODQHVUHFRPPHQGLQJWKHPRQO\RQORFDOVWUHHWVRUZKHQDGMDFHQWWRELNHODQHV
6. $PHULFDQ$VVRFLDWLRQRI6WDWH+LJKZD\DQG7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ2IÀFLDOV$3ROLF\RQ*HRPHWULF'HVLJQRI+LJKZD\VDQG6WUHHWV 

Design Guidance

Build a Comprehensive
Sidewalk Network
'HÀQLWLRQ

6LGHZDONVDUHURDGZD\VIRUZDONHUVWKH\QHHGWREHFRPSUHKHQVLYH
integrated, and connected. Many communities and cities have discontinuous sidewalk
systems that need connecting or upgrading to get people where they need to go.
7RPRVWHIÀFLHQWO\XVHWKHLUUHVRXUFHVMXULVGLFWLRQVVKRXOGVXUYH\DQGDQDO\]HH[LVWLQJ
sidewalks to prioritize sidewalk improvements.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Encourages walking by creating a safe, direct
means of getting around on foot
‡ Connects people and neighborhoods to
EXVLQHVVHVVFKRROVDQGMRERSSRUWXQLWLHVE\
building an integrated and comprehensive
sidewalk network
‡ Encourages social interaction
‡ 5HGXFHVSHGHVWULDQFRQÁLFWVZLWKYHKLFOHV
‡ Provides consistent accessibility for everyone,
especially children, seniors, and people with
mobility limitations

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Construction costs
‡ 0D\UHTXLUHUHFODLPLQJULJKWRIZD\IURP
existing front yards and lawns
‡ Funding for continual maintenance
‡ 0D\UHTXLUHQDUURZLQJRIWKHURDGZD\

‡ 'HWHUPLQHDSSURSULDWHVLGHZDONZLGWKVEDVHG
RQH[LVWLQJYROXPHVRISHRSOHDQGDGMDFHQW
land uses. Zupan and Pushkarev posit sidewalk
minimums in 8UEDQ6SDFHIRU3HGHVWULDQV1
‡ Prioritization criteria can include:
» 3RWHQWLDOGHPDQG SUR[LPLW\WRSHGHVWULDQ
DWWUDFWRUVDQGFRUULGRUIXQFWLRQ
» 3RWHQWLDOSHGHVWULDQULVN SUHVHQFHRI
SK\VLFDOEXIIHUVEHWZHHQPRYLQJWUDIÀFDQG
SHGHVWULDQVWUDIÀFYROXPHVWUDIÀFVSHHGV 
» ([LVWLQJVLGHZDONQHHG OHYHORIPDLQWHQDQFH
DQG$'$FRPSOLDQFH
» ([LVWLQJSRSXODWLRQQHHG KHDOWKDQG
VRFLRHFRQRPLFOHYHOVRIDGMDFHQW
SRSXODWLRQ
‡ 6ROLFLWSXEOLFLQSXWDQGGLVFXVVLRQZKHQ
FUHDWLQJDPDWUL[WRSULRULWL]HSURMHFWV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Consider alternative, cheaper sidewalk and
VWUHHWGHVLJQVWRDFKLHYHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHDQG
VWRUPZDWHUPDQDJHPHQWJRDOV

‡ Urban and suburban residential, commercial,
and arterial streets

‡ &UHDWHDVHSDUDWHSURJUDPIRUFRPPXQLW\
UHTXHVWHGVDIHW\DQGVLGHZDONLPSURYHPHQWV

‡ Access points and paths to and from transit,
schools, parks, and other services

‡ ,QVWDOO$'$DQG352:$*2FRPSOLDQW
infrastructure

*XLGDQFH

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ 6XUYH\H[LVWLQJFRQGLWLRQV

‡ $$6+72PDLQWDLQVWKDW´3URYLGLQJSHRSOHVDIH
places to walk is an essential responsibility
of all government entities involved in
constructing or regulating the construction of
WKHSXEOLFULJKWRIZD\µ3

‡ Track and store existing sidewalk conditions,
possibly using a geographic information
V\VWHP *,6
‡ 3HUIRUPLQÀHOGDVVHVVPHQWVRIH[LVWLQJ
FRQGLWLRQVDQGH[LVWLQJ$'$352:$*
compliance
‡ Address need for safe and accessible street
crossings between sidewalks 

‡ Analyze sidewalk conditions in relation to
census and land use data

‡ 7KHSROLF\RIWKH86'27LVWKDWELF\FOLQJDQG
walking facilities should be incorporated into
DOOWUDQVSRUWDWLRQSURMHFWVXQOHVV´exceptional
circumstances” exist4

%HIRUH

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Seattle
6HDWWOHXVHGD*,6EDVHGDSSURDFKWRSULRULWL]HSRWHQWLDOVLGHZDON
SURMHFWV7KHFLW\ÀUVWDQDO\]HGVLGHZDONQHHGVEDVHGRQWKHSUHVHQFH
and characteristics of existing sidewalks, such as physical buffers,
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sidewalks based on three demand analyses—potential pedestrian
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weighted them by category to determine areas of most need. 5

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SURMHFWVSURSRVHGE\UHVLGHQWV 66HDWWOH·VVLGHZDONLPSURYHPHQWVDUH
IXQGHGE\WKHFLW\·VQLQH\HDUPLOOLRQ%ULGJLQJWKH*DSOHY\
supplemented by state or federal grants.7

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SURMHFWRQWK$YHQXH6RXWK6RXUFH6HDWWOH'27

([DPSOHV
‡ 6HDWWOH:$
‡ Austin, TX
‡ Charlotte, NC

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KWWSZZZVFULEGFRPGRF8UEDQ6SDFHIRU3HGHVWULDQV     

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,QIUDVWUXFWXUHµ7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ(TXLW\$FWIRUWKHVW&HQWXU\ 7($ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/design.htm
5. &LW\RI6HDWWOH$SSHQGL[$0HWKRGRORJ\DQG$QDO\VLV6HDWWOH3HGHVWULDQ0DVWHU3ODQ
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6. 6HDWWOH'HSDUWPHQWRI1HLJKERUKRRGV1HLJKERUKRRG3URMHFWV)XQGQGhttp://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/btgnsfcrf/
7. 6HDWWOH'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ%ULGJLQJWKH*DS%XLOGLQJDIRXQGDWLRQWKDWODVWVQGKWWSZZZVHDWWOHJRYWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ%ULGJLQJWKH*DSKWP 

Design Guidance

Integrate Transit, Walking, and
Cycling into Projects
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The needs of transit, cyclists, and pedestrians should be integrated within
WKHGHVLJQDQGVFRSHRIWUDQVSRUWDWLRQSURMHFWV7KLVFDQEHDFFRPSOLVKHGE\LPSURYLQJ
LQIUDVWUXFWXUHPRGLI\LQJGHVLJQVSHHGVUHFRQÀJXULQJURDGZD\VDQGDGDSWLQJ
WUDGLWLRQDOWUDIÀFDQDO\VLV

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‡ Creates safe convenient walking and cycling
routes to and from transit and trip generators
‡ Recalibrates priorities from vehicles to people
‡ Provides opportunities for walking and cycling,
which improves the emotional and physical
health of participants
‡ ,QFUHDVHVEXVSDVVHQJHUWULSV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 7UDIÀFFDOPLQJDQGVDIHW\LPSURYHPHQWVPD\
negatively affect bus service and vehicle
capacity
‡ 3URMHFWVW\SLFDOO\VSDQPXOWLSOHMXULVGLFWLRQV
UHTXLULQJLQFUHDVHGFROODERUDWLRQEHWZHHQ
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political priorities
‡ Transit riders and pedestrians often do not
have vocal constituencies to advocate for
infrastructure improvements or counteract
negative perceptions

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‡ 5RDGZD\UHSDYLQJDQGUHGHVLJQSURMHFWV
‡ 6SHFLÀFDWLRQVIRUWKLUGSDUW\URDGZD\
UHFRQVWUXFWLRQ ZDWHUPDLQRUXWLOLW\ZRUN
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‡ Community visioning processes and plans

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‡ &RQGXFWWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVLQWHUPVRISHUVRQ
delay rather than vehicle delay to better
account for all the people on the road. The
+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\0DQXDO +&0 ZKLFK
outlines the computational procedures
IRUGHWHUPLQLQJWKHFDSDFLW\DQGTXDOLW\
of service of roadways and intersections,
focuses primarily on vehicle delay. HCM does
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of buses. Any delay should be recalculated
from the number of vehicles to the number of
passengers traveling through the corridor

71

‡ 'HWHUPLQHWKHDSSURSULDWHGHVLJQVSHHGRI
transportation redesigns with the safety and
convenience of pedestrians in mind
‡ ,QWHJUDWHWUDQVLWSULRULW\HOHPHQWVLQWRVWUHHW
UHGHVLJQV&RPSOHWHVWUHHWVRIWHQVORZWUDIÀF
which improves overall street safety, but can
negatively affect bus services on that street.
,QFOXGLQJEXVODQHVVLJQDOSULRULW\DQGRWKHU
EXVIRFXVHGHOHPHQWVFDQHQVXUHWKDWWKHVH
SURMHFWVDOVRSURPRWHWUDQVLWXVH
‡ 'HVLJQVDIHFRQYHQLHQWLQIUDVWUXFWXUHIRUWKH
HQWLUHGRRUWRGRRUWUDQVLWWULSSDVVHQJHU
experience, including the routes between the
transit stop, stops for travel in both directions
LQFOXGLQJVWUHHWFURVVLQJV WKHORFDWLRQRIWKH
transit stop, the method of payment, and the
transit vehicle itself
‡ ,QFRUSRUDWH3XEOLF5LJKWVRI:D\$FFHVVLELOLW\
*XLGHOLQHV 352:$* WRHQVXUHXQLYHUVDO
access throughout the infrastructure
improvements
‡ ([SDQGWKHFRQFHSWRI&RPSOHWH6WUHHWVWR
the network;; consider modes by network and
URXWHVUDWKHUWKDQUHTXLULQJHYHU\PRGHWREH
located on the same street

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‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIRIÀFLDOJXLGDQFHIURP
national associations or governmental
departments, cities are turning to best
practices employed by other municipalities

([DPSOHV
,QGLYLGXDOFLWLHVWKDWKDYHLQWHJUDWLRQSROLFLHV
include:
‡ 6DQ)UDQFLVFR&$7KH%HWWHU6WUHHWV3ODQ
‡ New York, NY: 1<&'276XVWDLQDEOH6WUHHWV

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York

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New York, NY. 6RXUFH1RDK.D]LV6WUHHWVEORJ1HZ
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LQ0DQKDWWDQ7KH6%6SURMHFWZKLFKZDVPRGHOHGDIWHUEXVUDSLG
WUDQVLWWRSURYLGHVXEZD\OLNHVHUYLFHZLWKEXVHVDLPHGWRPHHWJRDOV
SUHYLRXVO\RXWOLQHGLQ0D\RU%ORRPEHUJ·V3OD1<&VXVWDLQDELOLW\SODQ
DQG1<&'27·VVWUDWHJLFSODQDVZHOODV1<&7·V&DSLWDO3ODQ7KLV6%6
SURMHFWJDYH1<&'27DQG1<&7WKHRSSRUWXQLW\WRUHH[DPLQHH[LVWLQJ
LQIUDVWUXFWXUHLQRUGHUWRLPSURYHWUDQVLWDQGDOOPRGHVRQWZRPDMRU
Manhattan thoroughfares.
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0DQKDWWDQWRWK6WUHHWUHGXFLQJWKHQXPEHURIODQHVDYDLODEOH
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GHGLFDWHGEXVODQHVDQGRIIERDUGIDUHFROOHFWLRQ $WUDQVLWVLJQDO
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LQWHUVHFWLRQVZLOODOVREHDFWLYDWHGRQSDUWVRIWKHURXWH 7KHSURMHFW
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on both avenues.16LQFHWKHELF\FOHIDFLOLWLHVKDYHEHHQDQG
continue to be extended substantially.2, 3
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ZHUHDEOHWRLPSURYHVDIHW\DQGHIÀFLHQF\IRUDOPRVWHYHU\RQHRQWKH
URDGZD\V %\QRWSURYLGLQJDFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOVKRZHYHU
some of these new streetscape features can act as barriers to people
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EXVULGHUVKLSLQFUHDVHGE\DQGEXVVSHHGVLPSURYHGE\WR 
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speeds and volumes remained about the same.4

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2. 1HZ<RUN&LW\'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ)LUVW$YHQXH&RPSOHWH6WUHHW([WHQVLRQ3UHVHQWDWLRQWR&RPPXQLW\%RDUG6HSWHPEHU
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72

Design Guidance

Create Slow Zones
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6ORZ]RQHVFRQVLVWRIHQJLQHHUHGWUDIÀFFDOPLQJPHDVXUHVVXFKDVVSHHG
humps, roundabouts, curb extensions, signs, optimized signal timing, and street markings
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%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ 6ORZVYHKLFXODUWUDIÀF

‡ %HJLQE\EXLOGLQJVXSSRUWDPRQJDGLYHUVHVHW
of stakeholders

‡ Reduces casualties and collisions substantially
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‡ Reduces number of casualties and collisions
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‡ 5HGXFHVVHYHULW\RIWUDIÀFLQMXULHV
‡ 5HGXFHVFXWWKURXJKWUDIÀF
‡ Encourages walking and cycling by creating a
safer, more welcoming streetscape

‡ &UHDWHDSXEOLFLQYROYHPHQWSURFHVVWR
incorporate residents’ input on the type and
ORFDWLRQRISURSRVHGWUDIÀFFDOPLQJPHDVXUHV

‡ Potentially adds greenery and amenities to
the streetscape

‡ EstablishDPSKVSHHGOLPLWDFURVVDGLVWULFW
DQGQRWMXVWDQLQGLYLGXDOURDG6

‡ ,PSURYHVVDIHW\IRUDOOVWUHHWXVHUVUHJDUGOHVV
of age or ability

‡ Each zone entrance should have signs
showing clearly that drivers are entering a
reduced speed zone

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‡ Access for commercial deliveries
‡ Access for emergency vehicles
‡ Access for those with mobility or vision
disabilities
‡ Access for transit

‡ ,QVWDOODSSURSULDWHO\GHVLJQHGWUDIÀFPHDVXUHV
DWUHJXODULQWHUYDOVDERXW·DSDUW7
‡ Coordinate signal timing to move vehicles in a
slow, steady pace
‡ ,QVWDOOWUDIÀFFDOPLQJPHDVXUHVV\VWHPDWLFDOO\
such as:

‡ Potential loss of curbside parking

» 9HUWLFDOPHDVXUHVUDLVHGLQWHUVHFWLRQV
speed tables, speed humps

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» Horizontal measures: curb extensions,
chicanes, and realigned intersections

‡ Residential and local streets
‡ Town centers
‡ 6FKRROFDPSXVHVDQGVXUURXQGLQJV
‡ Private property, planned communities, and
resorts
‡ Parking lots and surroundings of shopping
centers and outdoor markets
‡ $UHDVZLWKRXWPDMRUWKURXJKWUDIÀFRU
thoroughfares
‡ Urban areas with excessive speeds3
‡ Areas with high numbers of recorded
accidents involving children4
‡ Areas with high numbers of existing or
expected pedestrians and/or cyclists5

73

‡ Consult with all relevant stakeholders,
including emergency services, police, local
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professionals, and driver organizations
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» Road narrowing: gateways, curb extensions,
reduced pavement or lane width, and
intersection narrowing
‡ $FFRPSDQ\WUDIÀFFDOPLQJPHDVXUHVZLWK
plantings or street furniture to distinguish the
roadway treatments, create a more walkable
area, and encourage lower speeds
‡ ,QFRUSRUDWH3XEOLF5LJKWVRI:D\$FFHVVLELOLW\
*XLGHOLQHV 352:$* WRHQVXUHXQLYHUVDO
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‡ &UHDWHDSXEOLFVHUYLFHHGXFDWLRQFDPSDLJQ
to reduce vehicle speeds
‡ Measure crash data and vehicle speeds
before and after implementation to
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Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
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boundaries that could be easily marked for a zone. The goal of the
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RUGHUWRUHGXFHQXPEHUDQGVHYHULW\RIWUDIÀFFUDVKHVZLWKLQWKH]RQH12
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‡ RecommendedE\WKH&HQWHUVIRU'LVHDVH
Control and Prevention11
‡ 7KH$$6+72*XLGHIRUWKH3ODQQLQJ'HVLJQ
DQG2SHUDWLRQRI3HGHVWULDQ)DFLOLWLHV
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within the context of Chapter 2.5.4 Chapter
7UDIÀF&RQWURODQG&URVVLQJV1HDU6FKRROV

1<&'27·VODXQFKRIWKH&ODUHPRQWSLORWFRLQFLGHGZLWKWKHVWDUWRI
its new application process allowing communities throughout the
FLW\WRUHTXHVWWKHLURZQVORZ]RQHV 1<&'27HYDOXDWHGFRPPXQLW\
applications for slow zones using criteria such as severity crashes
SHUPLOHWKHQXPEHURIVFKRROVDQGVHQLRUDQGGD\FDUHFHQWHUV
and the presence of truck and bus routes. The agency will work with
FRPPXQLWLHVWRGHVLJQWKHVORZ]RQHWUDIÀFFDOPLQJPHDVXUHVEHIRUH
SUHVHQWLQJWKHSURSRVDOVWR&RPPXQLW\%RDUGVIRUDSSURYDODQG
implementing them.141<&'27WKHQDQQRXQFHGWKHODXQFKRIVORZ
]RQHVWKURXJKRXW1HZ<RUN&LW\VODWHGIRULPSOHPHQWDWLRQLQ15

([DPSOHV
‡ Hoboken, NJ
‡ New York, NY
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11. &HQWHUVIRU'LVHDVH&RQWURODQG3UHYHQWLRQ&'&7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ5HFRPPHQGDWLRQVhttp://www.cdc.gov/transportation/recommendation.htm
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74

Design Guidance

Turn Underutilized Asphalt into
Grass and Other Uses
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Underutilized, excessive roadway and/or parking space can be
reassigned to pedestrian and/or bicycle uses. Underutilized or excessive roadways have
PRUHWUDYHOODQHV RUSDUNLQJVSDFHV WKDQQHFHVVDU\IRUWKHQXPEHURIFDUVXVLQJWKHP
New uses of roadway or parking space could include public plazas with planters and
seating areas, buffered bicycle lanes, and widened sidewalks.

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‡ Encourages walking and cycling
‡ Creates new public space
‡ ,PSURYHVVDIHW\IRUSHGHVWULDQVDVZHOODV
drivers and their passengers
‡ Potentially provides an economic boost in
areas with more space allotted to pedestrians
‡ 3RWHQWLDOO\LPSURYHVWUDIÀFFLUFXODWLRQLQDQG
around redesigned areas
‡ Potentially improves access to open space

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‡ )XQGLQJWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVWRDVVHVVH[LVWLQJ
conditions and predict potential impacts
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materials
‡ Community or political resistance to unfamiliar
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‡ )XQGLQJRQJRLQJPDLQWHQDQFHUHTXLUHPHQWV

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‡ Underutilized vehicular roadways in areas with
high pedestrian volumes, such as
» Central business districts
» 0DLQ6WUHHWVDQGGRZQWRZQVLQVPDOOHUFLWLHV
» Near parks, playgrounds, schools, senior
citizen communities
‡ 8QXVXDOLQWHUVHFWLRQFRQÀJXUDWLRQV
‡ Underutilized arterial streets alongside popular
destinations like malls or recreation centers
‡ Proximity or relevance to local groups or
business improvement districts to take
on programming and maintenance
responsibilities for newly created public spaces
‡ Underutilized surface lot and curbside parking
space

75

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‡ $QDO\]HH[LVWLQJDQGSURSRVHGWUDIÀF
conditions
‡ Communicate and coordinate with local
stakeholders for their support and design input
throughout the design and planning process
‡ ,PSOHPHQWWUDIÀFFKDQJHVXVLQJWHPSRUDU\
materials to test the performance of plaza
space so that redesign changes can be made
or removed before investing resources to
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‡ %HVXUHWKHGHVLJQRISOD]DVRUSXEOLFVSDFH
considers the needs of people with disabilities,
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LVLGHQWLÀDEOHDQGGHWHFWDEOHE\SHGHVWULDQV
who are blind
‡ Partner with a local organization or city
department to provide ongoing maintenance
and programming for the new public space
‡ Provide movable street furniture and
additional greenery where possible
‡ Continually monitor before and after
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economic impacts, and real estate values in
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‡ 7UDIÀFODQHUHGXFWLRQVDUHEDVHGRQVWDQGDUG
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Manual software procedures, and the Manual
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‡ 1$&728UEDQ%LF\FOH'HVLJQ

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‡ 3RUWODQG25*UHHQZD\V
‡ 6DQ)UDQFLVFR&$&DVWUR&RPPRQV
‡ New York, NY: Green Light for Midtown

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
7KH1HZ<RUN&LW\'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 1<&'27 UHPRYHG
WZRRIIRXUYHKLFXODUODQHVDORQJ%URDGZD\EHWZHHQ&ROXPEXV&LUFOH
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built a buffered bicycle lane and pedestrian plazas using temporary
materials like textured paint and roadway markings in the newly freed
roadway space. This reallocation of street space was one of many
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Findings show that travel speeds for northbound trips throughout West
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76

Design Guidance

Build
Pedestrian and Cyclist Bridges
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These are bridges designed exclusively for pedestrians and bicyclists
ZKHUHDWJUDGHVROXWLRQVFDQ·WEHIRXQG³RIWHQRYHUUDLOZD\VZDWHUZD\VRUKLJKZD\V³
that provide needed transportation links for walkers and cyclists.

%HQHÀWV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Encourages walking and cycling

‡ Where physical barriers such as waterways
and highways cut off neighborhoods or
nonmotorized transportation networks

‡ Connects areas and transportation networks
separated by barriers such as waterways,
railways, or highways
‡ Encourages activities and economic
development in previously isolated areas
‡ 3URYLGHVDQDOWHUQDWLYHWRDWJUDGHFURVVLQJV
‡ Creates a potential architectural attraction

‡ :KHUHH[LVWLQJDWJUDGHFURVVLQJVKDYHD
history of pedestrian crashes, or don’t meet
$'$VWDQGDUGV
‡ Where large numbers of school children cross
busy streets

‡ Potentially minimizes travel time

‡ :KHUHVHQLRUVRUPRELOLW\LPSDLUHGSHGHVWULDQV
QHHGWRFURVVDPDMRUURDGZD\

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‡ :KHUHUDLOZD\DJHQFLHVSURKLELWDWJUDGH
railroad crossings

‡ Potential negative impact on vitality of
DGMDFHQWODQGXVHV

‡ ,QWHJUDWHGLQWRQHZWUDQVLWDQGRUUDLOEULGJHV

‡ Construction costs

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‡ Time and money for alternatives analysis,
GHVLJQDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOUHYLHZSURFHVVHV

‡ ([KDXVWDWJUDGHVROXWLRQVÀUVWDVWKRVHDUH
often more walkable and less expensive

‡ Ensuring security

‡ Locate bridges so that they are on the normal
path of pedestrian travel with the least
amount of vertical difference possible

‡ Considering design safety
‡ Pedestrian and cyclist convenience and
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(QJLQHHUVVWXG\GHWHUPLQHGRI
pedestrians would use an overcrossing if
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grade crossing, while very few would use an
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DQDWJUDGHFURVVLQJ1

‡ Connect bridges to current or future
pedestrian/bicyclist destinations, like transit
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neighborhoods
‡ 'HVLJQORJLFDOGLUHFWFOHDUO\PDUNHGDFFHVV
points to and from the bridge
‡ Provide access options for different modes
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stairs with a bike gutter
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accommodate pedestrians and cyclists
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numbers of pedestrians and cyclists
‡ ,QFRUSRUDWH352:$*LQWRGHVLJQHOHPHQWV
‡ 3URYLGHDGHTXDWHOLJKWLQJIRUVDIHW\DQG
security of bridge users
‡ Consider screens to prevent falling debris
‡ 3URYLGHDWOHDVWDQ·FOHDUDQFHIRU
emergency or maintenance vehicles
‡ %XGJHWIRURQJRLQJPDLQWHQDQFH

77

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

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Way 352:$* 3
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Learned5

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‡ 3RUWODQG253RUWODQG0LOZDXNLH/LJKW
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Design Guidance

Redesign Arterial Streets
for Pedestrians
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Arterial streets, typically multilane thoroughfares designed to speed cars
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New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut took place on arterial roadways.1 Redesigning
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RUQDUURZLQJWUDYHOODQHV WUDIÀFVLJQDOSODQVDQGDGMDFHQWODQGXVHVRIPXOWLODQH
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SHGHVWULDQIULHQGO\HQYLURQPHQW

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‡ ,PSURYHVVDIHW\IRUSHGHVWULDQVF\FOLVWVDQG
drivers2

‡ ,QWHUHVWFRPPXQLWLHVDQGFLWLHVLQUHGHVLJQ
possibilities with a public visioning meeting,
design charette, or design competition

‡ &UHDWHVDXQLTXHORFDOLGHQWLW\WRFRPSHWH
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‡ ,QFUHDVHVHFRQRPLFDFWLYLW\WKURXJKTXDOLW\
public environment
‡ Encourages active lifestyles through better
walking and cycling infrastructure
‡ ,QFUHDVHVSURSHUW\YDOXHV

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‡ Work with business improvement districts;; since
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‡ Create safe crossings with signals or medians
‡ 1DUURZURDGZD\VZKHUHYHUWUDIÀFYROXPHV
and safety allow
‡ %XLOGSHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJLVODQGV

‡ Arterial roads are often managed by multiple
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complicates funding as well as design and
decision processes

‡ Widen medians into transit stops and/or
landscape the median

‡ Changing driving behavior to reduce
speeding and increase yielding to pedestrians
RQFDURULHQWHGWKRURXJKIDUHVLVDchallenge3

‡ Plant street trees to act as a buffer between
SHGHVWULDQVDQGWUDIÀF

‡ Accommodating safety redesigns with vehicle
volumes

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‡ Arterial roads with transit stops and limited
walking infrastructure
‡ Arterial roads lined by retail

‡ Widen sidewalks where needed or desired

‡ &RQVWUXFWDEXIIHUHGELF\FOHSDWKRUVKDUHG
use greenway
‡ Consolidate and minimize the number of
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peak hours
‡ Create pocket parks in open or vacant space
between retail buildings
‡ Connect pocket parks on one side of the
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block chokes, and medians
‡ 5H]RQHDGMDFHQWODQGXVHVIRUGHQVHU
development 

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‡ Transportation for America, a national
coalition for transportation reform,
analyzed data from the National Highway
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'DQJHURXVE\'HVLJQUHSRUWUHYHDOHGWKDW
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principal or minor arterial roads. 1HDUO\
RIWKHSHGHVWULDQGHDWKVLQXUEDQ
areas occurred on arterial roads.4 The
report cited that streets that were safest
for pedestrians were also safest for drivers5
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roads for safety.6 The MAP 21 federal
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bicycle crashes as part of the mandatory
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Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Toronto
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recommended an incremental design strategy. The vision include
pocket parks connecting crosswalks and medians, and temporary
uses set in urban parking lots to create a denser public space and help
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The city of Toronto then sponsored its own study with recommendations
WRUH]RQHDGMDFHQWODQGXVHVIRUGHQVHUGHYHORSPHQWDQGUHGHVLJQWKH
roadway to accommodate bicycles and pedestrians to be adopted in
7RURQWR·VRIÀFLDOÀYH\HDUSODQ 

‡ EndorsedZLWKLQ'HVLJQLQJ:DONDEOH
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Approach, a guidebook published by the
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Congress for the New Urbanism

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‡ 7RURQWR21

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include pocket parks, crosswalks, occupiable medians, and temporary parking
lot activities. 6RXUFH&KULV+DUGZLFNH6ZHHQ\6WHUOLQJ)LQOD\VRQ &R

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Traffic-Analysis Techniques

Collect Pedestrian Data
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This refers to a systematic approach of counting pedestrians and
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continually evolving but typically include manual counts, automatic recording
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information should catalog pedestrian crash locations and stratify crash details by
crash type, time of day/year, weather conditions, demographics, and other variables.

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‡ Central business districts

‡ Establishes performance measures to evaluate
pedestrian policies and programs

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funding
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access and infrastructure
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and facilities
‡ Helps link walking with transit1
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estimate pedestrian volumes
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improvements
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analyses2
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cordons 

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internally and to the general public
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counts both systematic and peak uses of
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strategies such as
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technology like infrared and video counts
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vehicular data collection5
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to show infrastructure use
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» Models to extrapolate pedestrian volumes
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‡ Collect and analyze data on a regular basis
‡ Publicly publish the results

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: San Francisco

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Accommodation Regulations and
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model to extrapolate walking activity across a larger swath of the city.
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intersection over the course of a year. Then the agency used linear
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between the land use, transportation system, local environment,
and socioeconomic characteristics near each intersection and that
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pedestrian volumes were positively associated with the number of
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'RFXPHQWLQJ)DFLOLW\([WHQW)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ-DQXDU\KWWSZZZSHGELNHLQIRRUJSGIFDVHVWXGLHV3%,&B'DWDB&ROOHFWLRQB&DVHB6WXGLHVSGI
6. 1DWLRQDO%LF\FOHDQG3HGHVWULDQ'RFXPHQWDWLRQ3URMHFWhttp://bikepeddocumentation.org/
7. /D+RRG5D\8QLWHG6WDWHV'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3ROLF\6WDWHPHQWRQ%LF\FOHDQG3HGHVWULDQ$FFRPPRGDWLRQ5HJXODWLRQVDQG5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV6LJQHG0DUFK 
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/overview/policy_accom.cfm 
1DWLRQDO%LF\FOHDQG3HGHVWULDQ'RFXPHQWDWLRQ3URMHFWhttp://bikepeddocumentation.org/ 
6FKQHLGHU5REHUW-+HQU\7RGG0LWPDQ0HJKDQ)6WRQHKLOO/DXUD.RHKOHU-HVVH'HYHORSPHQWDQG$SSOLFDWLRQRIWKH6DQ)UDQFLVFR3HGHVWULDQ,QWHUVHFWLRQ9ROXPH
0RGHO6DQ)UDQFLVFR0XQLFLSDO7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ$JHQF\-XO\KWWSFPVZSURMGRFXPHQWV75%$EVWUDFWSGI 

Traffic-Analysis Techniques

Integrate Pedestrian LOS
Criteria into Traffic Analyses
'HÀQLWLRQ

7UDGLWLRQDOWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVHYDOXDWHVWKHDGHTXDF\RIDURDGGHVLJQ
WRPHHWYHKLFXODUWUDYHOGHPDQGXVLQJDTXDQWLWDWLYHPHDVXUHPHQWRIGHOD\FDOOHG
OHYHORIVHUYLFH /26 )RUPDQ\\HDUVWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVSURFHGXUHVGLGQ·WDGHTXDWHO\
DGGUHVVSHGHVWULDQWUDYHOGHPDQGLQWKHVHURDGGHVLJQHYDOXDWLRQV7KHFXUUHQW
+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\0DQXDO +&0 DGGUHVVHVWKLVDQDO\VLVJDSZLWKQHZPXOWLPRGDO/26
PHWKRGRORJ\+&0·VPXOWLPRGDO/26PHWKRGRORJ\KRZHYHUGRHVQ·WLQFOXGHDORWRI
WKHIDFWRUVWKDWPLJKWLQÁXHQFHZDONDELOLW\VXFKDVDGMDFHQWODQGXVHVDQGVLGHZDON
amenities.1$VDUHVXOWVRPHWUDIÀFHQJLQHHUVKDYHLQGHSHQGHQWO\FUHDWHGSHGHVWULDQ
OHYHORIVHUYLFHFULWHULDWRUDWHURDGGHVLJQVIRUSHGHVWULDQVXVXDOO\XVLQJDQDOSKDEHWLFDO
scale from A to F.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Creates a consistent, systematic way to
evaluate existing conditions

‡ &UHDWHDSXEOLFRXWUHDFKSURFHVVWRVROLFLW
and incorporate the perspectives of residents,
business owners, advocacy groups, and other
stakeholders

‡ Allows comparison and evaluation of different
improvements
‡ 3URYLGHVDQREMHFWLYHZD\WRLGHQWLI\QHHGV
and prioritize improvements
‡ Establishes minimum level of service standards
‡ &ODULÀHVEDVHOLQHFRQGLWLRQVIRUSURSRVHG
mitigations
‡ +HOSVMXULVGLFWLRQVPDQGDWHZDONLQJ
infrastructure standards in private
developments and public infrastructure

‡ ,QFOXGHVWDQGDUGFDWHJRULHVRISHGHVWULDQ/26
evaluation, such as:
» 'LUHFWQHVV
» Continuity
» 6WUHHWFURVVLQJV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

» 9LVXDOLQWHUHVWDQGDPHQLWLHVLQZDONLQJDUHDV
DQGDGMDFHQWODQGXVHV

‡ Lack of comprehensive data collection on
existing walking conditions

» 6HFXULW\

‡ 3HGHVWULDQFULWHULDLVRIWHQKDUGWRTXDQWLI\LQ
software analysis

» Physical conditions of paths or sidewalks
‡ 9DU\HYDOXDWLRQWHFKQLTXHVE\

‡ :DONLQJFULWHULDPLJKWQRWDFFRXQWIRUVSHFLÀF
FRQWH[WVHJDVORZHULVEHWWHUDSSURDFKWR
WUDIÀFVSHHGVDORQJDVKRSSLQJVWUHHW

» $QDO\VLVVFRSH FLW\ZLGHQHLJKERUKRRG
GLVWULFW 

‡ 'RLW\RXUVHOIZDONLQJFULWHULDFDQEHGLIÀFXOW
WRFRPSDUHDFURVVMXULVGLFWLRQVRULQWHJUDWH
into standard analyses

» :KHWKHUDSURSRVHGGHYHORSPHQWLVSURMHFW
RUVLWHVSHFLÀF

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Transportation master plans
‡ Pedestrian master plans
‡ &LW\DQGVWDWHHQYLURQPHQWDOLPSDFWDQDO\VHV
‡ &RPPXQLW\EDVHGQHLJKERUKRRGSODQV 

‡ Create walking audits with numbered
evaluations of criteria that can supplement or
EHDGGHGWRSHGHVWULDQ/26HYDOXDWLRQV

» Evaluation category

‡ &RQVLGHUDGMXVWLQJWKUHVKROGVIRUFULWHULD
EDVHGRQWKHVSHFLÀFSHGHVWULDQQHHGVRI
GHÀQHGDUHDVRUDUHDW\SHV UHVLGHQWLDO
FRPPHUFLDOLQGXVWULDOHWF
‡ 5HTXLUHWKDWWUDIÀFLPSDFWVWXGLHVIRU
VLJQLÀFDQWGHYHORSPHQWVLQFOXGHD
SHGHVWULDQLPSDFWDVVHVVPHQWXVLQJWKLV
SHGHVWULDQ/26FULWHULD

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Kansas City
:KHQFUHDWLQJLWVWalkability PlanWKH.DQVDV&LW\3ODQQLQJDQG
'HYHORSPHQW'HSDUWPHQWPRGHOHGLWVSHGHVWULDQV\VWHPHYDOXDWLRQ
FULWHULDRQWKHFRQFHSWRIDXWRPRELOHOHYHORIVHUYLFHRU/26/HYHO
RIVHUYLFHLVDPHDVXUHPHQWRIGHOD\UDQJLQJIURP$WR).DQVDV&LW\
FUHDWHGSHGHVWULDQOHYHORIVHUYLFHFULWHULDWKDWPHDVXUHGGLUHFWQHVV
continuity, street crossings, visual interest and amenities, and security.

&URZGHGVLGHZDONVLQ6HDWWOH:$6RXUFH%ULDQ
7HXWVFK)OLFNU

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIRIÀFLDOJXLGDQFHIURP
national associations or governmental
organizations, cities are turning to best
practices employed by other municipalities.

([DPSOHV
2WKHUFLWLHVWKDWKDYHFUHDWHGWKHLURZQ
SHGHVWULDQOHYHORIVHUYLFHFULWHULDLQFOXGH
‡ Charlotte, NC
‡ )RUW&ROOLQV&2

:KLOHHYDOXDWLRQWHFKQLTXHVYDULHGE\WKHOHYHORIDQDO\VLV FLW\ZLGH
QHLJKERUKRRGGLVWULFW DQGIURPPHWKRGVXVHGIRUSURMHFWRUVLWH
VSHFLÀFGHYHORSPHQWVDOOWKHHYDOXDWLRQVFRQVLGHUHGWKHVHÀYHEDVLF
SHGHVWULDQOHYHOVRIVHUYLFHFULWHULD7KHFLW\WKHQDGMXVWHGWKHPLQLPXP
VWDQGDUGIRUHDFKFULWHULDDFFRUGLQJWRWKHVSHFLÀFSHGHVWULDQQHHGV
RIHDFKDUHDEDVHGRQLQSXWIURP&LW\RI.DQVDV&LW\'HSDUWPHQWV
RI3ODQQLQJDQG'HYHORSPHQWDQG3XEOLF:RUNVSXEOLFRSLQLRQ
and professional practice. Citywide evaluations used crime data to
GHWHUPLQHVDIHW\OHYHOVDQGJHRJUDSKLFLQIRUPDWLRQV\VWHP *,6 PDSV
to evaluate the directness and continuity of the municipal sidewalk
network. Neighborhood and district evaluations relied on community
surveys and walking audits to measure existing conditions and needs
IRUWKHÀYHSHGHVWULDQ/26FULWHULD
3HGHVWULDQ/26FULWHULDIRUSURMHFWDQGVLWHVSHFLÀFGHYHORSPHQWVDUH
PHDVXUHGZLWKUDWLRVDQGFKHFNOLVWVFODULÀHGE\WKHSURMHFWERXQGDULHV
For instance, directness is based on a ratio of the actual distance from
trip origin to trip destination divided by the minimum distance between
WKRVHWZRSRLQWVIRUORFDWLRQVDQGURXWHVZLWKLQWKHSURMHFWDUHD
.DQVDV&LW\·V:DONDELOLW\3ODQWKHQUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWWUDIÀFLPSDFW
VWXGLHVUHTXLUHGIRUVLJQLÀFDQWSURSRVHGGHYHORSPHQWVEHPRGLÀHGWR
LQFOXGHDSHGHVWULDQLPSDFWDVVHVVPHQWXVLQJWKHFLW\·VSHGHVWULDQ/26
FULWHULD,QFRUSRUDWLQJDSHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFLPSDFWDQDO\VLVLQWRWUDIÀF
impact studies would promote consideration of pedestrian mobility in
GHVLJQSODQVDQGSHGHVWULDQLPSDFWPLWLJDWLRQVLQSURSRVDOV,WZRXOG
DOVRSURYLGHWKHFLW\ZLWKWKHOHJDODXWKRULW\WRUHTXLUHSHGHVWLDQ
improvements to serve the development.2

‡ .DQVDV&LW\02
‡ 0RQWJRPHU\&RXQW\0'

1. 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ5HVHDUFK%RDUGRIWKH1DWLRQDO$FDGHPLHV+&0+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\0DQXDO9ROXPH,QWHUUXSWHG)ORZ&KDSWHU8UEDQ6WUHHW6HJPHQWV'HFHPEHU 
²
2. &LW\3ODQQLQJ 'HYHORSPHQW'HSDUWPHQW:DONDELOLW\3ODQ&LW\RI.DQVDV&LW\0LVVRXUL0DUFK
http://www.kcmo.org/idc/groups/cityplanningdevelopmentdiv/documents/cityplanninganddevelopment/walkability.pdf 

Traffic-Analysis Techniques

Analyze Person Delay
Instead of Vehicle Delay
'HÀQLWLRQ

,Q+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\0DQXDO +&0 WUDIÀFDQDO\VLV´SHUVRQGHOD\µLV
GHÀQHGDVWKHWRWDOWLPHUHTXLUHGWRPRYHLQGLYLGXDOVDVRSSRVHGWRWKHLUYHKLFOHV
WKURXJKDSDUWLFXODUODQHRIDQLQWHUVHFWLRQ7KLVDSSURDFKWRDQDO\]LQJWUDIÀFWKURXJK
LQWHUVHFWLRQVLVPRUHWUDQVLW DQGSHGHVWULDQ IULHQGO\WKDQPHDVXULQJYHKLFOHGHOD\

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Helps give people an alternative to cars for
personal travel

‡ Calculate person delay by multiplying the
KLJKZD\FDSDFLW\VRIWZDUHGHULYHGYROXPHV
for each vehicle type by vehicle occupancy
HJEXVSDVVHQJHUV DQGWKHQE\WKH
LQWHUVHFWLRQEDVHGDYHUDJHYHKLFOHGHOD\LQ
each lane group

‡ &DSWXUHVWKHRYHUDOOLPSDFWRIDSURMHFWDQG
its mitigation strategies on travelers, regardless
of their mode of travel
‡ Creates an evaluation method that better
UHFRJQL]HVWKHHIÀFLHQFLHVRIWUDQVLW
potentially allowing a bus lane to be a
PLWLJDWLRQIRUWKHWUDIÀFLPSDFWVRIDSURSRVHG
development
‡ +HOSVMXVWLI\WUDQVSRUWDWLRQLPSURYHPHQWV
WRZDUGWUDQVLWIULHQGO\GHVLJQV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ &DOFXODWLQJSHUVRQGHOD\LVQRWWUDGLWLRQDOO\
GRQHLQ+&0WUDIÀFDQDO\VLVSURFHGXUHVDQG
isn’t calculated automatically by Highway
&DSDFLW\6RIWZDUH1

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ 7KHHQYLURQPHQWDOUHYLHZSURFHVVIRU
proposed actions that might change the
URDGZD\FDSDFLW\IRUVXUIDFHWUDQVLW EXVHV 
» Any proposed action, or its mitigation, that
might increase surface transit capacity
HJDEXVUDSLGWUDQVLWSURMHFWWKDWPLJKW
GHGLFDWHDWUDIÀFODQHH[FOXVLYHO\WREXVHV
» Any proposed mitigation that might reduce
WUDIÀFFDSDFLW\RQDVWUHHWDFFRPPRGDWLQJ
bus service

‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIEXVODQHGHOD\FDOFXODWLRQ
LQ+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\6RIWZDUHPHDVXUH
GHOD\IURPWKHULJKWWXUQODQHVLQFHULJKW
turns originate from the bus lane in a typical
FRQÀJXUDWLRQ
‡ Multiply person delay for people traveling in
cars using the average vehicle occupancy of
cars in that corridor;; work trips are about 1.1
or 1.2 people per vehicle while other trip types
DUHFORVHUWR

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 7KH%HVW3UDFWLFHVLQWKH8VHRI0LFUR
6LPXODWLRQ0RGHOVUHSRUWSUHSDUHGE\$(&20
IRU$$6+72KLJKOLJKWHGFDOFXODWLRQRISHUVRQ
GHOD\DVDGHVLUHGIHDWXUHRIPLFURVLPXODWLRQ
models2
‡ 7KH1&+535HSRUW&RVW(IIHFWLYH
3HUIRUPDQFH0HDVXUHVIRU7UDYHO7LPH'HOD\
9DULDWLRQDQG5HOLDELOLW\, recommends
mobility and reliability measures that include
factors “using units such as persons”3
‡ 9ROXPH,9RIWKH)+:$7UDIÀF$QDO\VLV
Toolbox, *XLGHOLQHVIRU$SSO\LQJ&256,0
0LFURVLPXODWLRQ0RGHOLQJ6RIWZDUH, lists
person delay within its selection of potential
PHDVXUHVRIHIIHFWLYHQHVVIRUSURMHFWDQDO\VLV 4

([DPSOHV
‡ New York, NY: City Environmental Quality
Review
‡ 6DQWD0RQLFD&$Comprehensive plan
update 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
1HZ<RUN&LW\'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 1<&'27 ZDQWHGWR
FUHDWHDWUDQVLWIULHQGO\UHYLHZSURFHVVIRUSURSRVHGSURMHFWVWKDWEHWWHU
UHFRJQL]HGWKHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQHIÀFLHQF\RIEXVHV6R1<&'27ZRUNHG
ZLWKWKH0D\RU·V2IÀFHRI(QYLURQPHQWDO&RRUGLQDWLRQWRUHTXLUH
SHUVRQGHOD\FDOFXODWLRQVIRUSURSRVHGWUDQVSRUWDWLRQRUODQGXVH
SURMHFWVWKDWDIIHFWEXVODQHV
7KHQHZUHTXLUHPHQWVZHUHZULWWHQLQWRWKH&LW\(QYLURQPHQWDO
4XDOLW\5HYLHZ &(45 PDQXDO5DQGFDUULHGLQWRWKH&(45
PDQXDO7KHPDQXDODOVRVSHFLÀHGWKDWLIDEXVODQHGHFUHDVHVWKH
person delay at an intersection, adding a bus lane can be used to
PLWLJDWHDSURMHFW·VSRWHQWLDOWUDIÀFLPSDFWV6 The new evaluation
criteria gave both developers and the City a more nuanced means of
MXGJLQJWKHSRWHQWLDOLPSDFWVDQGEHQHÀWVRISURSRVHGSURMHFWV
7KH1<&'27FDOFXODWHVSHUVRQGHOD\IRUWUDQVLWULGHUVE\XVLQJ
LQWHUVHFWLRQEDVHGDYHUDJHYHKLFOHGHOD\DQGPXOWLSO\LQJLWE\WKH
number of vehicle occupants passing through that intersection. To
GHWHUPLQHWKHH[LVWLQJQXPEHURIWUDQVLWSDVVHQJHUVWUDYHOLQJWKURXJKDQLQWHUVHFWLRQWKH1<&'27ÀUVWÀJXUHVRXWWKH
QXPEHURIEXVHVRSHUDWLQJRQWKDWVWUHHW,Q1HZ<RUN&LW\07$1HZ<RUN&LW\7UDQVLW 1<&7 DQGRU07$%XVVFKHGXOHV
DUHSXEOLFO\DYDLODEOH7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVSHFLÀHVKRZPDQ\EXVHVRQHDFKURXWHWUDYHOWKURXJKWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQGXULQJWKH
analysis hours. The number of buses on each route is then multiplied by the average number of passengers on that route
DWWKDWWLPH2FFXSDQF\VKRXOGEHGHWHUPLQHGIRUHDFKURXWHDVULGHUVKLSOHYHOVPD\YDU\E\URXWH1<&7DQG07$%XV
RFFXSDQF\OHYHOVFDQEHIRXQGIURPUHFHQWULGHFKHFNVRUSRLQWFKHFNV7KHIUHTXHQF\DQGW\SHVRIRWKHUEXVHVVKRXOG
also be measured during analysis hours.7
%XVSDVVHQJHUVLQ1HZ<RUN1<6RXUFH1RDK.D]LV
6WUHHWVEORJ1HZ<RUNVWUHHWVEORJRUJ

The number of passengers should be multiplied by the average vehicle delay experienced by the lane group in which
WKHEXVLVWUDYHOLQJ,QWKHEXLOGFDVHWKHSURMHFWHGQXPEHURIEXVHVSHUKRXUE\URXWHVKRXOGEHPXOWLSOLHGE\WKH
SURMHFWHGDYHUDJHQXPEHURISDVVHQJHUVRQWKDWEXVE\URXWH7KDWQXPEHURISDVVHQJHUVVKRXOGWKHQEHPXOWLSOLHG
by the average vehicle delay experienced by the lane group in which the bus will be traveling. To calculate the person
GHOD\IRUJHQHUDOYHKLFOHWUDIÀFPXOWLSO\WKHDYHUDJHYHKLFOHGHOD\IRUHDFKODQHJURXSE\DQHVWLPDWHRIYHKLFOH
occupancy, which can typically be obtained from a metropolitan planning organization or by observation. 
1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ&RPSDULVRQRI+LJKZD\&DSDFLW\0DQXDO +&0 DQG6LPXODWLRQKWWSRSVIKZDGRWJRYWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVWRROVWDWBYROVHFWKWP
2. 6ED\WL+D\VVDP5RGHQ'DYLG%HVW3UDFWLFHVLQWKH8VHRI0LFUR6LPXODWLRQ0RGHOV3UHSDUHGIRU$$6+726WDQGLQJ&RPPLWWHHRQ3ODQQLQJ0DUFK
KWWSVWDWHZLGHSODQQLQJRUJZSFRQWHQWXSORDGVB1&+53SGI 

3. &DPEULGJH6\VWHPDWLFV,QF'RZOLQJ$VVRFLDWHV,QF6\VWHP0HWULFV*URXS,QF7H[DV7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ,QVWLWXWH1&+535HSRUW&RVW(IIHFWLYH3HUIRUPDQFH0HDVXUHVIRU
7UDYHO7LPH'HOD\9DULDWLRQDQG5HOLDELOLW\7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ5HVHDUFK%RDUGRIWKH1DWLRQDO$FDGHPLHVKWWSRQOLQHSXEVWUERUJRQOLQHSXEVQFKUSQFKUSBUSWBSGI
4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ*XLGHOLQHVIRU$SSO\LQJ&256,00LFURVLPXODWLRQ0RGHOLQJ6RIWZDUH-DQXDU\
KWWSRSVIKZDGRWJRYWUDIÀFDQDO\VLVWRROVWDWBYROYROBJXLGHOLQHVSGI     

5. 7KH&LW\RI1HZ<RUN0D\RU
V2IÀFHRI(QYLURQPHQWDO&RRUGLQDWLRQ&KDSWHU7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ&(457HFKQLFDO0DQXDO
KWWSZZZQ\FJRYKWPORHFGRZQORDGVSGIBFHTUBWPBFHTUBWPBFKBWUDQVSRUWDWLRQSGI
6. 7KH&LW\RI1HZ<RUN0D\RU
V2IÀFHRI(QYLURQPHQWDO&RRUGLQDWLRQ&KDSWHU7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ&(457HFKQLFDO0DQXDO
KWWSZZZQ\FJRYKWPORHFGRZQORDGVSGIBFHTUBWPBFHTUBWPBFKBWUDQVSRUWDWLRQSGI
7. %HDWRQ(ULF1<&'27'LUHFWRURI7UDQVLW'HYHORSPHQW3HUVRQDOFRUUHVSRQGHQFH2FWREHU 
,ELG 

Intersection Elements

Daylighting
'HÀQLWLRQ

To “daylight” an intersection is to clear sight lines between pedestrian
FURVVLQJVDQGRQFRPLQJFDUVXVXDOO\E\FUHDWLQJQRSDUNLQJ]RQHVDWWKHFXUEVLQIURQW
of crosswalks at that intersection.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,PSURYHVGULYHUV·VLJKWOLQHVRISHGHVWULDQV
waiting at intersection curbs, particularly of
children and people in wheelchairs who are
blocked from view by parked cars

‡ ,QVWDOOQRSDUNLQJVLJQVWRPDUNWKHH[LVWHQFH
DQGOHQJWKRIQRSDUNLQJ]RQHV

‡ ,PSURYHVYLVLELOLW\EHWZHHQSHGHVWULDQVDQG
drivers making turns
‡ ,PSURYHVSHGHVWULDQV·VLJKWOLQHVRI
approaching cars, allowing them to make eye
contact with drivers from the sidewalk

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 'HFUHDVHVWKHDPRXQWRIDYDLODEOHFXUEVLGH
parking
‡ 5HPRYLQJRQVWUHHWSDUNLQJFRXOGLQFUHDVH
vehicle speeds

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZKHUHSHGHVWULDQFUDVKHVDUH
common
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZKHUHQRVLGHZDONH[LVWVRUVLJKW
lines are poor
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZKHUHSDUNHGYHKLFOHVQH[WWR
the crosswalk block sight lines
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVQHDUVFKRROV

‡ 'D\OLJKWDWOHDVW 
DERXWRQHSDUNLQJ
VSDFH IURPWKHFURVVZDONDWWKHQHDUDQGIDU
side of the intersection on urban streets with 
²PSKVSHHGOLPLWV1
‡ 'D\OLJKWDWOHDVW 
DERXWWZRSDUNLQJ
VSDFHV LQDGYDQFHRIFURVVZDONVDWHDFK
intersection approach on streets with 35–45
mph speed limits2
‡ 'D\OLJKWDWOHDVW 
LQDGYDQFHRIHDFK
signal, stop sign, or yield sign3
‡ Prohibit drivers from standing or parking
YHKLFOHVDWWKHFXUEZLWKLQ 
RIDFURVVZDONDW
DQLQWHUVHFWLRQRUZLWKLQ 
RIDQ\VLJQDOVWRS
RU\LHOGVLJQRUWUDIÀFFRQWUROVLJQDO4
‡ Evaluate impacts of daylighting by collecting
crash data

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 3DUNLQJVHWEDFNVDUHLQFOXGHGLQ$$6+72
guidelines

([DPSOHV
‡ New York, NY
‡ Hoboken, NJ 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

'D\OLJKWLQJDWWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQRI7KLUG$YHQXHDW8QLRQ6WUHHW%URRNO\Q1<
6RXUFH7KH&RQVXPHULVW)OLFNU

1. $PHULFDQ$VVRFLDWLRQRI6WDWH+LJKZD\DQG7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ2IÀFLDOV*HRPHWULF'HVLJQRI+LJKZD\VDQG6WUHHWV
2. ,ELG
3. ,ELG
4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ5HPRYH5HVWULFW3DUNLQJ2WKHU0HDVXUHVQGKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYVDIHUMRXUQH\OLEUDU\FRXQWHUPHDVXUHVKWP 

Intersection Elements

Raised Crosswalks
'HÀQLWLRQ

A raised crosswalk is a higher section of pavement with a marked
FURVVZDON,WLVSODFHGDFURVVWKHVWUHHWWRHQFRXUDJHGULYHUVWRVORZGRZQ5DLVHG
LQWHUVHFWLRQVXVXDOO\KDYHVORSHGUDPSVIRUWKHGULYHUOHDGLQJDQGIROORZLQJWKHÁDW
UDLVHGFURVVZDONVHFWLRQ

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,PSURYHVSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\

‡ &RQVWUXFWD²·SODWHDX²µVKRUWHUWKDQ
sidewalk level with straight 6’ ramps on either
side

‡ Reduces vehicle speeds
‡ ,QFUHDVHVSHGHVWULDQYLVLELOLW\
‡ Eliminates the need for a separate curb ramp
‡ Resolves the accessibility challenges of narrow
sidewalks

‡ Consider drainage: relocate catch basins,
install trench drains or drainage pipes where
necessary

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

‡ ,QVWDOO$'$UDPSVDQGGHWHFWDEOHZDUQLQJV
WUXQFDWHGGRPHV DWWKHVWUHHWHGJHIRU
people with vision impairments

‡ Possible discomfort when driving over raised
crosswalks or intersections

‡ ,QFRUSRUDWHSURSRVHG352:$*DFFHVVLELOLW\
guidelines into design

‡ May not be appropriate for emergency routes,
EXVURXWHVRUKLJKVSHHGVWUHHWV

‡ Highlight crosswalks with smooth, colored
roadway surface materials rather than
textured materials to ensure universal access3

‡ May not be appropriate at signalized
intersections where prevailing speeds are too
fast for crosswalk treatment
‡ 'LIÀFXOWIRUVQRZUHPRYDO

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Minor collector or residential streets with
PRGHUDWHWUDIÀF
‡ Alleys and shared public ways
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQRIORZYROXPHDQGKLJKYROXPH
VWUHHWVVXFKDVORFDODFFHVVODQHVRIPXOWLZD\
boulevards
‡ Where a street changes its function or street
type2

‡ Evaluate impacts of daylighting by collecting
crash data

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ A recommended countermeasure within
WKH)+:$·V3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\*XLGHDQG
&RXQWHUPHDVXUH6HOHFWLRQ6\VWHP
‡ A recommendation of the February 
,QWHUQDWLRQDO7HFKQRORJ\6FDQQLQJ
Program, sponsored by the Federal Highway
Administration, the American Association of
6WDWH+LJKZD\DQG7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ2IÀFLDOV
and the National Cooperative Highway
Research Program

([DPSOHV
‡ 6DQ)UDQFLVFR&$
‡ Cambridge, MA
‡ %RXOGHU&2 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

5DLVHGFURVVZDONRQ:DWHU6WUHHWLQGRZQWRZQ+DUULVRQEXUJ9$6RXUFHWKDQKKDGDQJ)OLFNU

1. 6DQ)UDQFLVFR3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW7KH%HWWHU6WUHHWV3ODQ'HFHPEHUSKWWSZZZVISODQQLQJRUJIWS%HWWHU6WUHHWVGRFV),1$/BB6WUHHWB'HVLJQVSGI
2. 'DYLG.HQW%DOODVW$UFKLWHFWXUDO5HVHDUFK&RQVXOWLQJ,QLWLDWLYHRQ'LPHQVLRQDO7ROHUDQFHVLQ&RQVWUXFWLRQ'LPHQVLRQDO7ROHUDQFHVIRU6XUIDFH$FFHVVLELOLW\)LQDO5HSRUW
$FFHVV%RDUG5HVHDUFK-DQXDU\KWWSZZZDFFHVVERDUGJRYUHVHDUFKWROHUDQFHVÀQDOUHSRUWKWP 

Intersection Elements

Pedestrian Crossing Islands
'HÀQLWLRQ

/RFDWHGRQWKHURDGZD\EHWZHHQRSSRVLQJODQHVRIWUDIÀFSHGHVWULDQ
FURVVLQJLVODQGVVHSDUDWHSHGHVWULDQVIURPYHKLFOHVDWLQWHUVHFWLRQVRUPLGEORFN
ORFDWLRQV7KH\DUHW\SLFDOO\UDLVHGPHGLDQVRULVODQGVWKRXJKORZHUFRVWYHUVLRQVFDQ
be made of pavement markings only. Crossing islands can also be referred to as center
islands, refuge islands, or pedestrian islands.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ 5HGXFHVSHGHVWULDQFUDVKHVE\XSWRDW
marked crosswalks1

‡ Provide pedestrian crossing islands through
the crosswalk where medians are present or
space exists

‡ 5HGXFHVPRWRUYHKLFOHFUDVKHVE\XSWR
at unmarked crosswalks2
‡ Provides pedestrians a safe place to stop
midway across the road
‡ ,QFUHDVHVYLVLELOLW\RISHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJV
particularly at unsignalized crossings 3
‡ 3URYLGHVDFRVWHIIHFWLYHRSWLRQWRFXUE
extensions because drainage problems are
not as common in the center of the roadway
‡ Helps lower vehicle speeds approaching
pedestrian crossings
‡ Provides space for supplemental signage on
multilane roadways

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ %DODQFLQJFRPSHWLQJQHHGVZLWKLQDOLPLWHG
roadway width
‡ Crossing islands at intersections or near
GULYHZD\VPD\DIIHFWOHIWWXUQDFFHVV 4
‡ Crossing islands may affect operations of
ZLGHORDGYHKLFOHV5

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ 0DUNHGDQGXQPDUNHGFURVVZDONVDGMDFHQWWR
transit stops, between pedestrian origins and
GHVWLQDWLRQVDQGLQDUHDVZLWKVLJQLÀFDQWIRRW
WUDIÀF
‡ Areas with many school children, seniors, or
other vulnerable pedestrians
‡ Multilane roadways in urban and suburban
areas
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZLWKVLJQLÀFDQWQXPEHUVRI
pedestrian and vehicles traveling at high
speeds 

‡ %XLOGLVODQGVDWOHDVW·LQZLGWK SUHIHUDEO\ 
· DQGRIDGHTXDWHOHQJWKDQGZLGWKIRUWKH
anticipated number of pedestrians6
‡ 'HVLJQLVODQGVZLWKOHYHOFXWWKURXJKIRRWSDWKV
IRU$'$DFFHVVLELOLW\
‡ 3URYLGHGHWHFWDEOHZDUQLQJV WUXQFDWHG
GRPHV DWHDFKHGJHRIWKHLVODQGFXW
WKURXJKDUHDIRU$'$DFFHVVLELOLW\
‡ Highlight islands with signs, striping, and
UHÁHFWRUV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 7KH)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )+:$ 
2IÀFHRI6DIHW\LQFOXGHVPHGLDQVDQG
pedestrian crossing islands in their list of Proven
6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV7

([DPSOHV
7KH)+:$LVSURPRWLQJZLGHVSUHDG
integration of median and pedestrian crossing
LVODQGVLQWRVWDWHSUDFWLFHV6WDWHVWKDWKDYH
adopted the countermeasure include:
‡ )ORULGD'27
‡ 1HZ<RUN'27
‡ 2UHJRQ'27

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Examples of pedestrian crossing islands.
6RXUFH$ERYH3('6RUJ)OLFNU&HQWHU5LFKDUG
'UGXO)OLFNU%HORZ3('6RUJ)OLFNU

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV0HGLDQVDQG3HGHVWULDQ&URVVLQJ,VODQGVLQ8UEDQDQG6XEXUEDQ$UHDV
KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSURYHQFRXQWHUPHDVXUHVIKZDBVDBBKWP 

2. ,ELG
3. ,ELG
4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\7UDIÀF&DOPLQJ&URVVLQJ,VODQGVKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYVDIHUMRXUQH\OLEUDU\FRXQWHUPHDVXUHVKWP
5. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\3HGHVWULDQ&RXQWHUPHDVXUH3ROLF\%HVW3UDFWLFH5HSRUWKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSHGBELNHWRROVBVROYHIKZDVD
6. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV0HGLDQVDQG3HGHVWULDQ&URVVLQJ,VODQGVLQ8UEDQDQG6XEXUEDQ$UHDV
KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSURYHQFRXQWHUPHDVXUHVIKZDBVDBBKWP 

7. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\0HPRUDQGXP3URPRWLQJWKH,PSOHPHQWDWLRQRI3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV-DQXDU\
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/pc_memo.htm 
)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\3HGHVWULDQ&RXQWHUPHDVXUH3ROLF\%HVW3UDFWLFH5HSRUWKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSHGBELNHWRROVBVROYHIKZDVD 

Intersection Elements

Offset Crosswalks
'HÀQLWLRQ

An offset crosswalk is one with a center median that acts as both a
pedestrian safety island and means of directing pedestrians to look toward oncoming
WUDIÀFEHIRUHFURVVLQJWKHVHFRQGKDOIRIWKHVWUHHW

%HQHÀWV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ 2ULHQWVSHGHVWULDQVWRZDUGRQFRPLQJWUDIÀF
so they are more likely to notice it

‡ Recommended within the February 
,QWHUQDWLRQDO7HFKQRORJ\6FDQQLQJ
Program, sponsored by the Federal Highway
Administration, the American Association of
6WDWH+LJKZD\DQG7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ2IÀFLDOV
and the National Cooperative Highway
Research Program1

‡ Reduces unprotected pedestrians trapped in
the middle of the street
‡ ,PSURYHVGULYHU\LHOGWRSHGHVWULDQ
compliance

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Pedestrians might resist following the slightly
longer path across the street
‡ Additional installation costs for longer crossing
route
‡ Accommodating offset crosswalks within
limited roadway width

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ 6LJQDOL]HGDQGXQVLJQDOL]HGFURVVLQJVRQ
multilane roadways
‡ 0LGEORFNDQGLQWHUVHFWLRQFURVVLQJV

*XLGDQFH
‡ The crosswalk offset can be a right angle or
skewed depending on site conditions
‡ 'HVLJQLVODQGVZLWKOHYHOFXWWKURXJKIRRWSDWKV
IRUEHWWHU$'$DFFHVVLELOLW\
‡ 3URYLGHGHWHFWDEOHZDUQLQJV WUXQFDWHG
GRPHV DWWKHHDFKHGJHRIWKHLVODQGFXW
WKURXJKDUHDIRUEHWWHU$'$DFFHVVLELOLW\
‡ ,QFOXGHDVHFWLRQRISDUDOOHOFXUELQJWKDWLV
aligned with the direction of the crosswalk
to redirect a blind or visually impaired
pedestrian4 

‡ Endorsed within FHWA’s 3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\
&RXQWHUPHDVXUH'HSOR\PHQW3URMHFW when
XVHGZLWKKLJKYLVLELOLW\FURVVZDONVDQG\LHOGWR
pedestrian signs2
‡ :KLOH087&'GRHVQRWVSHFLÀFDOO\
recommend offset crosswalks, it does provide
guidance for pedestrian barriers at offset
crosswalks that act “as passive devices that
force users to face approaching [trains] before
entering the trackway.”37KH087&'DOVR
includes offset pedestrian crosswalks in its
UHFRPPHQGHGURXQGDERXWFRQÀJXUDWLRQV 4

([DPSOHV
‡ /DV9HJDV19

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

2IIVHWFURVVZDONZLWKKLJKYLVLELOLW\FURVVZDON
PDUNLQJVLQ/DV9HJDV196RXUFH)HGHUDO+LJKZD\
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ8QLWHG6WDWHV'HSDUWPHQWRI
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ

2IIVHWFURVVZDONLQ%HWKHVGD0'6RXUFH*HUDUG6RIÀDQ

1. )LVFKHU(GZDUG/5RXVVHDX*DEH.7XUQHU6KDZQ0%ODLV(UQHVW (UQLH -(QJHOKDUW&LQG\/+HQGHUVRQ'DYLG5.DSODQ-RQDWKDQ -RQ $.HOOHU9LYLDQ0 .LW 
0DFND\-DPHV'7RELDV3ULVFLOOD$:LJOH'LDQH(=HJHHU&KDUOLH93HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOLVW6DIHW\DQG0RELOLW\LQ(XURSH   

KWWSZZZLQWHUQDWLRQDOIKZDGRWJRYSXEVSOSOSGI
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUH'HSOR\PHQW3URMHFW²KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSHGBELNHWRROVBVROYHSHGBVFGSURMLQGH[FIP
3. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V'HFHPEHU
KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI    

4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V'HFHPEHU²
KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI 

Intersection Elements

High-Visibility Crosswalks
'HÀQLWLRQ

Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians crossing roadways
E\GHÀQLQJWKHDSSURSULDWHSDWKVIRUWKHP:KLOHEDVLFFURVVZDONPDUNLQJVFRQVLVWRI
two transverse lines, an FHWA study found that continental markings were detected
at about twice the distance upstream as the transverse markings during daytime
FRQGLWLRQV,QWKHVWXG\WKLVLQFUHDVHGGLVWDQFHPHDQWWKDWGULYHUVWUDYHOLQJDWPSK
had eight additional seconds of awareness of crossing pedestrians.1

%HQHÀWV
‡ ,QFUHDVHVYLVLELOLW\RISHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJSDWKV
‡ 'LVFRXUDJHVGULYHUVIURPHQFURDFKLQJLQWR
crosswalks

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Funding for markings

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ Funding for ongoing maintenance

‡ $Q)+:$VSRQVRUHG&URVVZDON0DUNLQJ)LHOG
9LVLELOLW\6WXG\UHFRPPHQGHGLQFOXGLQJEDU
SDLUVLQWKH087&'DQGPDNLQJEDUSDLUVRU
continental the default crosswalk markings for
all crosswalks across roadways not controlled
E\VLJQDOVRUVWRSVLJQV7KH087&'adopted
WKHVHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVLQ-DQXDU\5

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZLWKFRQÁLFWVEHWZHHQYHKLFXODU
and pedestrian movements
‡ $UHDVZLWKORWVRIIRRWWUDIÀFVXFKDVORDGLQJ
islands, midblock pedestrian islands
‡ Commercial business districts

([DPSOHV

*XLGDQFH

Many cities are expanding the use and variety
RIKLJKYLVLELOLW\FURVVZDONPDUNLQJVLQFOXGLQJ

‡ For continental, or ladder markings, stripe the
longitudinal lines within between 12” to 24” in
ZLGWKDQGVHSDUDWHGE\JDSVRIµWRµ2

‡ %RVWRQ0$

‡ For bar pair markings, stripeWZRµVWULSHV
VHSDUDWHGE\µWRIRUPDµZLGHEDUSDLU
6HSDUDWHSDLUVE\JDSVRIµWRµ3
‡ 6RPHSHGHVWULDQVZLWKORZYLVLRQSUHIHU
ladder markings, which help them follow the
crosswalk better, particularly where bar pairs
are widely separated
‡ Place markings to avoid the wheel paths of
cars
‡ Extend crosswalks to the edges of the
roadway or intersecting crosswalk
‡ 6WULSHFURVVZDONVWRHQFRPSDVVFXUEUDPSV
‡ Use inlay tape and thermoplastic tape rather
WKDQSDLQW,QOD\WDSHZRUNVIRUQHZDQG
resurfaced pavement;; thermoplastic works for
rougher surfaces 4 

‡ Avoid using contrasting materials like brick to
create higher visibility. These materials cost
much more to maintain, but are not highly
visible—particularly at night, in the rain,
and over time as they lose contrast with the
surrounding street

‡ &KDUORWWHVYLOOH9$
‡ 6DOW/DNH&LW\87

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

%DUSDLUKLJKYLVLELOLW\FURVVZDONPDUNLQJVDFURVV,QWHUQDWLRQDO%RXOHYDUGLQ
6HD7DF:$6RXUFH2UDQ9LUL\LQF\)OLFNU

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ&URVVZDON0DUNLQJ)LHOG9LVLELOLW\6WXG\ )+:$+57 2FWREHU
KWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYSXEOLFDWLRQVUHVHDUFKVDIHW\SHGELNHLQGH[FIP     

2. 1DWLRQDO&RPPLWWHHRQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V0DUNLQJV1R-DQXDU\
KWWSVFHSURIVFLYLOWDPXHGXJKDZNLQV07&)LOHVB0HHWLQJ0DUNLQJB1RSGI         

3. ,ELG
4. 3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU&URVVZDONVQGKWWSZZZZDONLQJLQIRRUJHQJLQHHULQJFURVVLQJVFURVVZDONVFIP
5. 1DWLRQDO&RPPLWWHHRQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V0DUNLQJV1R-DQXDU\
KWWSVFHSURIVFLYLOWDPXHGXJKDZNLQV07&)LOHVB0HHWLQJ0DUNLQJB1RSGI  

Intersection Elements

Advance Stop Lines
'HÀQLWLRQ

6WRSOLQHVDUHXVHGWRLQGLFDWHWKHSRLQWEHKLQGZKLFKYHKLFOHVVKRXOG
VWRSIRUD6WRSVLJQD6WRS+HUHIRU3HGHVWULDQVVLJQRUVRPHRWKHUWUDIÀFFRQWUROGHYLFH
WKDWUHTXLUHVYHKLFOHVWRVWRS

%HQHÀWV
‡ ,PSURYHVVDIHW\DQGYLVLELOLW\RIFURVVLQJ
pedestrians
‡ $&DQDGLDQ5HVHDUFKRQ3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\
reportIRXQGWKDWD´6WRS+HUHIRU3HGHVWULDQVµ
VLJQUHGXFHVFRQÁLFWVEHWZHHQGULYHUVDQG
SHGHVWULDQVE\$GGLQJDQDGYDQFHGVWRS
OLQHUHGXFHVFRQÁLFWVE\FRPSDUHGZLWK
baseline levels1

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Not appropriate at crosswalks approaching or
departing roundabouts2
‡ When drivers stop too close to crosswalks that
cross uncontrolled multilane approaches, they
might block other drivers’ views of pedestrians
and pedestrians’ views of vehicles3
‡ 'ULYHUVPD\LJQRUHWKHOLQHLILW·VSODFHGWRRIDU
in advance of the crosswalk

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ ,QIURQWRIDOOVWRSFRQWUROOHGFURVVZDONV

*XLGDQFH 

‡ 6WRSOLQHVVKRXOGQRWEHXVHGZKHUHGULYHUVDUH
supposed to yield
‡ Lines should be solid white lines extending
across approach lanes
‡ 6WRSOLQHVVKRXOGEH²µZLGH4
‡ 6WRSOLQHVVKRXOGEHSODFHGDPLQLPXP
of 4’ before the crosswalk at controlled
LQWHUVHFWLRQV³LGHDOO\·EHIRUHWKHFURVVZDON5
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIDPDUNHGFURVVZDONWKH
stop line should be placed at the desired
VWRSSLQJSRLQW
²·IURPWKHQHDUHVWHGJH
of the intersecting road6
‡ 2QPXOWLODQHDSSURDFKHVVWRSOLQHVPD\
EHVWDJJHUHGORQJLWXGLQDOO\RQDODQHE\
lane basis to improve the driver’s view of
pedestrians, provide better sight distance
for turning vehicles, and increase the turning
UDGLXVIRUOHIWWXUQLQJYHKLFOHV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 6WDQGDUGLQ6HFWLRQ%087&'

([DPSOHV
‡ :LGHVSUHDGLQ86FLWLHV

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

$GYDQFHVWRSOLQHLQ%URRN\Q1<6RXUFH*HUDUG6RIÀDQ

1. 9DQ+RXWHQ5RQDQG0DOHQIDQW-(/RXLV&DQDGLDQ5HVHDUFKRQ3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\5HSRUW1R)+:$5')HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ:DVKLQJWRQ'&
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KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI  

3. ,ELG
4. ,ELG
5. ,ELG
6. ,ELG 

Intersection Elements

In-Road Pedestrian Signs
'HÀQLWLRQ

7KHVHDUHÁH[LEOHVLJQVSODFHGLQWKHPHGLDQRUFHQWHUOLQHDW
unsignalized crossings announcing that drivers must yield or stop for crossing
pedestrians.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Reminds drivers that pedestrians have the
ULJKWRIZD\LQXQVLJQDOL]HGFURVVZDONV

‡ ,QVWDOOLQDORFDWLRQZKHUHLWGRHVQRWFRQÁLFW
ZLWKWUDIÀFSDWWHUQVRUHQFURDFKLQWRDWUDYHO
lane: at the crosswalk on the centerline, on a
ODQHOLQHRURQDPHGLDQLVODQGEXWQRWSRVW
PRXQWHGRQWKHOHIWKDQGRUULJKWKDQGVLGHRI
the roadway

‡ ,QFUHDVHVGULYHU\LHOGWRSHGHVWULDQUDWHV1

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 6WDWHVRUPXQLFLSDOLWLHVPLJKWEHOLDEOHIRU
property damage resulting from the presence
of these signs in the roadway

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ ,QVWDOOLQDORFDWLRQZKHUHLWGRHVEORFN
SHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFLQWKHFURVVZDON
‡ ,QVWDOOLQDUHDVZLWKORZYROXPHVRIWXUQLQJ
WUXFNWUDIÀFRULQPHGLDQV

‡ Unsignalized pedestrian crossings with a
marked crosswalk

‡ ,QVWDOOLQQDUURZHUURDGZD\VWRPD[LPL]H
visibility of the signs

‡ 0RVWHIIHFWLYHRQQDUURZRUWZRODQHURDGV

‡ 'HVLJQWKHVLJQVXSSRUWWREHQGRYHUDQGWKHQ
bounce back to its normal vertical position
when struck by a vehicle

‡ Not permitted at signalized intersections2
‡ 9LOODJHFHQWHUVRUUHWDLODUHDVDORQJWZRODQH
RIWHQUXUDO URDGV

‡ %HFRQVLVWHQWZLWKVWDWHUHJXODWLRQVZKHWKHU
drivers must yield or stop to pedestrians in
unsignalized crossings
‡ 0DNHWKHVLJQUHÁHFWLYHLILW·VOHIWLQSODFH
hours a day

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ $OORZHGZLWKLQ087&'3

([DPSOHV
‡ WidespreadDFURVVWKH86LQFOXGLQJ
» New York
» Massachusetts
» Maine 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

$6WRSIRU3HGHVWULDQVLQURDGVLJQLQ*HRUJLD6RXUFH3('6RUJ)OLFNU

$6WRSIRU3HGHVWULDQVLQURDGVLJQLQ*HRUJLD6RXUFH3('6RUJ)OLFNU

$<LHOGWR3HGHVWULDQVLQURDGVLJQLQ&DOLIRUQLD
6RXUFH5XVVHOO-DPHV6PLWK)OLFNU

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Signal Treatments

Leading Pedestrian Interval
'HÀQLWLRQ

$OHDGLQJSHGHVWULDQLQWHUYDO /3, LVDWRVHFRQGSHGHVWULDQRQO\
phase within a signalized intersection timing schedule that gives pedestrians a “head
VWDUWµRYHUFDUVJRLQJLQWKHVDPHGLUHFWLRQRUWXUQLQJDFURVVWKHSHGHVWULDQV·SDWKV,W
is displayed by an advance walk indication for the crosswalk during which parallel and
WXUQLQJWUDIÀFFRQWLQXHWRIDFHDUHGVLJQDO

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Allows pedestrians to establish themselves in
WKHFURVVZDONEHIRUHULJKWWXUQLQJWUDIÀFFDQ
begin moving1

‡ 7KH/3,VKRXOGEHDWOHDVWVHFRQGVORQJ 1<&
VWDQGDUGLVVHFRQGV DQGWLPHGWRDOORZ
SHGHVWULDQVWRFURVVDWOHDVWRQHODQHRIWUDIÀF
EHIRUHWXUQLQJWUDIÀFLVJLYHQWKHJUHHQVLJQDO2

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Reduces the time allotted to vehicles in the
signal cycle, potentially reducing vehicular
ÁRZ

‡ Prohibit turns across the crosswalk during the
leading pedestrian interval
‡ ,QVWDOODFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOV 3

‡ &RXOGVORZGRZQWUDQVLWEXVUXQQLQJWLPHV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ 6SHFLÀFDOO\DOORZHGE\6HFWLRQ(RIWKH 
087&'

‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZLWKFRPELQDWLRQVRIKHDY\
SHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFDQGVLJQLÀFDQWULJKWDQG
OHIWWXUQLQJYHKLFOHVFURVVLQJWKHFURVVZDON

‡ (QGRUVHGE\D75%UHSRUWWKDWIRXQGD
GHFUHDVHLQSHGHVWULDQYHKLFOHFRQÁLFWVDQG
an increase in the percentage of drivers who
yielded to pedestrians 4

([DPSOHV
‡ New York, NY
‡ 7RURQWR21
‡ :DVKLQJWRQ'& 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

A leading pedestrian interval allows pedestrians to get a head start crossing the
street before cars are permitted to go. 6RXUFH)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
8QLWHG6WDWHV'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\²5HSRUWWR&RQJUHVV$XJXVW 

KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSHGBELNHOHJLVBJXLGHUSWVBFQJVSHGUSWBFKDSBFIPV   

2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V6HFWLRQ('HFHPEHU
KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI      

3. ,ELG
4. 9DQ+RXWHQ55HWWLQJ5$)DUPHU&09DQ+RXWHQ5 0DOHQIDQW-(/)LHOGHYDOXDWLRQRIDOHDGLQJSHGHVWULDQLQWHUYDOVLJQDOSKDVHDWWKUHHVXEXUEDQLQWHUVHFWLRQV
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ5HVHDUFK5HFRUG1R² 

Signal Treatments

Accessible Pedestrian Signals
'HÀQLWLRQ

$FFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOV $36 DQGGHWHFWRUVDUHGHVLJQHGWR
accommodate the needs of all pedestrians, including those with vision and mobility
impairments. They provide information in nonvisual formats such as audible tones,
speech messages, and vibrating surfaces to indicate the appropriate time for
pedestrians to cross the street.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Makes it easier for visually impaired
pedestrians to cross the street
‡ 5HGXFHVFURVVLQJVGXULQJWKHGRQ·WZDON
phase

» ,IWZRDFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQSXVKEXWWRQV
DUHSODFHGOHVVWKDQ·DSDUWRURQWKH
same pole, accessible pedestrian push
button shall be provided with the following

‡ Allows more crossings in each signal interval

A push button locator tone

‡ ,PSURYHVFURVVLQJVSHHGVIRUVLJKWHG
pedestrians1

A tactile arrow

A speech walk message for the walk
indication

A speech push button information
message

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Noise pollution
‡ Potential pedestrian confusion of the audible
locator tone and the walk indication

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ The proposed draft guidelines for the design,
construction, and alteration of pedestrian
IDFLOLWLHVLQWKHSXEOLFULJKWRIZD\ 352:$* 
UHTXLUHDFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOVDQG
push buttons whenever pedestrian signals are
installed or replaced at signalized intersections

*XLGDQFH
‡ ,QWHJUDWHWKHDGGLWLRQRUXSJUDGHVRI
accessible pedestrian signals into routine
VLJQDOPDLQWHQDQFHDQGVWUHHWVFDSHSURMHFWV
‡ $WORFDWLRQVZLWKORWVRIIRRWWUDIÀFWLPH
pedestrian phases to come up automatically
DQGNHHSVLJQDOF\FOHVVKRUW LGHDOO\
VHFRQGVPD[LPXP 
‡ Follow the location, design, and maintenance
UHTXLUHPHQWVRIDFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQ
signals as detailed in the proposed 352:$*
guidelines and $36*XLGHWR%HVW3UDFWLFHV,
which include some of the following:
» Accessible pedestrian signal shall provide
both audible and vibrotactile indications of
the walk interval
» Preferred locations are on two separated
poles located within 5’ of the crosswalk line
farthest from the center of the intersection 

» Preferred audible walk indication is a rapid
ticking sound

» The accessible walk indication shall have the
same duration as the pedestrian walk signal
except if the pedestrian signal rests in walk
» ,QDUHDVZLWKODUJHQXPEHUVRIVHQLRUFLWL]HQV
SRVWDKLJKFRQWUDVWUDLVHGSULQWRUODUJH
print sign of the street name that the push
button controls
» 3XVKEXWWRQVVKRXOGFRQÀUPWKDWDSUHVVHG
EXWWRQUHTXHVWIRUFURVVLQJKDVEHHQ
received with a “wait” message and a light

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 6HFWLRQ((RIWKH087&'GHWDLOV
$36JXLGDQFH
‡ 3URSRVHG352:$*UHTXLUHVDFFHVVLEOH
pedestrian signals and push buttons when
pedestrian signals are installed or replaced
DWVLJQDOL]HGLQWHUVHFWLRQV 5 WKHVH
JXLGHOLQHVDUHW\SLFDOO\DGRSWHGE\087&'
RQFHWKH\EHFRPHÀQDO

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

([DPSOHV
7KH$FFHVVLEOH3HGHVWULDQ6LJQDOV$*XLGH
WR%HVW3UDFWLFHV http://www.apsguide.org 
SURYLGHVFDVHVWXGLHVIRU86FLWLHVDQG
MXULVGLFWLRQVWKDWKDYHLPSOHPHQWHG$36DV
RILQFOXGLQJ
‡ Newton, MA
‡ Atlanta, GA
‡ $QQ$UERU0,
‡ :DXNHVKD:,
‡ 'XQHGLQ)/

An accessible pedestrian signal with audible tones
in Roseville, MN. 6RXUFH'DYLG5*RQ]DOH]0Q'27

1. $FFHVVLEOH3HGHVWULDQ6LJQDOV$*XLGHWR%HVW3UDFWLFHV2SWLPDO$36/RFDWLRQVhttp://www.apsguide.org/chapter6_location.cfm
2. $FFHVVLEOH3HGHVWULDQ6LJQDOV$*XLGHWR%HVW3UDFWLFHV)HDWXUHVRI$36http://www.apsguide.org/chapter4.cfm 

Signal Treatments

Ban Right Turns on Red
'HÀQLWLRQ

5LJKWWXUQRQUHG 5725 LVDSROLF\WKDWSHUPLWVGULYHUVWRWXUQULJKWGXULQJ
DUHGOLJKWDIWHUFRPLQJWRDFRPSOHWHVWRSH[FHSWZKHUHVSHFLÀFDOO\SURKLELWHGE\D
SRVWHGVLJQ7KLVQDWLRQZLGHSROLF\ ZLWKWKHH[FHSWLRQRI1HZ<RUN&LW\ ZDVDGRSWHG
E\WKH)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQDQG'HSDUWPHQWRI(QHUJ\LQWKHV5HVHDUFK
summarizing multiple studies concludes that the number of pedestrian and bicycle
FUDVKHVDWVLJQDOL]HGLQWHUVHFWLRQVLQFUHDVHGDIWHUDGRSWLRQRIWKH5725SROLF\PDLQO\
EHFDXVHDULJKWWXUQLQJGULYHUZRXOGORRNOHIWIRUDJDSLQWUDIÀFDQGQRWVHHSHGHVWULDQV
or cyclists approaching from his or her right side.1$QRULJKWWXUQRQUHG 15725 SROLF\
UHYHUVHVWKDWSROLF\SURKLELWLQJ5725XQOHVVRWKHUZLVHSHUPLWWHGDWVSHFLÀFORFDWLRQVE\
SRVWHGVLJQV15725SROLFLHVFRXOGEDQULJKWWXUQVLQXUEDQRUKLJKSHGHVWULDQGHQVLW\
areas at all times or only during daytime hours, which is the time most pedestrian crashes
occur.2

%HQHÀWV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ 5HGXFHVFRQÁLFWVEHWZHHQGULYHUVDQG
pedestrians

‡ Central business districts and dense urban
DUHDVZKHUHWKHUHDUHVLJQLÀFDQWYDULDWLRQLQ
WUDIÀFYROXPHVDQGSHGHVWULDQDFWLYLW\

‡ $FLW\ZLGHRUQHLJKERUKRRG15725SROLF\
eliminates the cost of creating, installing,
PDLQWDLQLQJDQGUHSODFLQJ5725SURKLELWLRQ
signs at each intersection

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Needs regular enforcement
‡ Motorists will need to be consistently alerted
WR5725SROLF\FKDQJHVZKHQHQWHULQJDQG
OHDYLQJ15725DUHDV
‡ 3URKLELWLQJ5725PD\OHDGWRKLJKHUULJKWWXUQ
RQJUHHQFRQÁLFWV

‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQV
» :LWKLQDGHTXDWHVLJKWGLVWDQFH
» With unusual geometry
» :LWKKLJKWUDIÀFVSHHGVRQWKHLQWHUVHFWLQJ
street
» Where there are high volumes of seniors
» Where there are heavy volumes of
pedestrian crossings
» :KHUHGLVDEOHGSHGHVWULDQVUHTXHVWLW
» $GMDFHQWWRSDUNVDQGKRVSLWDOV

‡ 3URKLELWLQJ5725PD\FDXVHFRQJHVWLRQZLWK
high volumes of right turns

» At school crossings

‡ 5725SROLFLHVSURYLGHVPDOOIXHODQGWLPH
savings

» $WWUDIÀFVLJQDOVwith three or more phases3

» At railroad crossings

*XLGDQFH
‡ Reach out to community stakeholders to
GLVFXVVSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\FRQFHUQVDQG
potential ways to address them, including
15725
‡ With the community’s support, clearly sign the
HQWUDQFHDQGH[LWVWR15725]RQHVWRFODULI\
expected behaviors of drivers and pedestrians 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 1RWLQFOXGHGLQ087&'RU$$6+72
‡ ,QWKHDEVHQFHRIQDWLRQDOJXLGDQFH
cities are turning to best practices
employed by other municipalities
‡ A VWXG\VSRQVRUHGE\WKH,QVXUDQFH
,QVWLWXWHIRU+LJKZD\6DIHW\IRXQGWKDW
once right turns on red were permitted,
the number of crashes involving right
WXUQVDWWUDIÀFVLJQDOVLQFUHDVHGE\
and pedestrian crashes resulting from
ULJKWWXUQPDQHXYHUVDWWUDIÀFVLJQDOV
LQFUHDVHGE\ 4

([DPSOHV
‡ Two cities in North America have citywide
15725SROLFHV
» New York, NY
» Montreal, QC
5RDGVLJQVDOHUWGULYHUVDSSURDFKLQJWKH,VODQGRI0RQWUHDOWKDWWKH\DUH
entering a zone where no right turns on red are permitted. 6RXUFH9LQFHQW3DXO
(VFDQODUEHWWHUIUHGHULFWRQRUJ

1. 5HWWLQJ5LFKDUG$1LW]EXUJ0DUVKD6)DUPHU&KDUOHV0.QREODXFK5LFKDUG/)LHOG(YDOXDWLRQRI7ZR0HWKRGVIRU5HVWULFWLQJ5LJKW7XUQRQ5HGWR3URPRWH3HGHVWULDQ
6DIHW\,7(-RXUQDO-DQXDU\
2. ,ELG
3. 6DQ)UDQFLVFR3ODQQLQJ'HSDUWPHQW7KH%HWWHU6WUHHWV3ODQ'HFHPEHU²KWWSZZZVISODQQLQJRUJIWS%HWWHU6WUHHWVGRFV),1$/BB6WUHHWB'HVLJQVSGI
4. ,QVXUDQFH,QVWLWXWHIRU+LJKZD\6DIHW\5LJKW7XUQ2Q5HG/DZV5DLVH,QWHUVHFWLRQ7ROO7KH+LJKZD\/RVV5HGXFWLRQ6WDWXV5HSRUW9RO1R'HFHPEHU
KWWSZZZLLKVRUJH[WHUQDOGDWDVUGDWDGRFVVUSGI 

Signal Treatments

Split Phasing
'HÀQLWLRQ

6SOLWSKDVLQJGLYLGHVWKHJUHHQOLJKWRIDWUDIÀFVLJQDOLQWRVHSDUDWH
SKDVHVRQHIRUWXUQLQJYHKLFOHVDQGDQRWKHUIRUWKURXJKWUDIÀFDQGSHGHVWULDQV

%HQHÀWV
‡ Allows pedestrians to cross the street free of
FRQÁLFWVZLWKWXUQLQJYHKLFOHV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Potentially increases wait times for pedestrians
and the possibility of pedestrians crossing
against the signal
‡ 6SOLWSKDVLQJPD\QRWH[WHQGWRYLVLRQ
impaired pedestrians unless an accessible
pedestrian signal is installed

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ ,QWHUVHFWLRQVZLWKGHGLFDWHGWXUQLQJODQHV
where heavy pedestrian volumes and turning
YHKLFOHVFRQÁLFWUHVXOWLQJLQFUDVKHVRU
congestion

*XLGDQFH
‡ 8VHDÀYHVHFWLRQVLJQDOKHDGZLWKD
combination of circular and arrow indications1
‡ )RUSHUPLVVLYHRQO\ULJKWWXUQPRGHV ZKHUH
pedestrians continue to cross while car are
SHUPLWWHGWRWXUQ SURJUDPWKHWXUQDUURZ
WRÁDVK\HOORZWRLQGLFDWHWRGULYHUVWKDWWKH\
must yield to pedestrians in the crosswalk 2
‡ )RUSURWHFWHGRQO\ULJKWWXUQPRGHV ZKHUH
pedestrians and turning cars have separate
VLJQDOSKDVHV SURJUDPWKHWXUQDUURZWRD
steady green arrow

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 6HFWLRQV''LQWKHManual on
8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHV contain
VSHFLÀFHQJLQHHULQJJXLGDQFH

([DPSOHV
‡ :LGHVSUHDGLQ86FLWLHV 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

1

2

6SOLWSKDVHVLJQDOWLPLQJLQ1HZ<RUN1<,QWKLVSKDVHSHGHVWULDQVFURVVWKH
VWUHHWIUHHRIFRQÁLFWVZLWKWXUQLQJYHKLFOHV6RXUFH6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ

3

6SOLWSKDVHVLJQDOWLPLQJLQ1HZ<RUN1<,QWKLVSKDVHGULYHUVWXUQULJKWIUHHRI
FRQÁLFWVZLWKFURVVLQJSHGHVWULDQV6RXUFH6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ

,QWKLVVSOLWSKDVHVLJQDOSKDVHGLDJUDPSHGHVWULDQV
ZDLWWRFURVVGXULQJSKDVHFURVVIUHHRIFRQÁLFWV
during phase two, and wait on one side of the street
to allow cars to turn during phase 3. 6RXUFH=HNH
0HUPHOO6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6LJQDOL]HG,QWHUVHFWLRQVKWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYSXEOLFDWLRQVUHVHDUFKVDIHW\FIPFKS
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V6HFWLRQ''HFHPEHU
KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI 

Signal Treatments

Pedestrian Scramble or
Barnes Dance
'HÀQLWLRQ

$SHGHVWULDQVFUDPEOHRU%DUQHV'DQFHLVDQH[FOXVLYHSHGHVWULDQ
interval that stops all vehicular movement to allow pedestrians access to cross in any
GLUHFWLRQDWWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQLQFOXGLQJGLDJRQDOO\'XULQJD%DUQHV'DQFHSHGHVWULDQV
can cross at all four crosswalks;; during a pedestrian or signal scramble, pedestrians are
encouraged to cross the intersections diagonally as well.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,PSURYHVSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\E\UHPRYLQJ
FRQÁLFWLQJWUDIÀFIURPWKHSHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJ
phase

‡ ,QVWDOODFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

‡ Provides better separation between cars and
pedestrians1

‡ 5HFRJQL]HGDVDSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOWLPLQJ
RSWLRQLQWKH087&'

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

([DPSOHV

‡ Potentially increases wait times for pedestrians
and the possibility of pedestrians crossing
against the signal

‡ 1HZDUN'(

‡ Potentially confuses visually impaired
SHGHVWULDQVZKRUHO\RQWUDIÀFVRXQGVWR
decide when and where to cross2
‡ Potentially hampers ability to synchronize
WLPLQJDWDGMDFHQWWUDIÀFVLJQDOV3

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ $UHDVZLWKKLJKSHGHVWULDQYROXPHV HJ
PRUHWKDQSHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJVSHUGD\ 4
‡ $UHDVZLWKKLJKYROXPHDQGKLJKVSHHG
turning vehicles that threaten pedestrians5
‡ $UHDVZLWKKHDY\FRQÁLFWVEHWZHHQFURVVLQJ
pedestrians and turning vehicles 

‡ New York, NY
‡ Pasadena, CA
‡ 7RURQWR21

3HRSOHFURVVLQJ%DWWHU\3ODFHGXULQJDSHGHVWULDQH[FOXVLYH
crossing phase, New York, NY. 6RXUFH6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

3HRSOHFURVVLQJ<RQJHDQG'XQGDVVWUHHWVGXULQJWKHSHGHVWULDQ
VFUDPEOHSKDVH7RURQWR211RWHWKHGLDJRQDOFURVVZDONLQWKH
left corner of the image. 6RXUFH1HDO-HQQLQJV)OLFNU

1. 3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU6LJQDOVDQG6LJQVKWWSZZZZDONLQJLQIRRUJHQJLQHHULQJFURVVLQJVVLJQDOVFIPWUDIÀFVLJQDOHQKDQFHPHQWV
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\²5HSRUWWR&RQJUHVV$XJXVW 

KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSHGBELNHOHJLVBJXLGHUSWVBFQJVSHGUSWBFKDSBFIPV         

3. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3HGHVWULDQ6LJQDO7LPLQJ3('6$)(3HGHVWULDQ6DIH\*XLGHDQG&RXQWHUPHDVXUH6HOHFWLRQ6\VWHPQG
KWWSZZZZDONLQJLQIRRUJSHGVDIHSHGVDIHBFXUEFIP"&0B180 
4. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ$5HYLHZRI3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\5HVHDUFKLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVDQG$EURDG
KWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYSXEOLFDWLRQVUHVHDUFKVDIHW\SHGELNHSDUWFIP  

5. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3HGHVWULDQ6LJQDO7LPLQJ3HG6DIHQGKWWSZZZZDONLQJLQIRRUJSHGVDIHSHGVDIHBFXUEFIP"&0B180 FDVHVWXG\ 

Signal Treatments

Pedestrian-Detecting
Traffic Signals
'HÀQLWLRQ

3HGHVWULDQGHWHFWRUVFDQDFWLYDWHDSHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFFRQWUROGHYLFH
extend the crossing time for pedestrians already in the crosswalk, and shorten the
crossing time if pedestrians have already cleared the crosswalk. 'HWHFWRUV can be
pressure mats at the waiting area, infrared or microwave detectors mounted on the
signal pole, or video cameras using remote sensor software at the waiting and crosswalk
areas.1

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,QFUHDVHVSHGHVWULDQYLVLELOLW\DWQLJKWWKURXJK
automatically activated lighting

‡ 8VH/LYHZLUHRU%OXHWRRWKWHFKQRORJ\WRVHWXS
DQGDGMXVWWKHGHWHFWLRQDUHDZLWKRXWKDYLQJ
WRSK\VLFDOO\FUHDWHRUDGMXVW]RQHERXQGDULHV3

‡ 6WRSVYHKLFOHVRQO\ZKHQSHGHVWULDQV
approach the crosswalk
‡ Activates the pedestrian phase with the
presence of every pedestrian
‡ Extends the clearance interval to give
pedestrians already crossing the street more
time to get to the other side

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ )XQGLQJIRUSHGHVWULDQSDVVLYHVHQVRUVV\VWHPV
‡ Experts don’t know the comparative safety
effectiveness of passive pedestrian systems
versus manual push button systems2
‡ Pedestrians may not wait for the signal to
change before crossing

‡ 3URYLGHDGHTXDWHSDVVLQJVSDFHDURXQGWKH
waiting detection area on the sidewalk
‡ Clearly indicate the waiting and crossing
detection zones for pedestrians
‡ ,QVWDOODFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOVWRSURYLGH
the signal information to pedestrians who are
blind or visually impaired
‡ Provide nighttime lighting to increase
pedestrian visibility and detector accuracy
‡ Encourage pedestrian compliance through
signals that respond within a matter of
seconds to a pressed button or detected
pedestrian, especially in school zones 4

‡ Pedestrians who are blind may not stand or
walk in the necessary location to trigger the
walk signal or extend the crossing interval

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Passive detection devices are allowed in
6HFWLRQ(RIWKH087&'5

‡ 6LJQDOL]HGLQWHUVHFWLRQVLQDUHDVZLWKVHQLRUV
children, or pedestrians with mobility
challenges
‡ Unsignalized intersections with light pedestrian
volumes
‡ 0LGEORFNFURVVLQJV

111

‡ ,QWHJUDWH$'$352:$*UHTXLUHPHQWVLQWR
design elements, including ramp grades

([DPSOHV
‡ 7KH3XIÀQFURVVLQJV\VWHPZKLFKLQFOXGHV
passive pedestrian detection in waiting and
crossing zones, is now the 8.VWDQGDUG for
LQWHUVHFWLRQVDQGPLGEORFNFURVVLQJV6
‡ 3XIÀQIDFLOLWLHVLQFRUSRUDWLQJSDVVLYH
pedestrian detection in waiting areas and
crossings are in trial in Australia and New
Zealand7

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: United Kingdom
7KH8QLWHG.LQJGRPKDGWZRPDLQW\SHVRISHGHVWULDQVLJQDO
WUHDWPHQWV3XIÀQVLJQDOVDQG3HOLFDQVLJQDOV$3HOLFDQVLJQDOWUHDWPHQW
consisted of a nearside push button to trigger the walk phase, a
standard timed walk phase based on the street length and average
walking pace, and a farside pedestrian signal that beamed a green
OLJKWIRUSHGHVWULDQVWRFURVVDQGÁDVKHGRUDQJHZKHQLWZDVQRORQJHU
VDIHIRUSHGHVWULDQVWRVWDUWFURVVLQJ3XIÀQVLJQDOVFRQVLVWHGRIQHDUVLGH
pedestrian signals, crosswalk pedestrian detectors to extend the
crossing period if pedestrians are still on the crosswalk, and curbside
detectors to cancel the pedestrian phase if there are no waiting
pedestrians. The nearside signal also included sound and tactile
indicators for pedestrians with disabilities. 

Automated pedestrian sensors for adapting signal
WLPLQJIRUSHGHVWULDQV%ULVWRO8.6RXUFH)HGHUDO
+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ8QLWHG6WDWHV'HSDUWPHQW
RI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ

7KH8.'HSDUWPHQWIRU7UDQVSRUWcomparedDFFLGHQWIUHTXHQFLHV
DWLQWHUVHFWLRQVZLWK3XIÀQVLJQDOVZLWKWKRVHXVLQJ3HOLFDQVLJQDOV7KH
VWXG\UHYLHZHGPLGEORFNFURVVLQJDQGLQWHUVHFWLRQFURVVLQJV
ZKHUHQRRWKHUVLJQLÀFDQWFKDQJHVZHUHPDGHH[FHSWIRUFRQYHUWLQJ
WKHFURVVLQJIDFLOLW\WR3XIÀQVLJQDOWUHDWPHQW7KHVWXG\IRXQGWKDW
LQMXU\FDXVLQJDFFLGHQWUDWHVIHOOE\DWPLGEORFNVLWHVDQGE\ 
DWDOOVWXGLHGVLWHV,WDOVRIRXQGWKDWSHGHVWULDQDFFLGHQWVIHOOE\ 
DQGYHKLFOHDFFLGHQWVIHOOE\DWWKRVHORFDWLRQV7KH8.
'HSDUWPHQWIRU7UDQVSRUWKDVVLQFHPDGHWKH3XIÀQVLJQDOWUHDWPHQW
VWDQGDUGIRULQWHUVHFWLRQVDQGPLGEORFNFURVVLQJV

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KWWSRQOLQHSXEVWUERUJRQOLQHSXEVQFKUSQFKUSBZSGI   

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,ELG 
' HSDUWPHQWIRU7UDQVSRUW3XIÀQ&URVVLQJV*RRG3UDFWLFH*XLGH²5HOHDVH-XO\ 
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112

Signal Treatments

Rectangular
Rapid-Flashing Beacons
'HÀQLWLRQ

5HFWDQJXODUUDSLGÁDVKLQJEHDFRQVW\SLFDOO\FRQVLVWVRIWZROLJKW
HPLWWLQJGLRGH /(' EHDFRQVRQHLWKHUVLGHRIDURDGVLGHSHGHVWULDQZDUQLQJVLJQWKDW
ÁDVKLQDOHIWWRULJKWSDWWHUQZKHQSHGHVWULDQVFURVVWKHVWUHHW7KHÁDVKHUVZKLFKXVH
an irregular pattern like those on police vehicles, are turned on either when a pedestrian
SXVKHVDPDQXDOSXVKEXWWRQRUZKHQDSHGHVWULDQDXWRPDWLFDOO\WULJJHUVDSHGHVWULDQ
GHWHFWLRQV\VWHP5HFWDQJXODUUDSLGÁDVKLQJEHDFRQVFDQDOVREHFDOOHG5DSLG)ODVK
6\VWHP6WXWWHU)ODVKRU/('%HDFRQV

%HQHÀWV
‡ 3URYLGHVDOHVVH[SHQVLYHDOWHUQDWLYHWRWUDIÀF
signals
‡ ,QFUHDVHVGULYHU\LHOGWRSHGHVWULDQUDWHV
at crosswalks compared with standard
SHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJZDUQLQJVLJQVDQG
markings
‡ ,QFUHDVHVGULYHU\LHOGWRSHGHVWULDQUDWHV
at crosswalks compared with traditional
overhead beacons

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 0D\QHHGDSXEOLFRXWUHDFKFDPSDLJQWR
educate drivers unfamiliar with the concept

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ 0LGEORFNFURVVZDONVRQWZRODQHRUPXOWLODQH
roadways
‡ A pedestrian or school crossing
‡ Crosswalks not controlled by a yield sign, stop
VLJQRUWUDIÀFFRQWUROVLJQDORQWZRODQHRU
multilane roadways
‡ A crosswalk at a roundabout

*XLGDQFH
‡ ,QVWDOO55)%VLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKUHJXODWRU\
ZDUQLQJVLJQVDQGPDUNHUVH[FHSWIRU6WRS'R
1RW(QWHU:URQJ:D\DQG6SHHG/LPLWVLJQV1
‡ .HHS55)%VXQOLWZKHQWKHUHDUHQR
pedestrians present
‡ ,QVWDOODQDFFRPSDQ\LQJUHJXODWRU\VLJQWKDW
VD\V´ZKHQÁDVKLQJµ
‡ $FWLYDWH55)%VE\PDQXDOSXVKEXWWRQVRU
DXWRPDWHGSDVVLYHSHGHVWULDQGHWHFWLRQ
‡ 8VHVRODUSDQHOXQLWVWRSRZHU55)%V
‡ ,QVWDOOGHYLFHVZLWKSXVKEXWWRQORFDWRUWRQHV
and an audible message that states “yellow
OLJKWVDUHÁDVKLQJµWRPHHW$'$352:$*
guidelines
‡ ,QVWDOO55)%VDWPHGLDQVDVZHOODVURDGVLGH
locations for increased driver visibility and
yielding

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 087&'2 permits and provides guidance on
warning beacons
‡ )+:$6DIHW\SURJUDPSXEOLVKHVguidance3
and reports 4RQ55)%
‡ FHWA gave ,QWHULP$SSURYDOWRDOORZ55)%V
as warning beacons to supplement standard
pedestrian crossing and school crossing
warning signs at crossings across uncontrolled
approaches5

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‡ 0LDPL%HDFK)/
‡ 6W3HWHUVEXUJ)/
‡ :DVKLQJWRQ'&

113

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

5HFWDQJXODUUDSLGÁDVKLQJEHDFRQVSource:
)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ8QLWHG6WDWHV
'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO'HYLFHVRQ6WUHHWVDQG+LJKZD\V'HFHPEHU
KWWSPXWFGIKZDGRWJRYSGIVPXWFGHGLWLRQSGI    

2. ,ELG
3. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\5HFWDQJXODU5DSLG)ODVKLQJ%HDFRQKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYLQWHUVHFWLRQUHVRXUFHVWHFKVXPIKZDVD
4. )XUVW7RQ\)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0HPRUDQGXP3URPRWLQJWKH,PSOHPHQWDWLRQRI3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV-DQXDU\
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/pc_memo.htm  

5. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0HPRUDQGXP,QWHULP$SSURYDOIRU2SWLRQDO8VHRI5HFWDQJXODU5DSLG)ODVKLQJ%HDFRQV ,$ -XO\
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114

Signal Treatments

Pedestrian Hybrid or
HAWK Beacon
'HÀQLWLRQ

The pedestrian hybrid beacon, or High intensity Activated crosswalk,
+$:. LVDSHGHVWULDQDFWLYDWHGZDUQLQJGHYLFHIRUPLGEORFNSHGHVWULDQFURVVLQJV
The beacon, mounted above or beside the road, consists of two red lenses above
a single yellow lens. The beacon head is unlit until a pedestrian pushes a button,
ZKLFKFDXVHVWKHEHDFRQWRLOOXPLQDWHDEULHIÁDVKLQJDQGVWHDG\\HOORZLQWHUYDO
then a steady red indication to drivers. A pedestrian signal then indicates it is safe for
SHGHVWULDQVWRFURVVZKLOHWUDIÀFLVVWRSSHG:KHQWKHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOVWDUWVÁDVKLQJ
DWWKHHQGRIWKHFURVVLQJLQWHUYDOWKHEHDFRQGLVSOD\VDOWHUQDWLQJÁDVKLQJUHGOLJKWVWR
drivers, letting them know their red light is about to end.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Provides stop control at crossings that typically
GRQ·WPHHWVLJQDOZDUUDQWUHTXLUHPHQWV

‡ &RQGXFWSXEOLFRXWUHDFKFDPSDLJQVWR
teach pedestrians and drivers how to use and
react to the signal

‡ ,PSURYHVYHKLFOHWUDIÀFÁRZWKURXJKWKH
alternating red signal heads, which signals
vehicles to proceed once the pedestrian has
cleared the travel lane
‡ 5HGXFHVSHGHVWULDQFUDVKHVE\XSWR1
‡ 5HGXFHVWRWDOURDGZD\FUDVKHVXSWR

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 'ULYHUVPD\EHXQIDPLOLDUZLWKWKHQHZVLJQDO
treatment

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ 0DUNHGFURVVZDONVDWPLGEORFNORFDWLRQV
where:
» *DSVLQWUDIÀFDUHQRWDGHTXDWHWRSHUPLW
pedestrians to cross

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Listed as one of the Federal Highway
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ·V2IÀFHRI6DIHW\3URYHQ6DIHW\
Countermeasures2
‡ ,QFOXGHGLQWKH087&'3

([DPSOHV
The FHWA is promoting widespread integration
of median and pedestrian crossing islands into
VWDWHSUDFWLFHV6WDWHVWKDWKDYHDGRSWHGWKH
countermeasure include:4

» 9HKLFOHVSHHGVDUHWRRKLJKWRSHUPLW
pedestrians to safely cross

‡ -XQHDX$.

» Pedestrian wait times are excessive

‡ :DVKLQJWRQ'&

» There are nearby transit stops or schools

115

‡ ,QVWDOODFFHVVLEOHSHGHVWULDQVLJQDOVVRWKH
crossing is accessible to pedestrians who are
blind or visually impaired

‡ Tucson, AZ

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

+$:.EHDFRQRQ7KLUG6WUHHW%LF\FOH%RXOHYDUGDW6ZDQ5RDG7XFVRQ$=
6RXUFH7XFVRQ%LF\FOH 3HGHVWULDQ3URJUDP&LW\RI7XFVRQ

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6RXUFH7XFVRQ%LF\FOH 3HGHVWULDQ3URJUDP&LW\RI7XFVRQ

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV3HGHVWULDQ+\EULG%HDFRQKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYSURYHQFRXQWHUPHDVXUHVIKZDBVDBBKWP
2. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\0HPRUDQGXP3URPRWLQJWKH,PSOHPHQWDWLRQRI3URYHQ6DIHW\&RXQWHUPHDVXUHV-DQXDU\
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/pc_memo.htm
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116

Encouragement &
Education Tactics
Introduction
Walking is more than a mode of transportation—it can also be a form of recreation, exercise, or
exploration;; a habit;; or simply a pleasure. These tactics are for use by government agencies,
walking advocates, and regular citizens who all contribute toward making walking a feasible,
safe, and fun option in our communities.
7KLVFKDSWHUFRQWDLQVODUJHVFDOHSURMHFWVVXFKDVPRELOLW\HGXFDWLRQDQGSHGHVWULDQZD\ÀQGLQJ
systems, as well as small-­scale initiatives that individuals could undertake, such as incorporating
walking in the workplace, or leading a public group walk through a neighborhood.
These are certainly not the only encouragement and education tactics, but they are some of
the most dynamic and successful in changing community attitudes and increasing people's
inclination to walk.

117

:D\ÀQGLQJVLJQDJHSource: Rob Brewer, Flickr

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Open Streets. Source: Bradley P Johnson, Flickr
118

Create a SmartTrips Program
'HÀQLWLRQ

A SmartTrips program is a direct, individualized marketing program that
encourages neighborhood residents to switch from car-­based transportation to transit,
biking, and walking. Programs use various approaches, such as direct mailings, email
and website outreach, text messages, blogs, social media, bike delivery of materials,
and free events to educate and encourage residents to change their travel behavior.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Encourages walking and an active lifestyle
‡ Reduces car dependency

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Program funding (In Portland, OR, a typical
20,000-­household program costs $570,000.)1
‡ Obtaining or outsourcing needed technical
skills and software tools

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Neighborhoods with amenities and
demographics that suggest the potential for
behavior change, such as areas with street
connectivity, sidewalks, bike-­friendly streets,
good bus service, trails, shops, and parks as
well as high car ownership2
‡ Neighborhoods with interested and motivated
community organizations

*XLGDQFH
‡ Use an established planning process to
create the SmartTrips outreach program.
Social marketing guidance3 created by the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
recommends that a program include:4
» Problem description
» Formative research
» Strategy development
» Intervention design

‡ Partner with:
» Advocacy organizations for in-­kind support
» Public-­health agencies for program planning
and evaluation
» Community groups for outreach assistance
» Businesses in planning events and activities
‡ Allow participants to customize their
information packets and travel-­behavior
goals within trackable parameters (e.g., which
mode and how many trips per week)
‡ Make program events and materials
accessible, including providing materials to
those who use screen-­reading or screen-­
enlargement software
‡ Create a neighborhood-­wide goal with a
reward to encourage peer pressure to meet it
‡ Document the program:
» Encourage staff to photograph outreach
efforts and events
» Encourage participants to contribute their
perspectives
‡ Evaluate the program, including effectiveness
of outreach materials. Portland6 and St. Paul7
have published reports detailing survey
methodology and results

» Evaluation

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

» Implementation

‡ The Psychology of Sustainable Behavior
provides guidance for sustainable-­behavior
campaigns based on studies from academic,
peer-­reviewed journals

‡ Schedule at least six months to plan the
SURJUDPDQGÀYHPRQWKVWRUXQLW6W3DXO·V
Smart Trips Neighborhoods recommends
planning in the fall for a May–November
program5DÀYHPRQWKSURJUDPEHWWHU
engages residents through more events,
newsletters, and emails, and encourages
them to walk and cycle in cold weather
119

‡ Use software tools to help track and organize
program elements, such as ConstantContact,
MailChimp, EventBrite, Woofoo, Qualtrics, and
SurveyMonkey

([DPSOHV
‡ Northern Colorado

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Portland

‡ Portland, OR

In 2002, the Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT) created an individualized marketing
program to reduce drive-­alone trips and increase walking, bicycling, transit, and carpool
‡ St. Paul, MN
trips in targeted areas. Portland modeled its program after those found in Australia and
‡ Whatcom County, WA
Europe. After two pilot programs in 2003 and 2004, Portland added activities and extended
its outreach to eight months. Every year, the Transportation Options Division of the PBOT
selects an area with about 20,000 households. Areas are chosen based on land use patterns, transit availability, bike
and walking infrastructure, and investments, such as light rail service. In late March, each household in a SmartTrips
area receives a newsletter with a calendar of organized walks, bike clinics, and bicycle rides. The newsletter highlights
SmartTrips programs, including the Ten Toe Express Walking Campaign, Portland By Cycle Campaign, Senior Strolls, and
Women on Bikes. The newsletter also includes a notice about the SmartTrips Order Form that residents will soon receive to
order maps, brochures, tips, and event schedules for walking, bicycling, transit, carpool, car sharing, and driving.
Order forms are sent in weekly waves of 2,500 households. Employees typically deliver the materials and incentives within
DZHHNRIUHFHLYLQJDQRUGHU7KUHHZHHNVDIWHUUHFHLYLQJWKHÀUVWRUGHUIRUPHPSOR\HHVVHQGKRXVHKROGVDUHPLQGHU
postcard with the order-­form website and a phone number to request an order form by mail. Residents receive their
requested materials in a tote bag with a personalized luggage tag. Every delivery includes a thank-­you letter, SmartTrips
events calendar, and a walking map. Residents can order walking materials such as a free pedometer donated by Kaiser
Permanente and a schedule of walking tours;; bicycling materials such as a bike map, guides with tips and rules of the
road, and a personalized bicycle-­trip-­planning request postcard;; and transit materials, such as a transit guide for seniors
and the disabled, and a personalized transit tracker card with ID numbers of two nearby bus stops so the resident can
get real-­time bus-­arrival data. Brochures about car sharing, carpooling, and safety guidelines for older drivers are also
available for order. Every package comes with an incentive, either a SmartTrips umbrella, bandana, bike map, or T-­shirt.
On May 1, residents receive a second newsletter reminding them to order materials and listing events and activities.
Everyone who orders materials or attends an event gets newsletters in July, September, and November. All SmartTrips
area residents receive SmartTrips messages at least seven times through mailers, media coverage, and outreach events. 8
Residents in the 2010 SmartTrips Green Line program reduced drive-­alone trips by 18% and increased environmentally
friendly modes by 30%. Approximately 25% of those in the target area, or 8,200 SmartTrips Green Line households, ordered
materials or participated in at least one of 95 Transportation Options events. As with past programs, Portland evaluated its
VXFFHVVXVLQJVXUYH\GDWDFROOHFWHGEHIRUHDQGDIWHUWKH6PDUW7ULSVSURJUDP$GDWDFROOHFWLRQÀUPFRQGXFWHGSDQHO
style, pre-­ and post-­program phone surveys of six hundred residents living in the SmartTrips Green Line target area.9

1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Portland SmartTrips. http://www.walkinginfo.org/library/details.cfm?id=3961
2. Smart Trips Highland Park Final Report. St. Paul Smart Trips. 2010. http://www.smart-­trips.org/downloads/Highland_Final_Report.pdf
3. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Social Marketing: Nutrition and Physical Activity. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/socialmarketing/training/index.htm
4. Smart Trips Neighborhoods: Lessons Learned. St. Paul Smart Trips. October 2011.
5. Smart Trips Neighborhoods: Lessons Learned. St. Paul Smart Trips. October 2011.
6. City of Portland Bureau of Transportation. SmartTrips Green Line Final Report. December 2010. http://www.portlandonline.com/transportation/index.cfm?c=52160&a=331242
7. Smart Trips Highland Park Final Report. St. Paul Smart Trips. 2010. http://www.smart-­trips.org/downloads/Highland_Final_Report.pdf
8. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Portland SmartTrips. http://www.walkinginfo.org/library/details.cfm?id=3961
9. City of Portland Bureau of Transportation. SmartTrips Green Line Final Report. December 2010. http://www.portlandonline.com/transportation/index.cfm?c=52160&a=331242

120

Seek Recognition
'HÀQLWLRQ

Applying for a Walk Friendly Communities (WFC) designation, managed
by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, provides national recognition for
\RXUFLW\·VHIIRUWVWRHQFRXUDJHDQGLPSURYHZDONLQJ

%HQHÀWV
‡ Provides suggestions and resources to improve
pedestrian safety
‡ Helps identify areas of needed improvements
‡ Helps create a framework for future pedestrian
improvements
‡ Allows cities to share successful tactics and
programs
‡ Provides competition and inspiration for
walking improvements
‡ Gives cities a marketing advantage over other
tourist destinations
‡ Potentially supports further municipal and
private investment in walking improvements

‡ 7RÀQGLQIRUPDWLRQUHTXHVWHGE\WKH
application, reach out to and coordinate
among municipal, county, and school
district agencies and departments including
the police, planning, public works, and
engineering departments, and local transit.
Other information may come from local
QRQSURÀWVDGYRFDF\JURXSVRUHOHFWHG
RIÀFLDOV
‡ Mention any state or national programs
that have had a positive impact in your
community, or any programs from local
departments, private organizations, or
advocacy groups that have improved the
walking environment—also include any
VSHFLÀFHIIRUWVWRFUHDWHDFXOWXUHRIZDONLQJ1

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Investing time and staff in the 20-­ to 60-­hour
application process

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Individual cities and towns, or counties where
the county and city government are the same
entity, as per WFC application requirements

*XLGDQFH
‡ Create an application committee with
members from multiple agencies and
backgrounds, including planners, engineers,
ODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFLDOVDQGDGYRFDWHV

121

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ The Walk Friendly Communities program
is sponsored by FedEx and the Federal
Highway Administration. It is maintained by
the UNC Highway Safety Research Center's
Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
with support from national partners, including:
Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle
Professionals, League of American Bicyclists,
National Highway Transportation Safety
Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, National Center for Bicycling &
Walking, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, America Walk, The Walkable and
Livable Communities Institute, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Accessible Design
for the Blind, National Center for Safe Routes to
School, Access Board, and AARP2

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

From top to bottom:
The Walk Friendly
Communities of
Ann Arbor, MI;;
Charlottesville, VA;; and
New Orleans, LA.
Sources: Michigan
Municipal League, Flickr;;
Mr. T, Flickr;; and Linda
Rae Duchaine, Flickr

([DPSOHV
More than 38 cities and towns have received
Walk Friendly Communities designations,
including:
‡ Seattle, WA
‡ Ann Arbor, MI
‡ Hoboken, NJ
‡ Arlington, VA
‡ Santa Barbara, CA
‡ Decatur, GA
‡ Flagstaff, AZ
‡ Cedarburg, WI
‡ Oxford, MS
‡ Sparks, NV
‡ Franklin, TN
‡ Dayton, OH3

1. Walk Friendly Communities Assessment Tool. http://www.walkfriendly.org/WalkFriendlyCommunitiesAssessmentTool.pdf
2. Walk Friendly Communities. http://www.walkfriendly.org/sponsors.cfm
3. Walk Friendly Communities. http://www.walkfriendly.org/communities/list.cfm

122

Create a Pedestrian
Wayfinding System
'HÀQLWLRQ

3HGHVWULDQZD\ÀQGLQJV\VWHPVDUHQDYLJDWLRQDOV\VWHPVWKDWKHOS
pedestrians determine where they are and where they need to go to reach a
GHVWLQDWLRQ7UDGLWLRQDOO\FRQVLVWLQJRIVLJQVZD\ÀQGLQJV\VWHPVFDQQRZDOVRLQYROYH
*36V\VWHPVZHEFRQQHFWLYLW\DQGPRELOHWHFKQRORJ\:D\ÀQGLQJV\VWHPVFDQEH
designed and implemented formally by municipalities and business improvement
districts, or informally by walking advocates.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Helps pedestrians overcome the hurdle of
distance perception
‡ ,QFUHDVHVIRRWWUDIÀF
‡ Increases tourism
‡ Increases commerce
‡ Helps encourage different transportation
choices

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Potential to create visual clutter for
pedestrians and/or drivers
‡ 6LJQLÀFDQWLQYHVWPHQWRIUHVRXUFHVDQGWLPH

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Central business districts
‡ Tourist districts
‡ 2IÀFHDQGDFDGHPLFFDPSXVHV
‡ Retail districts and shopping malls
‡ ,QEHWZHHQDUHDVRXWVLGHGHÀQHGGLVWULFWV

*XLGDQFH
‡ Create distinct, visible, consistent design for
ZD\ÀQGLQJVLJQDJH
‡ Post signs on both sides of the street or trail
along major walking routes
‡ Orient maps so that whatever direction the
pedestrian is facing is at the top;; indicate the
orientation with the underlined phrase “You
Are Here” where the pedestrian is within the
map, and place an upward arrow under it
‡ 'HÀQHGLVWDQFHVE\WKHWLPHQHHGHGWRUHDFK
WKHP HJ´,W·VDPLQXWHZDONDZD\µRU
circles encompassing destinations within a 5-­,
10-­, or 15-­minute walk)
‡ On signs with maps, create a standard
prioritization system to limit the number of
ODQGPDUNVLGHQWLÀHG
123

‡ Illustrate the facades of important landmarks
on maps to help orient pedestrians
‡ Include indexes of major landmarks1
‡ Make public data available to private
organizations to develop smartphone
applications (“apps”) at no cost to
governmental agencies. QR codes can be
incorporated to improve information delivery
and reduce visual clutter

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 087&'6HFWLRQ'FRQWDLQVVSHFLÀF
SURYLVLRQVDERXW&RPPXQLW\:D\ÀQGLQJJXLGH
signs
‡ Multiple states have created community
ZD\ÀQGLQJJXLGHOLQHVDQGVWDQGDUGV
including:
» Florida
» California
» North Carolina

([DPSOHV
‡ Charlotte, NC
‡ London, UK
‡ New York, NY

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: London

/HJLEOH/RQGRQZD\ÀQGLQJVLJQDJHLQ6RXWK%DQN
London, U.K. Source: Rob Brewer, Flickr

In 2006, Transport for London, the integrated organization responsible
IRU/RQGRQ·VWUDQVSRUWV\VWHPODXQFKHGWKH/HJLEOH/RQGRQZD\ÀQGLQJ
SURJUDP/HJLEOH/RQGRQ·VJRDOZDVWRLQFUHDVHZDONLQJWULSVDQG
KHOSUHOLHYHFRQJHVWLRQRQWKHFLW\·VWUDQVLWV\VWHPDQGURDGV/HJLEOH
London found that residents relied too much on the London Tube map
to navigate through the city. This proved to be a problem because the
Tube map unintentionally makes walking distances between downtown
stations appear greater than they are: Of surveyed passengers exiting
Leicester Square station, 5% had started from a station less than a half-­
mile away.2
Legible London aimed to create a coherent pedestrian navigational
system to help pedestrians navigate the city at street level as well as
provide a common and constantly updated central information system
for maps, signs, and websites.3$QHYDOXDWLRQRI/HJLEOH/RQGRQ·VSLORW
programs found that the number of surveyed pedestrians getting
ORVWGHFUHDVHGE\PRUHWKDQWKUHHTXDUWHUVIHOWPRUHFRQÀGHQW
exploring an area on foot, and those who had used the system felt it
encouraged them to walk more often, walk farther, and walk rather
than use other means of transport.4
By February 2012, Legible London had completed the base maps
of the whole of Greater London. The collaborative project included
input from London Boroughs, landowners, and business improvement
districts. The completed base map is now on sidewalk kiosks, in London
Underground stations and bus shelters, at bike share stations, and along
ELNHSDWKV7KHZD\ÀQGLQJV\VWHPLVH[SDQGLQJWRZDONLQJDQGF\FOLQJ
routes for Olympics events and town centers across London.

1. Turner, Julia. Legible London: Can better signs help people understand an extremely disorienting city? Slate. March 4, 2010.
http://www.slate.com/articles/life/signs/2010/03/legible_london.html
2. /HJLEOH/RQGRQ$:D\ÀQGLQJ6WXG\$,*DQG&HQWUDO/RQGRQ3DUWQHUVKLS0DUFK
3. Ibid. 30.
4. Transport for London. About Legible London. Research. Pilot evaluation results. KWWSZZZWÁJRYXNPLFURVLWHVOHJLEOHORQGRQDVS[3LORWBHYDOXDWLRQBUHVXOWV

124

Demonstrate
Street Improvements
'HÀQLWLRQ

Spearheaded by the Better Block Project, this strategy is a collaborative
effort to design and install a one-­day demonstration of pedestrian-­oriented streetscape
improvements along an urban block. Typical demonstrations set up temporary
pedestrian plazas, pop-­up businesses in vacant storefronts, street trees and greenery in
planters, bike lanes, additional street lighting, and (rented) sidewalk benches, tables,
and chairs.1

%HQHÀWV
‡ Builds community consensus around proposed
streetscape improvements
‡ *LYHVUHVLGHQWVDQGFLW\RIÀFLDOVDSUHYLHZRI
WKHEHQHÀWVRIVWUHHWVFDSHLPSURYHPHQWV
‡ Illustrates how relatively small investments in
urban spaces can revitalize a community
and make it more appealing for walking and
cycling
‡ Highlights outdated and overly restrictive
existing city ordinances that might ordinarily
prohibit such streetscape improvements

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Funding for event needs, including organizers,
amenities, permit fees, volunteer coordinators,
event insurance, and marketing expenses

» Do businesses have window bars or opaque
windows?
‡ Address accessibility when planning the
demonstration:
» Do pedestrians have easy and clear access
to the area?
» Do bicycles feel welcome in the area?
» Is the area easily accessible from
neighborhoods?
» Is the area inviting to children, seniors, those
with mobility impairments, and dog owners?
‡ What would make the block attractive?
» $UHWKHUHZD\ÀQGLQJVLJQV"

‡ Allotting enough time for permitting processes

» Are there amenities that encourage people
to linger, such as seating and tables?

‡ Allotting enough time for community
involvement and marketing outreach

» Are there food options and/or places to eat
outdoors?

‡ Ensuring that adequate litter/trash-­removal
services exist

» Are there maps, bulletin boards, or games
that encourage people to linger?

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ A block with a cluster of buildings along an
automobile-­oriented street

‡ Create a broad-­based implementation team
LQFOXGLQJFRPPXQLW\DFWLYLVWVQRQSURÀWV
artists, businesses, students, and planning/
architect associations

‡ Locations with strong community partners

‡ Coordinate the demonstration with an existing
event, such as an art crawl or fun run, to raise
awareness of the upcoming demonstration

‡ Blocks in close proximity to a residential
neighborhood

‡ Work with property owners to allow access to
vacant spaces

*XLGDQFH

‡ Develop pop-­up stores in vacant spaces and
reach out to existing businesses for retail ideas
and/or products

‡ Former streetcar intersections

‡ Address safety when planning the
demonstration:
» Does it feel safe to cross the street, walk on
the sidewalk, or linger in the area?
» Does the area have obstacles that reduce
sight lines?

125

» ,VWKHDUHDÀOOHGZLWKGHEULVJUDIÀWL
overgrown landscaping, etc.?

‡ Apply for a street-­closure permit that still
DOORZVRQHODQHRIYHKLFOHWUDIÀF7KLVKHOSV
residents see that a street design that better
accommodates cyclists and walkers is a
feasible everyday option

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Dallas

A temporary buffered bike lane next to pop up retail
DWWKHÀUVW%HWWHU%ORFNGHPRQVWUDWLRQLQ'DOODV7;
Source: Jason Roberts, Better Block

‡ Provide insurance. One option is to take out
“block party” event policy and add property
owners as “additional insured” for the
demonstration
‡ Install welcoming streetscape amenities.
Techniques include:
» Renting movable seats and tables
» Renting planters and plants from local prop
houses or nurseries
» Installing temporary street lighting
» 6WULQJLQJEDLOLQJZLUHDFURVVWKHVWUHHW ·RU
higher for truck clearance) and attaching
holiday lights
» Booking street musicians
» Providing things to read, like maps, on kiosk

In April 2010, a group of community organizers, neighbors, and property
owners gathered together to revitalize a single commercial block in
the Dallas neighborhood of Oak Cliff. The area had many vacant
properties and wide streets, and few amenities for residents who lived
within a walking distance of the commercial corridor. The Better Block
coalition created an “urban intervention,” using temporary tools—bike
lanes, cafe seating, trees, plants, pop-­up businesses, and lighting—
to transform the block into a walkable, bikeable neighborhood
destination for people of all ages.
The coalition built upon that April urban intervention in September,
2010, when it collaborated with the landscape architects SWA Group
and Methany Landscaping to build a temporary green median and
place (potted) street trees along the same block. Volunteers painted
cross walks, striped bike lanes, and installed (temporary) bike parking,
and food-­stall vendors set up shop in vacant lots between buildings.
The installation took one day to set up on site, lasted one day, attracted
hundreds of visitors. Based on the enthusiastic public response to the
two one-­day temporary demonstration projects, the City of Dallas
funded $500,000 worth of improvements in the area.

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ National Society of Landscape Architects 2011 Communications
Honor award for September 2010 Oak Cliff Better Block project
‡ North Central Texas Council of Governments 2011 Celebrating
Leadership in Development Excellence award

» Providing food/drink, whether through
existing businesses or food cart vendors

([DPSOHV

» Providing activities like chess or hopscotch

As mapped on betterblock.org, more than 23 communities have
installed demonstrations, including:

‡ Stripe a bike lane, either instead of or next to
the curbside parking lane. Lanes are ideally
DWOHDVW·ZLGHZKLWHGXFWWDSHLVDJRRG
substitute for paint. To paint the lane green,
make washable paint by adding food coloring
WRHTXDOSDUWVÁRXUFRUQVWDUFKDQGZDWHU

‡ Dallas, TX

‡ Cleveland, OH

‡ Memphis, TN

‡ Tulsa, OK

‡ Waco, TX

‡ Mt. Rainer, MD

‡ Denver, CO

‡ McComb, MS

‡ Oyster Bay, NY

‡ Wichita, KS

‡ Las Vegas, NV

‡ 3URPRWHWKHHYHQWE\VHQGLQJÁLHUVWRORFDO
businesses, universities, and schools;; sending
press releases to local TV, newspapers, and
blogs;; and announcing the event through
partner organizations and social networks
‡ ,QYLWHWKHSHRSOHZKRLQÁXHQFHORQJWHUPFLW\
policies, such as the mayor, council members,
city staff, and the media
1. Better Block Project. http://betterblock.org/

126

Create Open Streets
'HÀQLWLRQ

Temporarily closing streets to automobiles and organizing public activities
to encourage healthier transportation and living habits.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Increases walking and cycling
‡ Promotes physical activity
‡ Supports local businesses
‡ Creates a tourist attraction

‡ Partner with local groups to establish uniquely
local events and bring in attendees

‡ Creates momentum for improvements in
walking and cycling infrastructure

‡ Seek nontraditional partners, such as medical
foundations, in addition to transportation
organizations

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

‡ Hold a follow-­up meeting to debrief after
each event

‡ Funding event needs, including activity
RUJDQL]HUVWUDIÀFPDQDJHUVSROLFHVWUHHW
closure permits, volunteer coordinators, event
insurance, marketing and outreach
‡ 0LWLJDWLQJLPSDFWVRIUHURXWHGWUDIÀFLIDQ\
‡ Ensuring emergency access
‡ Ensuring public safety of participants

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Central thoroughfare
‡ Existing walking and biking routes
‡ Corridors near tourist, cultural, recreational, or
commercial destinations

*XLGDQFH
‡ %XLOGSROLWLFDOÀQDQFLDODQGFRPPXQLW\
VXSSRUWHDUO\RQ&KLFDJR·V$FWLYH
Transportation Alliance used foundation
IXQGLQJWRWDNHORFDORIÀFLDOVWRFLWLHV
with Open Streets initiatives. Once they
H[SHULHQFHGWKHHYHQWÀUVWKDQG&KLFDJR
RIÀFLDOVVWDUWHGFKDPSLRQLQJDFDUIUHHHYHQW
of their own
‡ Create a coalition of stakeholders and
coordinate regularly with city, community, and
law-­enforcement partners
‡ Identify a lead project manager
‡ Allow enough time for the permitting process
(deadlines vary by jurisdiction)
‡ Frame open streets as an economic engine,
cultural event, and means to promote healthy
lifestyles

127

‡ Brand and promote the program. Market it as
a continuous program rather than a one-­off
event1

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
lists Car Free Days and provides guidance
‡ Open Streets Project lists reports and
evaluations of programs, including studies
from:
» Portland, OR: Sunday Parkways
» Missoula, MT
» Los Angeles, CA

([DPSOHV
More than 70 cities in North and Central
America organize versions of Open Streets,
including:
‡ Atlanta, GA
‡ Durham, NC
‡ Fargo, ND
‡ Lincoln, NE
‡ Los Angeles, CA
‡ Minneapolis, MN
‡ New York, NY
‡ Pensacola, FL
‡ San Antonio, TX

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Top left: A free yoga class during Open Streets Minneapolis. Source: Bradley P
Johnson, Flickr

Top right: An overview of Open Streets Minneapolis.
Source: Rachel Jackson, Flickr

Bottom left: Summer Streets, New York, NY. Source: istolethetv, Flickr

Bottom right: Summer Streets on Vanderbilt Avenue,
Brooklyn, NY. Source: New York City Department of
Transportation

1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. http://www.walkinginfo.org/promote/car-­free-­days.cfm

128

Create Play Streets
'HÀQLWLRQ

Play Streets programs temporarily close a section of a street off to cars,
typically for a morning or a day on a regular, but seasonal, basis, for use as a public
playground. Activities are often organized and supervised by volunteers or city workers.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Quickly and cheaply expands the amount of
recreation space in an area

‡ Plan ahead: Contact potential partners and
brainstorm activities in winter or early spring

‡ Creates a local walking destination

‡ Reach out to community partners early and
often, from the permit application process
onward

‡ 5HGXFHVSRWHQWLDOSHGHVWULDQYHKLFOHFRQÁLFWV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Temporarily reduces available curbside car
parking

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Locations with strong community partners
‡ Areas in close proximity to a residential
neighborhood
‡ Discrete road sections or blocks with detour
URXWHVDYDLODEOHIRUORFDOYHKLFXODUWUDIÀF
‡ Underused roadways adjacent to schools or
parks
‡ Areas underserved by parks and open space

‡ Organize community-­outreach meetings,
recruit volunteers, and brainstorm ideas and
partnerships
‡ Recruit supervisors and activity coordinators
from community groups, local police athletic
leagues, municipal parks department
employees, or summer youth-­employment
programs
‡ Schedule regular, consistent activities
‡ Publicize your play street: Create an activity
schedule and share it with local blogs,
newsletters, community meetings;; post it in
grocery stores, community centers, and other
activity hubs;; spread the word through social
media1

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements or guidance
from national associations or governmental
departments, cities are turning to best
practices employed by other municipalities

([DPSOHV
‡ New York, NY
‡ London, UK

129

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York

78th Street Play Street, Queens, NY. Source: The
Jackson Heights Green Alliance, jhgreen.org

In 2008, neighbors in the Jackson Heights neighborhood in Queens,
New York City, wanted to turn a wide, underused street next to Travers
Park into a weekend play street. Ron Hayduk, a member of the
Jackson Heights Green Alliance, reached out to the NYC Department
of Transportation (DOT) and discovered that the original play-­street
applications, dating back to 1910, were obsolete. With the support
of the Community Board and the local advocacy organization,
Transportation Alternatives, community groups and the city developed
an agreement to resolve liability and insurance concerns: DOT would
be liable for safety and maintenance while the neighbors would be
responsible for opening and closing the street and maintaining a
volunteer presence throughout the closure.2
This pilot program was such a resounding success that the City
VLPSOLÀHGLWV3OD\6WUHHWVSHUPLWWLQJSURFHVVWRPDNHLWHDVLHUIRUPRUH
neighborhoods to do the same. The New York City Department of
Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) now administers the program.
The permitting process consists of the following: If 51% of residents
living on a one-­way residential block sign a petition, they can submit
WKHSHWLWLRQWRORFDOSROLFHDQGWUDQVSRUWDWLRQRIÀFLDOVZKRVXEPLWLW
to the local community board for review. If approved, the City parks
department provides youth workers to organize the seasonal program.
Transportation Alternatives, alongside the NYC Strategic Alliance for
Health and DOHMH documented play streets best practices and
recommendations for existing and future community organizers. 3

1. Transportation Alternatives. Play Streets Program Partner Resource Guide. 2011.
KWWSWUDQVDOWRUJÀOHVFDPSDLJQVSHGHVWULDQSOD\VWUHHWV3OD\6WUHHWVB3URJUDP5HVRXUFH*XLGHSGI
2. 3OD\0DWWHUV$6WXG\RI%HVW3UDFWLFHVWR,QIRUP/RFDO3ROLF\DQG3URFHVVLQ6XSSRUWRI&KLOGUHQ·V3OD\.DERRP
http://kaboom.org/docs/documents/pdf/playmatters/Play_Matters_New_York.pdf    

3. Transportation Alternatives. Play Streets Program Partner Resource Guide. 2011.
KWWSWUDQVDOWRUJÀOHVFDPSDLJQVSHGHVWULDQSOD\VWUHHWV3OD\6WUHHWVB3URJUDP5HVRXUFH*XLGHSGI

130

Activate Streetscapes through
Temporary Uses of Vacant
Buildings and Sites
'HÀQLWLRQ

Organizing temporary uses of vacant buildings or land for socially
EHQHÀFLDOSXUSRVHVZKLFKKHOSVFUHDWHVDIHG\QDPLFVWUHHWVFDSHVDQGZDONLQJ
destinations.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Creates a dynamic and safer street space for
pedestrians

‡ Logistics and costs of utilities

‡ Maintains street activity, including the number
RISHGHVWULDQVZKLFKEHQHÀWVQHDUE\VKRSV
DQGRIÀFHV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Creates new economic development and
cultural opportunities

‡ Empty lots

‡ Temporary installations can provide an
opportunity to build communities and
establish a community hub

‡ Abandoned warehouses or factories

‡ Vacant retail space

‡ 8QUHQWHGRIÀFHVSDFH

‡ Sites with transit access

‡ Helps business owners try out retail concepts
and transition to permanent spaces

*XLGDQFH

‡ Discourages vandalism and illegal occupation
of a vacant space

‡ Collaborate with local organizations to
determine the temporary use

‡ Improves appearance of the formerly vacant
space, improving the quality of life for local
residents

‡ The following elements are suggested for a
community garden or urban farm:

‡ Potentially attracts new visitors and investors to
the site and general area
‡ Creates a potential business incubator
for start-­up businesses or new community
RUJDQL]DWLRQVDQGQRQSURÀWJURXSV
‡ Potentially provides accessible community
services to a neighborhood. Temporary
tenants can be groups providing services
such as business start-­up support within the
communities that need it most, allowing more
residents to learn about and take advantage
of the opportunity

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Allotting adequate time for the permitting
process
‡ May need exemptions from outdated building
codes
‡ May need to develop appropriate language
LQODQGORUGWHQDQWOHDVHVIRUÁH[LEOH
circumstances
‡ Renovation costs and potential safety
concerns of the site

131

‡ )XQGLQJLQVXUDQFHSRVVLEO\RIIVHWE\JURXSV·
existing umbrella coverage

» Water source
» Covered area
» Seating
» Bathroom
» Compost or worm bins
» Art installations1
‡ Organize regular and frequent programming
at the space
‡ Co-­produce temporary programming with
ORFDOJURXSVWRUHÁHFWWKHORFDOFRQWH[WDQG
widen community outreach
‡ Require written proposals from programming
partners articulating exactly when and what
will be occurring at the space
‡ Collaborate with local organizations and
municipalities to procure general liability
insurance for the temporary use
‡ Approach potential property owners with a
proposal of what would take place, general
liability insurance, and a contract template

‡ Build relationships with local businesses for
mutual support strategies, such as distributing
neighborhood maps with local discounts, and
distributing materials about the temporary use
in nearby stores
‡ Reach out to neighborhood associations to
inform them of the temporary programming
and gain their approval
‡ Create a multifaceted marketing strategy
to let the public know where and when
the temporary installation will be open.
The strategy should reach out to local
organizations and their memberships, as well
as traditional and social media outlets, and
LQFOXGHZD\ÀQGLQJVLJQDJH
‡ Track how many people visit the site during its
temporary use for property owners and use in
future proposals

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
cities are turning to best practices employed
by other municipalities

([DPSOHV

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
)RXQGHGLQWKHQRQSURÀWJURXSNo Longer Empty produces
FXUDWRULDOGULYHQVLWHVSHFLÀFWHPSRUDU\DUWLQVWDOODWLRQVDQG
programming in vacant sites around New York City. The installations
serve as a catalyst for community building and economic
development. While No Longer Empty has canvassed neighborhoods
looking for suitable vacant spaces, thanks to its growing reputation,
property owners now approach the organization with potential sites for
consideration. No Longer Empty looks for sites that are close to transit
and provide a neighborhood narrative to inspire art exhibitions and
FRPPXQLW\SURJUDPPLQJ7KHQRQSURÀWZRUNVRQWKHWLPHOLQHRILWV
available real estate: Three to four months for the preparation of the
installation and its associated programming, and one to three months
for the exhibition itself.
1R/RQJHU(PSW\·VFXUUHQWH[KLELWLRQDWWKH$QGUHZ)UHHPDQPDQVLRQ
in the Bronx has single-­handedly created a cultural hub out of a former
void: More than 2,500 visitors appeared for its opening, and, thanks
to ongoing programming, the project averages about 200 visitors a
day. Pedestrians who used to have to walk down a long, grim stretch
RIWKHPDQVLRQ·VSHULPHWHUIHQFLQJQRZKDYHPRUHFRPSDQ\RQWKH
VLGHZDON³DQGDIULHQGO\DUWLQVWDOODWLRQRIÁRZHUVZRYHQLQWRWKHLURQ
fences poles—to make the walk more appealing.

‡ Boston, MA
‡ Cleveland, OH
‡ New York, NY
‡ Omaha, NE
‡ Philadelphia, PA
‡ Portland, OR
‡ Washington DC

Sidewalk art from This Side of Paradise, a 2012 temporary exhibition in the Grand
Concourse, the Bronx, New York, NY. Source: No Longer Empty
1. Platt Dwyer, Andrea. Seattle Tilth Executive Director. American Institute of Architects FIt City 7 Presentation. May 21, 2012.

132

Promote Park(ing) Day
'HÀQLWLRQ

Popularized by the San Francisco–based design group, Rebar, Park(ing)
Day is an annual event on the third Friday of September during which activists and
community groups legally take over a curbside parking spot and reinvent the space for
pedestrian purposes. Groups have created public parks, public reading rooms, curbside
cafes, bocci courts, and mini beaches within parking spots. By 2011, 35 countries have
hosted nearly 1,000 Park(ing) Day events.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Temporarily transforms storage space for a
private vehicle into dynamic, pedestrian-­
oriented public space
‡ Activates the streetscapes
‡ Sparks public debate about the use of public
rights-­of-­way
‡ Encourages community-­driven streetscape
improvements to better accommodate all
street users, not just cars
‡ Provides a fun opportunity for encouraging
pedestrian advocacy

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Local regulations may not permit curbside
parking uses other than parking
‡ Allotting time and funding for permits
‡ Ensuring adequate litter and trash removal
‡ Potential pushback from local businesses due
to loss of parking

‡ Consider your audience when choosing a
location: If creating a park, consider a spot
in an area underserved by public parks;;
if advocating for a public-­policy change,
choose a spot near that public agency
‡ Provide seating and shade
‡ Install a ground cover for better visual impact
‡ Set up plastic bollards or cones to buffer your
space from cars
‡ Prepare to pay: Scope out the payment
system of your parking spot, and have quarters
or a credit card handy
‡ Create a team of collaborators to share
planning, transportation, and implementation
responsibilities
‡ Install signs to inform the public about
Park(ing) Day and your event
‡ Research local parking laws and public-­
space ordinances to address any concerns of
UHVLGHQWVRUSROLFHRIÀFHUV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV

‡ Promote your event: Alert the media, post
information on community listserves and
EORJVDQGSRVWZD\ÀQGLQJVLJQV

‡ Curbside locations with regulated parking for
two or more hours

‡ Prepare talking points about the goals of your
Park(ing) Day event

*XLGDQFH

‡ Document the event with photos and/or video

‡ The goal of Park(ing) Day is to experiment with
new forms of public space. Avoid exploiting
the premise with commercial or promotional
activities

‡ Recycle project materials wherever possible
‡ Clean up your park(ing) spot thoroughly
DIWHUZDUGWRDYRLGÀQHVRUWLFNHWV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
cities are turning to best practices employed
by other municipalities

133

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

([DPSOHV
In 2011 alone, community groups
implemented 965 Park(ing) Day events in
162 cities and 35 countries, including:
‡ Salt Lake City, UT
‡ Spartanburg, SC
‡ 6SULQJÀHOG02
‡ New Orleans, LA
‡ Syracuse, NY
‡ Omaha, NE
‡ Raleigh, NC
‡ Toledo, OH

Park(ing) Day in San Francisco, CA. Source: Rebar Art & Design Studio

Park(ing) Day in Santa Rosa, CA. Source: Greenbelt Alliance, Flickr

134

Start Up Jane's Walks
'HÀQLWLRQ

Jane Jacobs Walk is a series of neighborhood walking tours (and/or
bike rides, transit rides, or wheelchair rides) that helps community members learn and
respond to the complexities of their city through personal and shared observation. All
tours are given and taken for free and coordinated through the Center for the Living
&LW\DQRQSURÀWRUJDQL]DWLRQFUHDWHGE\VXSSRUWHUVRI-DQH-DFREV7KHHYHQWWDNHV
SODFHDQQXDOO\RQWKHÀUVWZHHNHQGRI0D\1

%HQHÀWV
‡ Provokes community discussions about
streetscapes and street life
‡ Creates new social-­walking opportunities
‡ Encourages walking and cycling
‡ Helps build community
‡ Offers community members a new
perspective of city streets

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Develop relationships with community
members to clarify the program and its goals,
and to encourage participation

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Locations with collective histories and
connections to tour members, such as
residential neighborhoods, downtowns, or
parks
‡ Rapidly changing neighborhoods, waterfronts,
or manufacturing districts that are home to
multiple histories and cultures
‡ Bicycle trails and mixed-­use trails through
recreational areas

*XLGDQFH
‡ Reach out to a broad base of potential
walkers, including neighborhood associations,
business improvement districts, community
groups, youth organizations, and school
associations for tour themes and to recruit
tour-­takers
‡ 6FKHGXOH\RXUWRXUIRUWKHÀUVWZHHNHQGLQ0D\
to build on the legacy of Jane Jacobs and
highlight walking advocacy

135

‡ Make sure locations and routes are accessible
‡ Go on a trial run of your tour before the event
WRWLPHWKHURXWHDQGHQVXUHORFDWLRQVKDYHQ·W
been blocked by unforeseen circumstances
‡ 5HDGXSRQ-DQH-DFRE·VWKHRULHVDQG
highlight them during the tour
‡ Create a listserve, website, Facebook page, or
some way to update participants about tour
themes, locations, and logistical details
‡ Encourage participants to ask questions
and offer insights. The tours work best as a
FROOHFWLYHFRQYHUVDWLRQDERXWHYHU\RQH·V
shared surroundings
‡ Share the experience afterward: Upload
pictures to your website, Facebook page, or
shared online photo account. Write blog posts
or send out a follow-­up email about the event 2

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ The Department of City and Metropolitan
Planning at the University of Utah hosts the
Center for the Living City and the Jane Jacob
Walk program

([DPSOHV
Jane Jacobs Walks took place in more than 30
U.S. cities, including:
‡ Carthage, MS
‡ Detroit, MI
‡ Nashville, TN
‡ Provo, UT
‡ Tampa, FL

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

A Jane's Walk threading through Kensington Market in Toronto, ON. Source: BriYYZ, Flickr

1. Jane Jacobs Walk. What is Jane Jacobs Walk? About Jane Jacobs Walk. n.d. http://www.janejacobswalk.org/about-­jane-­jacobs-­walk/what-­is-­jane-­jacobs-­walk/
2. Municipal Arts Society. Jane's Walk NYC. 2012. http://mas.org/programs/janeswalknyc/

136

Use Apps to Encourage Walking
'HÀQLWLRQ

Using open-­source data, geographic information systems, and mobile
technology, software developers can create phone and online applications to tell
SHRSOHZKHQWKHQH[WWUDLQWD[LRUEXVLVFRPLQJWKDWWKHUH·VDIXQODQGPDUNRUSDUN
around the corner, or how to use a myriad of transportation systems effectively to get
from point A to point B without using a car.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Allows people to make better-­informed
decisions about transportation options

‡ Encourage transit and transportation agencies
to publicly release relevant data

‡ 0DQDJHVSDVVHQJHUV·WUDQVSRUWDWLRQ
expectations

‡ Encourage mobile-­technology application
innovation through app competitions

‡ 'HP\VWLÀHVQRQFDUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQRSWLRQV

‡ Use satellite and GPS technology to track uses,
taxis, and trains in real time

‡ Reduces dependence on the private
automobile for transportation needs
‡ Better integrates walking into transportation
options

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Not everyone has access to mobile
technology
‡ 6RXUFHGDWDLVQ·WDOZD\VUHOLDEOH
‡ Updating the technology with new information

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Countries, states, counties, cities, towns

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
cities are turning to best practices employed
by other municipalities

([DPSOHV
‡ HopStop (79 cities and counting)
‡ NextBus (91 transit systems and counting)
‡ Taxi Magic (40 cities and counting)
‡ Adventure Walks (San Francisco;; Washington,
DC;; and counting)
‡ Every Body Walk!
‡ $PHULFDQ+HDUW$VVRFLDWLRQ·VWalking Paths
app

137

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: United States
In January 2011, Kaiser Permanente and about 50 other organizations
partnered to launch the national campaign Every Body Walk! The
online campaign, produced by media team GerberRigler, encourages
$PHULFDQVWRZDONPLQXWHVDGD\ÀYHGD\VDZHHN2QHRIWKH
centerpieces of the campaign is the free Every Body Walk app. The
app, which is compatible with iPhones and Androids, logs individual
walks, counts calories burned, and maps your routes for future
reference. Users can share walks and their walking progress with friends
RQ)DFHERRNDQGÀQGQHZURXWHVE\XVLQJDQLQWHUDFWLYHPDSWRORRN
for nearby walking clubs and paths. The app also has a video section
ZKHUHXVHUVFDQJHWWLSVIURPKHDOWKH[SHUWVDQGZDWFKÀOPVDERXW
walk-­friendly communities.1
7KHIUHH(YHU\%RG\:DONDSSFDPHLQVHFRQGLQ$ERXWFRP·V%HVW
Walking App—Readers' Choice Awards 2012, outperforming most other
IRUSURÀWDSSV2 While the Every Body Walk app is only one element
of the walking campaign—recent highlights include a Funny or Die
video featuring the cast of the TV show West Wing promoting walking 3
—the app is the means by which the campaign guides and supports
individuals striving to incorporate more walking into their daily routines.
Program elements of the Every Body Walk! app.
Source: Every Body Walk!

1. Every Body Walk! Every Body Walk! App. Kaiser Permanente. http://everybodywalk.org/app.html
2. Gerber, Brian;; Rigler, Thomas. Personal correspondence. May 18, 2012.
3. Bumgardner, Wendy. Best Walking App—Readers' Choice Awards 2012 March 29, 2012. About.com.
http://walking.about.com/od/maps/tp/Best-­Walking-­App-­Readers-­Choice-­Awards-­2012.htm

138

Expand Driver’s Education into
Mobility Education
'HÀQLWLRQ

0RELOLW\HGXFDWLRQVXSSOHPHQWVWUDGLWLRQDOGULYHU·VHGXFDWLRQWRWHDFK
multimodal and trip-­planning skills in addition to driving techniques. Mobility education
informs students how to do the following: ride a bike, judge the walkability of streets
DQGQHLJKERUKRRGVIURPDSHGHVWULDQ·VSHUVSHFWLYHWDNHDQGSODQWUDQVLWWULSV
DFFRXQWIRUWKHÀQDQFLDOUHVSRQVLELOLW\RIFDURZQHUVKLSFRPSDUHWKHKHDOWKLPSDFWVRI
transportation behaviors, and consider the mobility possibilities of new technologies such
as Skype and car-­sharing.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ 7HDFKHVDOOQHZGULYHUVWKHÀQDQFLDOKHDOWK
and environmental impacts of transportation
behaviors

‡ To better integrate mobility education into
existing driver-­education methods, craft
mobility education into supplementary
modules that can be taught either by
specialized instructors or by instructional DVDs
with accompanying pre-­made tests

‡ Increases familiarity with multiple modes of
transportation
‡ Gives drivers the perspectives of cyclists,
pedestrians, and transit users with whom they
share the road

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Reach out to law enforcement when crafting
the mobility-­education curriculum
‡ Run mobility-­education workshops and
LQIRUPDWLRQDOVHVVLRQVDERXWXSGDWHGWUDIÀF
laws for local law enforcement

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Private driver-­training schools
‡ Grant-­funded programs
‡ 7UDIÀFVDIHW\HGXFDWLRQ
‡ Weekend workshop offerings
‡ State policy initiative
‡ Federal policy initiative

139

‡ Build mobility education into state and
national campaigns against distracted driving
‡ )UDPHPRELOLW\FKRLFHVLQWHUPVRIÀQDQFLDO
responsibility: the difference between an
annual $8,000 outlay for car ownership and
the savings of reducing or investing that
amount1
‡ Incorporate parental involvement into
curriculum, use crash statistics involving
teenaged drivers, and create a parent-­
student driver contract based on safety and
mobility choices
‡ )DPLOLDUL]HGULYHUVZLWKWUDIÀFFRQWUROGHYLFHV
XVHGIRUWUDIÀFFDOPLQJDQGELF\FOHURXWHV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
states are turning to best practices employed
by other jurisdictions

([DPSOHV
While no state has fully adopted mobility
HGXFDWLRQLQWRLWVGULYHU·VHGXFDWLRQ
curriculum to date, many states have made
incremental steps toward that goal. They
include:
‡ :DVKLQJWRQ: The state legislature passed
House Bill 2564 in 2008, which mandated
the inclusion of pedestrian and bicycle
safety education in the Driver's Education
curriculum, but did not fund it
‡ 1HZ-HUVH\$VSDUWRIWKH*RYHUQRU·VÀYH

Mayoral derective proceedings with Maryland
year $74-­million pedestrian safety initiative,
Governor Martin O'Malley in New Carrollton,
WKHVWDWH·V0RWRU9HKLFOH&RPPLVVLRQ
MD.$WWRUQH\*HQHUDO·V2IÀFHDQGWKH
Source:
Department of Education edited the NJ
Driver Manual to emphasize pedestrian
safety and the responsibilities of both
motorists and pedestrians, and added test
questions about pedestrian-­safety laws into
the NJ driver examination
‡ *HRUJLD: The Georgia Department of
Drivers Services rewrote and expanded the
pedestrian-­related content of the Georgia
Drivers Manual in 2007
‡ :LVFRQVLQ: The state DMV added
pedestrian-­safety component to its
'ULYHU·V+DQGERRN in 2010. The Madison
DOT distributed pedestrian-­ and bicycle-­
VDIHW\LQVWUXFWLRQDO'9'VWRGULYHU·VHG
instructors and distributed premade tests
on the subject matter so that it could
be easily integrated into the established
curriculum. The pedestrian-­safety DVD had
EHHQPDGHE\WKHWUDIÀFHQIRUFHPHQW
safety department of the Madison Police
Department. The Madison DOT then
obtained the bicycle-­focused training
video from the Illinois DOT

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Federal Way
The Mobility Education Foundation ran a mobility-­education pilot
course in Federal Way, Washington, in 2007. The Federal Way Public
6FKRROV7UDIÀF6DIHW\(GXFDWLRQSURJUDPW\SLFDOO\RIIHUVWZRVHFWLRQVRI
driver education at Todd Beamer High School. The foundation offered
one of the two sections an expanded “Driver Education PLUS” course
with supplemental training run by Mobility Education instructors.2
While Washington State required only 30 hours of instruction spanning
DPLQLPXPRIGD\VWKHVWDQGDUG)HGHUDO:D\3XEOLF6FKRROV7UDIÀF
Safety Education “Driver Education” course included 34 hours of
classroom and 6 hours of behind the wheel (BTW) instruction. Classroom
lessons were taught in 17 after-­school meetings over two months, and
BTW instruction was held during six drives meeting the state requirement
of 6 hours. 3 The “Driver Education PLUS” curriculum supplement involved
12 hours of additional instruction:4
5

‡ 6 hours of training on bicycles
‡ 2 hours of transit training

The MEF educa!onal approach
Integrate best teaching prac!ces for a rich educa!onal experience.

‡ 2 hours of walkable communities
training
‡ 2 hours of technologies training

Mobility Education Foundation
representatives taught the
supplemental instruction and
attended the 17 other classes to
participate in class discussions.
Students of both driver education
sections took a 20-­question quiz on
WKHÀUVWDQGODVWGD\RIFODVV 5

Experimental
Learning

Selfawareness

Learning
Styles

Standpoint
Theory

Parent Involvement /
Family Systems

We teach by cul!va!ng:
• Ability to see possibili!es
• Skills to create a be"er future
• Self-knowledge that serves as a basis for confidence

New awareness
More options
Better choices
Mobility Educa!on is a
Safety Strategy.
Drivers Ed alone
may support
self-centeredness,
habitual thinking, and
dependent behavior.

Mobility Educa!on
supports awareness,
cri!cal thinking, and
independence.

~ “Wearing the shoes” of a bicyclist, rider
and walker helps drivers learn that safety
is about how they treat others. ~

Quiz questions assessed student
Excerpt of a Mobility Education
Foundation promotional brochure.
knowledge regarding safety,
Source: Mobility Education Foundation
health, environment, cost, and
operations of the multimodal transportation system. Students in the
PLUS pilot were more knowledgeable with respect to the true costs of
transportation and had transit and cycling skills that were superior to
their peers who attended the standard Driver Education course.6

1. Mobility Education Foundation. New Transportation Thinking for a 21st Century World Brochure.
2. Mobility Education Foundation. Federal Way, WA Driver Education PLUS Pilot Report. 2008.
3. Levinger, David. Mobility Education Foundation. Personal correspondence. October 2011.
4. Mobility Education Foundation. Federal Way, WA Driver Education PLUS Pilot Report. 2008.
5. Mobility Education Foundation. Mob Squad One Day Course. 2008.
6. Mobility Education Foundation. Federal Way, WA Driver Education PLUS Pilot Report. 2008.

140

Create a
Safe Routes to Schools Program
'HÀQLWLRQ

Safe Routes to School programs make it safe, convenient, and fun
for children to be able to walk to and from schools. The program targets pedestrian
and bicycle improvements around schools and is based on evaluation, education,
encouragement, enforcement, and engineering.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Creates a safer walking environment for
everyone using the streets
‡ Induces drivers to slow down
‡ Encourages walking as a transportation option
‡ Increases physical activity
‡ Interests policy makers in other walking
strategies

» Engineering: Begin with a community
walking audit of barriers for children walking
and bicycling to school. Request signal
timing based on the slower walking speeds
of children (3' per second)
» Education: Teach children bicycle and
SHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFVDIHW\VNLOOVLQWKH
classroom. Educating parents to drive safely
DOVRLPSURYHVWUDIÀFVDIHW\

‡ Negotiating neighborhood desires when
implementing infrastructure improvements

» Encouragement: Organize walk-­ and
bike-­to-­school days, contests, and other
promotions to encourage walking. Also set
up walking school buses and bike trains
(parent-­led programs where neighbors to
walk with children)

‡ Parents will like solutions that involve parental
supervision

» Enforcement: Partner with law enforcement
to station crossing guards at street corners

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Limited federal funding

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Federal funds must be spent within 2 miles of
schools on infrastructure improvements
‡ Drop-­off zones where parents and buses can
drop off children who live farther away to walk
the rest of the way to school

*XLGDQFH
‡ Form a Safe Routes team at the school
LQFOXGLQJSDUHQWVVFKRRORIÀFLDOVDQGFLW\
RIÀFLDOV
‡ Form a task force at the city or school-­district
level to encourage collaboration between the
FLW\DQGVFKRROVWRLPSURYHWUDIÀFVDIHW\DQG
promote the program
‡ 3ULRULWL]HVFKRROVEDVHGRQWUDIÀFVDIHW\QHHGV
‡ 8VHWKH(·V
» Evaluation: Start with an evaluation of
existing conditions at the school or school
district. Use standardized data-­collection
forms for student tallies and parent surveys

‡ Implement improvements: Use regular
maintenance funds for short-­term
improvements such as striping and signage.
Apply to departments of transportation for
ORQJHUWHUPLQIUDVWUXFWXUHQHHGVRUÀQG
additional funding
‡ Use the Safe Routes to School to School
1DWLRQDO3DUWQHUVKLS·VLocal Policy Guide to
support the program

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) Program
is administered by the Federal Highway
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ·V2IÀFHRI6DIHW\1
‡ Endorsed by AASHTO, the Governors Highway
Safety Administration, FHWA, and the National
Center for Safe Routes to School in the report:
Safe Routes to School Noteworthy Practices
Guide: A Compendium of State Safe Routes to
School Program Practices
‡ The Safe Routes to School National Partnership
SXEOLVKHGFDVHVWXGLHVDQGEHQHÀWVLQWKHLU
Congressional report: Safe Routes to School:
Helping Communities Save Lives and Dollars
‡ The Safe Routes to School National Partnership
OLVWVEHQHÀWVLQLWVreferenced fact sheet

141

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Eagan
Eagan, MN, is a suburb from Minneapolis–Saint Paul and its Red Pine
Elementary serves 950 children from the town and several surrounding
farming communities. Eagan has a network of sidewalks and crosswalks
in the neighborhoods around school, providing safe infrastructure for
walking and bicycling.

The Safe Routes to School program at Red Pine
Elementary School in Eagan, MN, also encouraged
cycling to school. Source: National Center for
Bicycling and Walking

In spite of these safe facilities, many parents were in the habit of driving
WKHLUFKLOGUHQWRVFKRRO³UHVXOWLQJLQVLJQLÀFDQWWUDIÀFEDFNXSVWKDW
often extended a quarter-­mile from the school and onto a nearby
highway. Red Pine Elementary principal realized that Safe Routes to
School education and encouragement activities were necessary to
shift some of these car trips to walking and bicycling.
With a small $10,000 Safe Routes to School non-­infrastructure award,
the school implemented a comprehensive encouragement and
HGXFDWLRQVWUDWHJ\7KHVFKRROÀUVWSURGXFHGD6DIH5RXWHVWR6FKRRO
map to identify sidewalks, crosswalks, school patrols, and safer walking
routes. Children in adjacent neighborhoods were invited to join walking
school buses. Drop-­off zones were added at the beginning of the
walking-­school-­bus routes to allow children from farther away to join
WKHZDONLQJVFKRROEXVDQGUHGXFHWUDIÀFDWWKHVFKRRO7KHVFKRRO
implemented these provisions as one of their initiatives to increase
health and physical activity—in addition to incentives to walk and run
DWUHFHVVÀWQHVVIDLUVRQWKHZHHNHQGVDQGELF\FOHGRQDWLRQVWRORZ
income children.

A walking-­school-­bus initiative in Chicago, IL.
Source: Chicago Department of Transportation

([DPSOHV

With this comprehensive approach, Red Pine Elementary more than
doubled the number of children regularly walking and bicycling
to school—from 75 to 200 children. The number of cars dropping
children off at school declined from 100 cars to about 40 cars—nearly
HOLPLQDWLQJWUDIÀFEDFNXSVDURXQGWKHVFKRRO2

‡ The Federal government mandates a
full-­time Safe Routes to School program
coordinator within the departments of
transportation of all 50 states
‡ As of December 2011, more than 12,300
schools in 50 states received federal
funding for Safe Routes to School programs

1. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\6DIH5RXWHVWR6FKRROhttp://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/saferoutes/
2. Hubsmith, Deb. Director of Safe Routes to School National Partnership. Personal correspondence. July 2012.

142

Create a
Safe Routes to Transit Program
'HÀQLWLRQ

A Safer Route to Transit program targets pedestrian improvements around
transit stops and the walking or cycling routes used to reach them.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Tailors responses to the needs and concerns of
VSHFLÀFZDONLQJSRSXODWLRQV

‡ Demonstrate the need. Collect:

‡ Creates a safer walking environment for
everyone using the streets

» Baseline data, such as the number,
attributes, and circumstances of pedestrian
crash injuries and fatalities

‡ Induces drivers to slow down

» 7UDIÀFYROXPHVDQGVSHHGV

‡ Encourages transit use

» Ridership attributes (who arrives to stations
and how)

‡ Encourages walking as a transportation option
‡ Reduces automobile dependency

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ &RRUGLQDWLQJWUDIÀFFDOPLQJSODQVZLWKWKH
needs of emergency responders
‡ )XQGLQJWUDIÀFFDOPLQJDQGRULQIUDVWUXFWXUH
improvements
‡ Coordinating infrastructure improvements to
RSWLPL]HFRVWVDQGEHQHÀWV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Vicinity of bus stops and subway stations
‡ The major foot and cycling routes to reach
transit stops

» Population statistics by geographical
distribution (e.g., area densities of senior
populations or youth populations)
» Adequacy of existing infrastructure (sidewalk
gaps, crosswalks, etc.)
‡ Also survey residents about mobility concerns
and priorities
‡ Publicize the demonstrated need for targeted
infrastructure improvements:
» Set up meetings with local representatives,
advocacy groups, community organizations,
and city agencies
» Write press releases and invite mainstream
and social media representatives to cover
the story
‡ Collaborate with departments of
transportation, city planning, transit
providers, local residents, and advocates to
systematically address safety concerns and
improvements

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Targeted pedestrian safety improvements
around transit stops are endorsed by
the Federal Highway Administration in its
Pedestrian Safety Guide for Transit Agencies
guidebook

([DPSOHV
‡ New York, NY
‡ Atlanta, GA: Safe Routes to Transit Task Force

143

%HIRUH

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
&UHDWHGWKURXJK1HZ<RUN&LW\0D\RU0LFKDHO%ORRPEHUJ·V
PlaNYC strategic plan, the Safe Routes to Transit program within
the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) aims to
improve pedestrian conditions in and around transit stops throughout
the city. The Safe Routes to Transit program addresses three main
transit conditions: unsafe bus stops under elevated subway structures,
congested sidewalks next to subway entrances, and incomplete
pedestrian infrastructure at bus stops.

Before: 86th Street and 20th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY.
Source: New York City Department of Transportation

$IWHU

7KH%XV6WRSVXQGHUWKH(OVLQLWLDWLYHLGHQWLÀHGORFDWLRQVLQWKH
Bronx, Brooklyn, and Queens in need of safety improvements, such as
changing the shape of the roadway and constructing raised bus stops
to provide people a safer place to stand while waiting for the bus.
In its Subway/Sidewalk Interface initiative, the agency uses data
collected in a joint-­survey with the Department of City Planning
to prioritize pedestrian-­safety improvements at 23 subway stops.
Improvements at those locations include widening narrow sidewalks,
H[WHQGLQJFURVVLQJLQWHUYDOVDQGUHGXFLQJWUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQQHDU
station entrances and exits.

After: 86th Street and Bay Parkway, Brooklyn, NY.
Source: New York City Department of Transportation

In its third initiative, Sidewalks to Buses, NYCDOT is installing new
sidewalks, crosswalks, and waiting areas at bus stops where that
LQIUDVWUXFWXUHFXUUHQWO\GRHVQ·WH[LVW7KHDJHQF\KDVSOHGJHGWRLQVWDOO
up to a quarter-­mile of new sidewalk and pedestrian improvements at
up to 15 bus stops per year through 2030.1

1. New York City Department of Transportation. Safe Routes to Transit. Pedestrians & Sidewalks. n.d. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/sidewalks/safertstransit.shtml

144

Create a
Safe Routes for Seniors Program
'HÀQLWLRQ

A Safe Routes for Seniors program targets pedestrian improvements in
areas with senior centers, hospitals, and large numbers of senior residents.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Tailors responses to the needs and concerns of
seniors

‡ Demonstrate the need. Collect:

‡ Creates a safer walking environment for
everyone using the streets

» Baseline data, such as the number,
attributes, and circumstances of pedestrian
crash injuries and fatalities

‡ Induces drivers to slow down

» 7UDIÀFYROXPHVDQGVSHHGV

‡ Encourages walking as a transportation option

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV

» Population statistics by geographical
distribution (e.g. area densities of senior
populations)1

‡ &RRUGLQDWLQJWUDIÀFFDOPLQJSODQVZLWKWKH
needs of emergency responders

» Adequacy of existing infrastructure (sidewalk
gaps, crosswalks, etc.)

‡ )XQGLQJWUDIÀFFDOPLQJDQGRULQIUDVWUXFWXUH
improvements

‡ Also survey residents about mobility concerns
and priorities

‡ Coordinating infrastructure improvements to
RSWLPL]HFRVWVDQGEHQHÀWV

‡ Publicize the demonstrated need for targeted
infrastructure improvements:

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Vicinities or senior centers and hospitals
‡ Districts with high densities of senior residents

» Set up meetings with local representatives,
advocacy groups, community organizations,
and city agencies
» Write press releases and invite mainstream
and social media representatives to cover
the story
‡ Collaborate with departments of
transportation and health, transit providers,
senior center staff, seniors, health-­care
providers, and advocates to systematically
address safety concerns and improvements
‡ Request signal timing based on the slower
walking speeds of seniors (3 feet per second)
to give pedestrians enough time to safely cross

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Endorsed by Transportation for America in its
June 2011 report Aging in Place, Stuck without
Options

([DPSOHV
‡ Chicago, IL
‡ New York, NY
‡ San Francisco, CA

145

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
As more people live longer and age in place, creating communities
that are easy, enjoyable, and safe for older adults to walk through
is crucial for both transportation and public-­health considerations.
So, in 2003, Transportation Alternatives (TA), a New York City–based
transportation advocacy organization, created a Safe Routes to Seniors
program. With funding from the New York State Department of Health's
Healthy Heart program, TA partnered with community groups in eight
neighborhoods that had large senior populations to better understand
obstacles to walking. Senior residents documented dangerous
walking conditions using maps, measuring wheels, stop watches, and
disposable cameras. TA also hosted four workshops to give seniors a
FKDQFHWRJHQHUDWHGHVLJQVROXWLRQV7$·VZRUNKHOSHGFRQVWUXFW
pedestrian safety improvements to improve walking conditions for over
26,000 seniors in two New York City neighborhoods.1
Crossing 72nd Street, New York, NY. Source: Ed
Yourdon, Flickr

The TA program also inspired the New York City Department of
Transportation (NYCDOT) to create its own Safe Routes for Seniors
program.21<&'27·VSURJUDPH[DPLQHGDFFLGHQWKLVWRULHVDFURVV
the city to identify 25 neighborhoods that have both a high density of
senior citizens and a high number of pedestrian accidents or injuries—
LQFOXGLQJWKH7$LGHQWLÀHGQHLJKERUKRRGVRI)OXVKLQJWKH/RZHU(DVW
6LGHDQG%ULJKWRQ%HDFK7KHDJHQF\·VHQJLQHHUVDVVHVVSHGHVWULDQ
FRQGLWLRQVLQWKRVHQHLJKERUKRRGVIURPDVHQLRU·VSHUVSHFWLYHWR
implement improvements, such as extending pedestrian crossing
times at crosswalks, shortening crossing distances, altering curbs and
sidewalks, restricting vehicle turns, and narrowing roadways. 3

1. 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ$OWHUQDWLYHV6DIH5RXWHVIRU6HQLRUV)LQDO5HSRUW-XQHKWWSZZZWUDQVDOWRUJÀOHVQHZVURRPUHSRUWV6DIHB5RXWHVBIRUB6HQLRUVSGI
2. Ibid.
3. New York City Department of Transportation. Safe Routes for Seniors. Pedestrians & Sidewalks. n.d.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/sidewalks/safeseniors.shtml

146

Establish
Walking Meetings at Work
'HÀQLWLRQ

Walking meetings are small-­group business discussions that take place
while walking, usually outdoors, instead of around a conference table.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Energizes people and makes them more alert

‡ Determine the meeting agenda beforehand

‡ +HOSVSHRSOHVWD\ÀW

‡ Determine the route and length of the walking
meeting beforehand, taking into consideration
WKHÀWQHVVDQGPRELOLW\OHYHOVRIDWWHQGHHV

‡ Breaks up a workday
‡ 6WLPXODWHVR[\JHQÁRZLQWKHERG\DQGEUDLQ
to increase creativity and the ability to solve
problems faster

‡ Inform everyone they should wear
comfortable shoes
‡ Schedule the walking meeting early to set the
tone for the day;; or late in the afternoon to
reenergize attendees

‡ 5HGXFHVRIÀFHHQHUJ\GHPDQGV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ External distraction, such as ambient noise or
cell phone use
‡ Route restrictions, such as narrow sidewalks or
corridors, can hinder group conversations
‡ Accommodating diverse walking paces

1

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Parks, trails, or greenways
‡ Urban areas with adequate walking
infrastructure like sidewalks and crosswalks
‡ Indoors areas like convention centers or malls

‡ Check the weather and prepare accordingly
‡ Avoid noisy roads and those that are
distracting and/or dangerous2
‡ Give employees individual pedometers to
track and encourage walking

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Encouraged by the American Heart
Association

([DPSOHV
‡ Rockland, MA: EMD Serono
‡ Minneapolis, MN: Salo
‡ Orlando, FL: Florida Hospital

147

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Washington, DC
Dr. Ted Eytan, a Permanente Federation director at Kaiser Permanente,
has been a big proponent of walking meetings for years. Dr. Eytan
KDVQRWRQO\LQWHJUDWHGWKHPLQWRKLVRIÀFHRSHUDWLRQVEXWKDVDOVR
published instructions on his blog, tedeytan.com, on how others can
GRWKHVDPH7KHLQVSLUDWLRQFDPHIURPDQRIÀFHZDONLQJFKDOOHQJH
where employees were handed free pedometers. 3 Coworkers decided
to rack up steps on their pedometers by walking during company
meetings instead of sitting around a table. 4
A walking meeting at the Kaiser Permanente
Executive Leadership Summit in Ellwood, CA.
Source: Dr. Ted Eytan, Flickr

Dr. Eytan continued the practice long after the end of that original
walking challenge. When he began a new position at Kaiser
Permanente in Washington, DC, he instituted walking meetings there as
ZHOO'U(\WDQ·VVXSSRUWRIZDONLQJPHHWLQJVLVQRWDQH[FHSWLRQZLWKLQ
Kaiser Permanente, but an example of a sea change both within the
institution and the country as a whole. Kaiser Permanente now endorses
walking meetings as a standard business practice 5 and evens funds a
national education campaign, called Every Body Walk!, to promote
walking in and outside the work place. 6

1. Feet First. Guide to Walking Meetings. KWWSIHHWÀUVWRUJZDONVZDONLQJPHHWLQJV
2. Ibid.
3. Eytan, Ted. The Art of the Walking Meeting. TedEytan.com. January 10, 2008. http://www.tedeytan.com/2008/01/10/148
4. Willians, David K. Dr. Ted Eytan of Kaiser on health IT, walking meetings, innovation (transcript) Health Business Blog. January 4, 2011.
http://www.healthbusinessblog.com/2011/01/dr-­ted-­eytan-­of-­kaiser-­on-­health-­it-­walking-­meetings-­innovation-­transcript/
5. Aubrey, Allison. Is It Possible to Walk and Work at the Same Time? NPR. May 7, 2012.
http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/05/07/152157560/is-­it-­possible-­to-­walk-­and-­work-­at-­the-­same-­time
6. Eytan, Ted. Walking Meetings Featured on ABC News, Washington, DC. TedEytan.com. May 3, 2012. http://www.tedeytan.com/2012/05/03/10626

148

Use Walk Score
to Your Advantage
'HÀQLWLRQ

The web-­based real estate assessment tool Walk Score allows users,
whether they are city-­planning departments or individuals, to see and assess the walk-­,
bike-­, and transit-­friendliness of addresses and neighborhoods.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Allows users to quickly assess walking,
biking, and transit conditions in different
neighborhoods

‡ Incorporate Walk Score into real estate
evaluations to encourage development
toward more walkable goals

‡ Allows users to make livability comparisons
between different locations

‡ Incorporate Walk Score data into planning
analyses for transit-­oriented developments

‡ Helps integrate land use into transportation
and development-­planning decisions

‡ Incorporate Walk Score data when evaluating
the walkability of sidewalk and street networks
and prioritizing improvement projects

‡ 4XDQWLÀHVWKHYDOXHRIZDONDELOLW\WUDQVLW
access, and bikeability within real estate
evaluations
‡ Allows resource-­strapped cities and
communities to perform low-­cost walkability
assessments
‡ Helps communicate planning goals for
neighborhoods and transit hubs1

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ &XUUHQWO\PHDVXUHVGLVWDQFHDVWKHFURZÁLHV
rather than along existing street and sidewalk
networks, though a “StreetSmart” version is
available in beta form
‡ :DON6FRUHDOJRULWKPGRHVQ·WFXVWRPL]HKRZ
individuals might value nearby destinations
differently 2
‡ :DON6FRUHGRHVQ·WDFFRXQWIRUWKHZLGWKRI
VWUHHWVWUDIÀFRURWKHUREVWDFOHVWRZDONLQJ
though the company has plans to integrate
that type of data into walking evaluations
‡ :DON6FRUH·VDFFXUDF\GHSHQGVRQWKH
database of destinations used by Google
Maps

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Any of the 2,500 cities currently assessed by
Walk Score
‡ Transit (bus, train, ferry, light-­rail) corridors and
transit-­oriented developments

149

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Supported by grants from the Rockefeller
Foundation
‡ Supported by grants from the Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation
‡ Endorsed by Harriet Tregoning, Director,
:DVKLQJWRQ'&2IÀFHRI3ODQQLQJ

([DPSOHV
‡ :DON6FRUH·VZDONDELOLW\LQGH[KDVEHHQ
incorporated into 15,000 websites 3
‡ Multiple U.S. cities have incorporated Walk
Score into planning analyses, including:4
» Phoenix, AZ
» Washington, DC

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Phoenix
The Phoenix Planning Department used Walk Score data to analyze
the performance of existing light rail stations and to look at how
proposed stations might perform if they were within a walking network
connecting passengers to desired amenities. 3

Phoenix, AZ, used Walk Score data to analyze
existing rail stations and model the performance of
proposed stations. Source: Walk Score, http://www.
walkscore.com/pdf/WS-­Phoenix-­TOD.pdf

Walk Score data helped planners clarify which corridors and station
locations performed best from a land use perspective. Phoenix plans to
use Walk Score data in a similar fashion to evaluate the performance of
WKHFLW\·VFDQDOFRUULGRUV4

Walk Score assesses neighborhoods in terms of
amenities within walking, cycling, and transit
distances. Source: Walk Score, walkscore.com

1. Langdon, Philip. Walk Score could lead to better-­planned transit networks. New Urban News. Vol. 16. No. 6.
2. Cortright, Joe. Walking the Walk: How Walkability Raises Home Values in U.S. Cities. CEOs for Cities. August 2009.
http://blog.walkscore.com/wp-­content/uploads/2009/08/WalkingTheWalk_CEOsforCities.pdf
3. Walk Score: Year in Review. January 12, 2012. http://www.walkscore.com/professional/neighborhood-­map.php
4. Cortright, Joe. Walking the Walk: How Walkability Raises Home Values in U.S. Cities. CEOs for Cities. August 2009.
http://blog.walkscore.com/wp-­content/uploads/2009/08/WalkingTheWalk_CEOsforCities.pdf
5. Langdon, Philip. Walk Score could lead to better-­planned transit networks. New Urban News. Vol. 16. No. 6.
6. Walk Score Data for Planning & Research. Case Study: Analyzing Light Rail Station Area Performance in Phoenix. http://www2.walkscore.com/pdf/WS-­Phoenix-­TOD.pdf

150

Enforcement Tactics
Introduction

This chapter consists of tactics that can either be adopted by law-­enforcement agencies or used
to supplement those agencies. A few of these enforcement tactics are legislative amendments
aimed to increase drivers’ responsiveness and responsibility toward more vulnerable road users.
These tactics rely on successful communication and coordination between multiple agencies and
DXGLHQFHVLQFOXGLQJODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVWKHPVHOYHV

151

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

3HGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHUV1HZ<RUN1<Source: Sam Schwartz Engineering
152

Train Law-Enforcement Officers in
Pedestrian Laws and Safety
'HÀQLWLRQ

Provide an education course on pedestrian and bicycle safety geared
WRZDUGDQGWDXJKWWRODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVWRKHOSWKHPFUHDWHVDIHUZDONLQJDQG
bicycling communities. The training curriculum typically covers state laws and statutes
relating to pedestrian and bicycle safety, the causes of common crashes involving
pedestrians and bicyclists, how to investigate and report those crashes, and sample
enforcement guidelines.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Fills a frequent gap in formal law-­enforcement
RIÀFHUHGXFDWLRQ
‡ 7HDFKHVRIÀFHUVWKHOHDGLQJFDXVHVRI
pedestrian crashes

‡ Recruit police training staff for training sessions
‡ 0DNHWKHWUDLQLQJDVHDV\DVSRVVLEOHWR
attend:

‡ &ODULÀHVZKLFKODZVWRHQIRUFHIRUWKHVDIHW\RI
ZDONHUVDQGF\FOLVWV

» Divide training sessions into short modules to
be taught separately

‡ Educates all those who are pulled over about
the law and proper interactions between
ZDONHUVF\FOLVWVDQGGULYHUV

» Hold training sessions within precincts

‡ Helps prevent dangerous behaviors on the
road

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Institutional resistance from the perception
that pedestrian and bicycle behavior is
outside the scope of police concern

» Fit in trainings during roll call
» Create and distribute DVDs of training
materials
‡ Survey participants before and after trainings
WRJDXJHWKHLUNQRZOHGJHRISHGHVWULDQODZV
and crash-­prevention measures
‡ Distribute detailed training manuals to
participants

‡ Financial and time constraints: Who pays for
the trainings? How long can departments
VSDUHRIÀFHUVWRDWWHQGWUDLQLQJVHVVLRQV"

‡ &RQVLGHUXVLQJWKHIUHH1+76$SURGXFHG
“Pedestrian Safety Training for Law
Enforcement” video1

‡ Bureaucratic hurdles: Who creates and vets
the curriculum? Who runs the course?

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local
‡ State

*XLGDQFH
‡ Identify a champion in law enforcement to
help plan and implement the training
‡ Partner with law enforcement in creating the
curriculum
‡ 6HHNIXQGLQJIURPVWDWHKLJKZD\VDIHW\
agencies who can also provide state peace-­
RIÀFHUVWDQGDUGVDQGWUDLQLQJFHUWLÀFDWLRQ
VRRIÀFHUVUHFHLYHWUDLQLQJFUHGLWIRUFRXUVH
attendance;; federal safety agencies may vet
curriculums

153

‡ Frame the training as a means of improving
overall community safety

‡ /LVWHGE\WKH1DWLRQDO3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH
Information Center 2
‡ Endorsed by the Federal Highway
Administration: “It is an essential component of
ELF\FOHDQGSHGHVWULDQSURJUDPVWKDWVHHNWR
enable all users to share roadways safely”3
‡ 1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
endorses and develops law-­enforcement
curricula regarding pedestrian and bicycle
safety

([DPSOHV
‡ Louisiana4
‡ Wisconsin
‡ Portland, OR
‡ Chicago, IL

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Wisconsin

Wisconsin DOT and the Bicycle Federation of
Wisconsin created 10-­minute training sessions about
pedestrian and bicycle laws and crash-­prevention
WDFWLFVIRUODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVSource:
Pedestrian Safety for Law Enforcement, WisDOT

In 2007, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation updated its
ELF\FOHWUDLQLQJSURJUDPIRUODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVZKLFKKDG
EHHQFUHDWHGLQWKURXJKD1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 1+76$ JUDQWWRLQFOXGHSHGHVWULDQVWDWXWHVDQG
crash-­prevention techniques. The course is designed to give law-­
HQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVWKHEDVLFNQRZOHGJHWRROVDQGUHVRXUFHVWR
FUHDWHVDIHZDONLQJDQGELF\FOLQJHQYLURQPHQWVLQWKHLUGLVWULFWV7KH
WZRGD\FRXUVHLQFOXGHVFODVVURRPZDONLQJDQGRQELNHFRPSRQHQWV
DQGLVWDXJKWE\VWDIIRIWKHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQFRQVXOWLQJÀUP:(%,.(
7RSLFVFRYHUHGLQFOXGHGHÀQLWLRQVVWDWHODZVDQGVWDWXWHVUHODWLQJ
to pedestrian and bicycle safety, the causes of common crashes
involving pedestrians and bicyclists, how to investigate and report
those crashes, sample enforcement guidelines and actions, as well
as relevant organizations and contacts. All training participants also
receive a manual summarizing the course materials. Training costs are
FXUUHQWO\FRYHUHGE\DQ1+76$JUDQWEXWWKHSURJUDPKRSHVWREHVHOI
sustaining through course fees.
$FKDOOHQJHRIWKHSURJUDPKRZHYHULVÀQGLQJSROLFHGHSDUWPHQWV
ZLWKHQRXJKVWDIIDQGUHVRXUFHVWREHDEOHWRVSDUHRIÀFHUVIRUWZR
days in order to attend these trainings. As a result, WisDOT and the
Bicycle Federation of Wisconsin created 10-­minute training sessions
IRUODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVDVSDUWRIWKHLUUHFHQW´6KDUH %H
Aware” Campaign for road safety (which was funded by the federal
7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ(QKDQFHPHQWVSURJUDP 7KHVHPLQXWHWUDLQLQJVZLOO
EHJLYHQGXULQJSROLFHSUHFLQFWUROOFDOOVHLWKHUE\6KDUH %H$ZDUH
bicycle ambassadors or through DVD presentations. 5

1. 1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ1+76$3HGHVWULDQ6DIHW\IRU/DZ(QIRUFHPHQW2FWREHU
KWWSPFVQKWVDJRYLQGH[FIP"IXVHDFWLRQ SURGXFWGLVSOD\ SURGXFWB,'          

2. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Training Law Enforcers. http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/enforcement/training.cfm
3. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ%LF\FOHDQG3HGHVWULDQ3URJUDP7KH1RQPRWRUL]HG7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3LORW3URJUDP
KWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYHQYLURQPHQWELF\FOHBSHGHVWULDQQWSSLQGH[FIP

4. *UHDWHU1HZ2UOHDQV3HGHVWULDQ %LF\FOH3URJUDP(QIRUFHPHQWIRU3HGHVWULDQDQG%LF\FOH6DIHW\5HJLRQDO3ODQQLQJ&RPPLVVLRQDQG/RXLVLDQD'HSDUWPHQWRI
Transportation and Development. Spring 2010. KWWSZZZSODQQLQJXQRHGX%LNH3HG3')VELNHSHGBHQIUFPDQXOBSGI
5. Corsi, Larry. Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program Manager, WisDOT. Personal correspondence. October 4, 2011.

154

Pass a
Vulnerable-Users Statute
'HÀQLWLRQ

This is a legislative statute that requires higher penalties for drivers who
harm more vulnerable roadway users, such as pedestrians and cyclists. The statute
should include a “due care” provision, if one is not already enacted in state law,
UHTXLULQJGULYHUVWRORRNRXWIRUDQGDYRLGVWULNLQJYXOQHUDEOHSHUVRQVLQWKHURDGZD\

%HQHÀWV
‡ Better balances punishment to the
consequences of negligent driving

‡ %XLOGVXSSRUWIURPGLYHUVHVWDNHKROGHUVHJ
farmers can help if tractor drivers are included
as a class of vulnerable roadway users

‡ Encourages cautious driving

‡ Survey and amend existing statutes, including:

‡ Provides legal support to injury claims caused
by unsafe motorists

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ A vulnerable-­user bill should not contradict
existing statutes and liability arguments
‡ Legislation that requires jail time or trial
proceedings may overburden a constrained
court system
‡ Providing professional legal assistance to
draft the legislation and committed, multiyear
legislative efforts and advocacy to build the
political support to pass the bill

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local
‡ State

*XLGDQFH
‡ Create a campaign to move the statute
WKURXJKWKHOHJLVODWLYHSURFHVV'HÀQHWKH
problem;; develop a statewide coalition;;
prepare fact sheets;; organize news stories,
letters, and phone calls to legislators
to gather support and sponsors for the
proposed legislation;; and maintain the
political momentum to move the bill through
FRPPLWWHHSDVWÁRRUYRWHVLQERWKVWDWH
houses;; and obtain the governor’s signature
‡ 6HHNDVVLVWDQFH6WDWHKLJKZD\VDIHW\
agencies may provide help and leadership;;
WKH1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\
Administration can identify best practices
‡ Use testimony of families and victims to build
legislative support

» Penalties for careless driving
» Department procedures regarding length of
driver’s-­license suspensions
» Trial entry proceedings in non-­default cases
» Provisions of judgment
» Criteria requiring a defendant appear in
court
» $GPLVVLELOLW\RIWUDIÀFRIIHQVHSURFHGXUHVLQ
subsequent civil actions
‡ &RQVXOWSROLFHRIÀFHUVWRLQVXUHODZLV
practically enforceable
‡ 'HÀQHDQGDVVLJQQHZUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVOLNH
monitoring careless drivers, supervising
FRPPXQLW\VHUYLFHDQGWUDFNLQJÀQHVRU
license suspensions to agencies, including
FRXUWV\VWHPVDQGGLVWULFWDWWRUQH\RIÀFHV
‡ Encourage legislative support and agency
cooperation by highlighting the law’s safety
EHQHÀWVIRUFKLOGUHQDQGKLJKZD\ZRUNHUV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
cities are turning to best practices employed
by other municipalities
‡ Vulnerable User Statutes have passed several
state legislatures, though they have faced
political resistance in California1 and Texas2

([DPSOHV
Vulnerable Roadway User laws have been
passed by the following state legislatures:
‡ Delaware3
‡ 1HZ<RUN4
‡ Oregon5

155

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Oregon
In 2007, the Oregon Legislature passed the Vulnerable Roadway
8VHUVWDWXWH 256 7KHDFWFUHDWHGDKLJKHUSHQDOW\IRU
careless driving if it contributed to serious physical injury or death to a
“vulnerable user of a public way.” If that occurred, the act mandated
either community service and driver-­improvement education, or a
VXEVWDQWLDOÀQHDQGDPDQGDWRU\RQH\HDUOLFHQVHVXVSHQVLRQ7KHODZ
ZHQWLQWRHIIHFW-DQXDU\
7KH%LF\FOH7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ$OOLDQFH %7$ /HJLVODWLYH&RPPLWWHH
advocated that the concept of a Vulnerable Roadway User could be
a legal term to provide stronger protection of vulnerable user groups,
such as pedestrians, cyclists, and rollerbladers. The term forged a new
way for law enforcement and the court system to address pedestrian
and cyclist injuries caused by careless drivers. Previously, Oregon law
Cycling between vehicular travel lanes on an
VLPSO\PDQGDWHGDÀQHLQUHVSRQVHWRDFDUHOHVVGULYLQJLQFLGHQW
Oregon road. Source: Oregon DOT
Before the Vulnerable Roadway User statute, the state did not suspend
WKHOLFHQVHVRIFRQYLFWHGGULYHUVRUUHTXLUHWKDWWKH\PDNHDFRXUWDSSHDUDQFH7KHQHZELOOLQFOXGHGDQRQFULPLQDO
DOWHUQDWLYHRIDÀQH XSIURP DQGDRQH\HDUOLFHQVHVXVSHQVLRQ$WUDIÀFVDIHW\FRXUVHDQGRQHWRWZR
KXQGUHGKRXUVRIFRPPXQLW\VHUYLFHZHUHLQFOXGHGDVDQDOWHUQDWLYHWRWKHÀQHDQGVXVSHQVLRQ,IWKHSURJUDPLV
VXFFHVVIXOO\FRPSOHWHGWKHVXVSHQVLRQDQGÀQHZRXOGEHVXVSHQGHG
Creating a new legal concept required amending a considerable number of other statutes. The responsibility for
DGPLQLVWHULQJWKHSURJUDPPRQLWRULQJFDUHOHVVGULYHUVDQGVXSHUYLVLQJFRPPXQLW\VHUYLFHDQGDQ\ÀQHVRUOLFHQVH
suspensions also had to be assigned to various agencies.
,Q2UHJRQDPHQGHGLWV9XOQHUDEOH5RDGZD\8VHUVWDWXWHWRJLYHSROLFHRIÀFHUVWKHGLVFUHWLRQWRQRWHWKDWDQ
offense “appears to have” contributed to the serious physical injury or death of a vulnerable user, rather than requiring
them to conclude that it was the exact cause of the serious physical injury or death. The change aimed to improve law
enforcement’s ability to enforce the law. As a result, the Portland Police Department lowered the severity of crash that
would trigger a full police investigation for a vulnerable roadway user. A full police investigation is now triggered when a
YXOQHUDEOHURDGZD\XVHULVWDNHQDZD\E\DQDPEXOHQFHLQVWHDGZKHQDYLFWLPLVHQWHUHGLQWKHWUDXPDV\VWHP

1. 5RWK0DWWKHZ5KRGHV0LFKDHO&DOLIRUQLD$VVHPEO\+LWV.LOOV7UDIÀF-XVWLFH%LOO$SULO
KWWSVIVWUHHWVEORJRUJFDOLIRUQLDDVVHPEO\KLWVNLOOVWUDIÀFMXVWLFHELOO      

2. 3HUU\5LFN*RY3HUU\9HWRHV6%-XQHhttp://www.stc-­law.com/pdf/Texas%20VRU%20Bill.pdf
3. State of Delaware. Governor Signs "Vulnerable Users" Law. August 12, 2010. KWWSJRYHUQRUGHODZDUHJRYQHZVDXJXVWODZVKWPO
4. 1HZ<RUN6WDWH9HKLFOHDQG7UDIÀF/DZ6HFWLRQKWWSSXEOLFOHJLQIRVWDWHQ\XV/$:66($)FJL"48(5<7<3( /$:6 48(5<'$7$ 9$7#7;9$7 /,67 6($
%52:6(5 %52:6(5 72.(1  7$5*(7 9,(:
5. Oregon Department of Transportation. Bicycle and Pedestrian Program. Laws and Regulations. KWWSZZZRUHJRQJRY2'27+:<%,.(3('ODZVBUHJVVKWPO 

Provide Training Instead of Fines
'HÀQLWLRQ

7UDLQLQJLQVWHDGRIÀQHVJLYHVÀUVWWLPHWUDIÀFRIIHQGHUVRIFHUWDLQ
YLRODWLRQV³ZKHWKHUWKH\DUHGULYHUVSHGHVWULDQVRUELF\FOLVWV³WKHRSWLRQRIWDNLQJD
VDIHW\FODVVLQVWHDGRISD\LQJDÀQH&LWDWLRQUHFHLYHUVZKRVXFFHVVIXOO\FRPSOHWHWKH
FODVVUHFHLYHDQDXWRPDWLFRUGLVFUHWLRQDU\GLVPLVVDO QRFRQYLFWLRQ RUDVHQWHQFHRI
GLVFKDUJH FRQYLFWLRQHQWHUHGEXWQRÀQH GHSHQGLQJRQWKHWUDIÀFYLRODWLRQ

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ ,QFUHDVHVNQRZOHGJHRIDQGFRPSOLDQFHZLWK
WUDIÀFUHJXODWLRQV

‡ Collaborate with all program partners from the
start, including: police, courts, local and state
departments of transportation, health sector,
and advocates

‡ Reduces preventable crashes
‡ 3URYLGHVHOLJLEOHÀUVWWLPHRIIHQGHUVZLWK
LQFHQWLYHVWRWDNHDVDIHW\FODVV
‡ Improves awareness of the social and
HFRQRPLFLPSDFWVRIWUDIÀFODZYLRODWLRQV
DQGWKHEHQHÀWVRIZDONLQJF\FOLQJDQGXVLQJ
transit

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ /RVVRIÀQHUHYHQXHIURPGLVPLVVHGRU
discharged citations
‡ Time and resource commitment from safety-­
class staff
‡ 5HVRXUFHDQGÀQDQFLDOUHTXLUHPHQWVIRU
DWUDFNLQJV\VWHPWRFRRUGLQDWHFODVV
participants and court records
‡ Translation services or multilingual instructors
WRUHDFKQRQ(QJOLVKVSHDNHUV

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local
‡ 6WDWH³GHSHQGHQWXSRQSURJUDPVZRUNLQJ
with circuit and municipal courts and
statewide statutes to authorize court and
SROLFHUHIHUUDOVWRWUDIÀFHGXFDWLRQFODVVHV
DVZHOODVLQGHPQLI\WUDIÀFHGXFDWLRQFODVVHV
from litigation

‡ &UHDWHWKHPHDQVRIWUDFNLQJFODVV
SDUWLFLSDQWVZLWKLQWUDIÀFFRXUWUHFRUGV
‡ ,QVWUXFWODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVDQG
court staff on eligibility requirements and
procedures for class admission, court
procedure, and case disposition.
‡ Distribute and encourage law-­enforcement
RIÀFHUVDQGFRXUWVWDIIWRSURYLGHUHIHUUDOVOLSV
to eligible defendants when the defendant
is cited for the violation and at his or her
arraignment in court
‡ ,QVWUXFWWKHFLWLQJRIÀFHUWRQRWHRQWKH
citation a recommendation to either dismiss or
GLVFKDUJHWKHÀQHXSRQVXFFHVVIXOFRPSOHWLRQ
of the safety course
‡ Require advance registration (or assign course
GDWHV WRJLYHVDIHW\FODVVVWDIIHQRXJKWLPHWR
FRQÀUPHOLJLELOLW\RIDWWHQGHHV
‡ Set class fees low enough to encourage
attendance, but high enough to fund the
program

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ A comparative study about seat belt
education programs is endorsed by the
1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
The study is relevant to Share the Road Safety
&ODVV 656& EHFDXVHERWKXVH´KLJKO\YLVLEOH
enforcement” with education to change
driving behavior and attitudes1

([DPSOHV
‡ Despite more than 300 requests nationwide for
program materials, only Portland, OR, runs a
WUDLQLQJLQVWHDGRIÀQHVSURJUDP2

157

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Portland
7UDXPD1XUVHV7DON7RXJKDSURJUDPRIWKH3RUWODQGEDVHG/HJDF\
Health System, collaborated with the City of Portland, Multnomah
County courts, Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland Police
Bureau, the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, and Willamette Pedestrian
&RDOLWLRQWRRIIHUHOLJLEOHÀUVWWLPHWUDIÀFRIIHQGHUV³GULYHUV
SHGHVWULDQVDQGELF\FOLVWV³WKHRSWLRQRIWDNLQJD6KDUHWKH5RDG
VDIHW\FODVVLQVWHDGRISD\LQJDÀQH
7LFNHWHGYLRODWRUVZKRSURYLGHWKHFRXUWZLWKWKHLUFODVVFRPSOHWLRQ
FHUWLÀFDWHFDQKDYHWKHLUFLWDWLRQGLVPLVVHGRUGLVFKDUJHG(OLJLEOH
WUDIÀFYLRODWLRQVIDOOZLWKLQWKUHHJHQHUDOFDWHJRULHV
‡ %HLQJLQWKHZURQJSODFHRQWKHURDG VXFKDVDFDULQDELNHODQH
‡ Failure to yield the right of way
‡ The non-­use of safety equipment

0LNH0RUULVRQIURP7UDXPD1XUVHV7DON7RXJKLQ
Portland, OR. Source: Jonathan Maus, Bike Portland

/DZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVZULWLQJWKHFLWDWLRQRUFRXUWVWDIIDWWKH
DUUDLJQPHQWSURFHVVUHIHUWLFNHWHGYLRODWRUVWRWKH6KDUHWKH5RDG
FODVV,QQHDUO\IRXU\HDUVRISURYLGLQJWKHFODVV7177KDVVHHQ
participants. Citation receivers are eligible for a dismissal or discharge
RQO\LIWKH\KDYHQ·WWDNHQWKHVDIHW\FODVVEHIRUH6KDUHWKH5RDG
LQVWUXFWRUVPDLQWDLQDGDWDEDVHRIFODVVDWWHQGHHVDQGFKHFNWKDW
registered students haven’t already participated in the program. The
database includes the citation receiver’s name, date of birth, court
FDVHQXPEHUW\SHRIWUDIÀFYLRODWLRQVRXUFHRIWKHFODVVUHIHUUDODQG
date of class completion. That information is then entered into the
FRXUW·VFRPSXWHUUHFRUGVV\VWHPZLWKLQÀYHGD\VDIWHUHDFKFODVV
The two-­hour discussion is taught twice a month at the 125-­seat Legacy
(PPDQXHOKRVSLWDODXGLWRULXPE\DMXGJHDSROLFHRIÀFHUDWUDXPD
nurse, and either a bicycle or pedestrian advocate. The class explains
Oregon law as it relates to drivers, pedestrians, and bicycles;; presents
YLGHRVSKRWRVDQGVFHQDULRVZKHUHSHRSOHULVNEHLQJKXUWDVDUHVXOW
RIXQVDIHELF\FOLQJZDONLQJDQGGULYLQJEHKDYLRUDQGH[SODLQVWKH
SK\VLFDOHPRWLRQDODQGOHJDOFRQVHTXHQFHVRIWUDIÀFYLRODWLRQVDQG
crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and drivers. At the end of the
FODVVHDFKSDUWLFLSDQWUHFHLYHVDFHUWLÀFDWHRIFRPSOHWLRQZKLFK
KHRUVKHWKHQÀOHVZLWKWKHFRXUWIRUDQDXWRPDWLFRUGLVFUHWLRQDU\
GLVPLVVDORUVHQWHQFHRIGLVFKDUJH GHSHQGLQJRQWKHWUDIÀFYLRODWLRQ  3

1. ,QFUHDVLQJ6HDWEHOWXVHUDWHVLQUXUDOFRPPXQLWLHV1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/airbags/RuralCrashes/pages/IncreaseSBUse.htm      

2. 0RUULVRQ0LNH7UDXPD1XUVHV7DON7RXJK3HUVRQDOFRUUHVSRQGHQFH2FWREHU
3. /HJDF\+HDOWK6\VWHP7UDXPD1XUVHV7DON7RXJK&RXUWRUGHUHGFODVVHV6KDUHWKH5RDG6DIHW\&ODVVKWWSZZZOHJDF\KHDOWKRUJERG\FIP"LG  

Install Red-Light Cameras and
Speed Cameras
'HÀQLWLRQ

5HGOLJKWFDPHUDVDQGVSHHGFDPHUDVDUHDXWRPDWHGWUDIÀF
enforcement systems that photograph vehicles whose drivers run red lights or drive
faster than the posted speed limit. Cameras typically record the date, time of day, time
HODSVHGVLQFHWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHUHGVLJQDO ZKHUHDSSOLFDEOH YHKLFOHVSHHGDQG
OLFHQVHSODWH7LFNHWVRUFLWDWLRQVDUHWKHQPDLOHGWRWKHYHKLFOHRZQHUVEDVHGRQD
review of photographic evidence. Localities typically approach red-­light-­ and speed-­
camera programs by holding either the driver or the registered owner responsible for the
infraction.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Deters would-­be violators1
‡ 5HGOLJKWFDPHUDVVLJQLÀFDQWO\decrease2
ULJKWDQJOHFUDVKHV UHGOLJKWUXQQLQJFUDVKHV 3
‡ Red-­light cameras reduce fatal red-­light-­
running crashes in cities where they are
installed4
‡ Speed cameras reduce all crashes up to 49%,
reduce injury crashes up to 50%, and reduce
crashes involving fatalities and serious injuries
up to 44% in the vicinity of camera sites
‡ Over wider areas, speed cameras reduce
all crashes up to 35% and reduce crashes
involving fatalities and serious injuries up to 
7KHVHWUHQGVZHUHHLWKHUPDLQWDLQHGRU
improved with time5

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Red-­light cameras may increase the number
of rear-­end crashes at signalized intersections
with cameras. (Weighed by the economic
impact and severity of injuries, the study found
WKHRYHUDOOHIIHFWRIFDPHUDVSRVLWLYH 
‡ Safeguarding legal due process in automated
enforcement and penalization

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Implementable on a city-­ or countywide basis
with state authorization
‡ Locations where red-­light running and
VSHHGLQJLPSDLUZDONDELOLW\
‡ Red-­light cameras:
» +LJKULVNLQWHUVHFWLRQVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKH
number of crashes or an analysis of the
number of crashes attributable to red-­light
running;; citation data;; or complaints

» Intersections where an engineering study
concluded that engineering improvements,
driver-­education initiatives, or other
countermeasures would not be effective in
reducing crashes from red-­light running7
‡ Speed cameras:
» School zones
» Construction zones
» Residential areas
» $UHDVQHDUSDUNV
» Areas with many seniors
» Areas with high levels of pedestrian and
bicycle activity

*XLGDQFH
‡ ,QYROYHVWDNHKROGHUVLQFOXGLQJVWDWH
department of motor vehicles, state and local
SROLFHWUDIÀFHQJLQHHULQJGHSDUWPHQWSXEOLF
DWWRUQH\·VRIÀFHSXEOLFLQIRUPDWLRQRIÀFH
the judiciary, community representatives,
advocates, and the photo-­enforcement
services contractor
‡ $YRLGWKHDSSHDUDQFHRIFRQÁLFWRILQWHUHVW
Verify and oversee the contractor and
compensate the contractor solely on the
value of the equipment or services provided
‡ Avoid appearance of a money grab:
Emphasize deterrence through signage and
public outreach, avoid excessive penalties
and late fees, oversee site selection,
adequately fund camera equipment and
RSHUDWLRQVWRDYRLGGHSHQGHQFHRQÀQH
revenue, install supplemental speed-­limit signs
along enforced routes, and conduct audits
‡ Run the program past a legal review
‡ Run an awareness campaign before
implementation and on an ongoing basis
‡ Evaluate program performance and results

159

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Red-­light cameras are endorsed by Federal
+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )+:$ DQG1DWLRQDO
+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 1+76$ 
within a comprehensive approach to
intersection safety
‡ Speed cameras are endorsed by the FHWA
DQG1+76$ZLWKLQDFRPSUHKHQVLYHDSSURDFK
to speed management 9
‡ FHWA published guidance on red-­light-­
camera systems10
‡ FHWA published guidance on speed-­camera
systems11

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

([DPSOHV
More than 550 U.S. localities run red-­light-­
camera programs, including12:
‡ &KDUORWWH1&
‡ Chicago, IL
‡ 1HZ<RUN1<
‡ Sacramento, CA
‡ San Diego, CA

More than 111 jurisdictions installed speed
cameras, including13:
‡ Arizona
‡ Colorado

A red-­light camera
installed in Manchester,
CT. Source: Mira
Hartford, Flickr

‡ Maryland
‡ Oregon
‡ Washington

Automated enforcement in Chicago, IL. Source:
Tripp, Flickr.

1. ,QVXUDQFH,QVWLWXWHIRU+LJKZD\6DIHW\1HZV5HOHDVH&DPHUDHQIRUFHPHQWLQODUJHFLWLHVUHGXFHVUDWHRIIDWDOUHGOLJKWUXQQLQJFUDVKHVE\SHUFHQW)HEUXDU\
http://www.iihs.org/news/rss/pr020111.html
2. Safety Evaluation of Red-­Light Cameras. April 2005. KWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYSXEOLFDWLRQVUHVHDUFKVDIHW\FIP
3. Hu, Wen;; McCartt, Anne T., Teoh;; Eric R. Effects of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Fatal Crashes in Large US Cities. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. February 2011.
4. ,QVXUDQFH,QVWLWXWHIRU+LJKZD\6DIHW\1HZV5HOHDVH&DPHUDHQIRUFHPHQWLQODUJHFLWLHVUHGXFHVUDWHRIIDWDOUHGOLJKWUXQQLQJFUDVKHVE\SHUFHQW)HEUXDU\
http://www.iihs.org/news/rss/pr020111.html
5. :LOVRQ&:LOOLV&+HQGULN]-./H%URFTXH5%HOODP\16SHHGFDPHUDVIRUWKHSUHYHQWLRQRIURDGWUDIÀFLQMXULHVDQGGHDWKV7KH&RFKUDQH/LEUDU\,VVXH
Oxfordshire, England. As reported by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. KWWSZZZLLKVRUJUHVHDUFKTDQGDVSHHGBODZHQIDVS[FLWH 
Safety Evaluation of Red-­Light Cameras. April 2005. KWWSZZZIKZDGRWJRYSXEOLFDWLRQVUHVHDUFKVDIHW\FIP
7. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ1DWLRQDO+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ*XLGDQFHIRUXVLQJUHGOLJKWFDPHUDV0DUFKhttp://www.google.com/
XUO"VD W UFW M T UHGOLJKWFDPHUDVZKHUHORFDWLRQDSSURSULDWH VRXUFH ZHE FG  YHG &)4)M$' XUO KWWS$))ZZZQKWVDJRY)SHRSOH)LQ
MXU\)HQIRUFH)JXLGDQFH)JXLGDQFHUHSRUWSGI HL B:7/X*Y+*$+JZE7S&J XVJ $)4M&1+R[V4B(UXSGUJBM%)$(\J4\[0$ 
)HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ2IÀFHRI6DIHW\5HG/LJKW&DPHUD4 $VKWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYLQWHUVHFWLRQUHGOLJKWFDPHUDVTDVFIPT
9. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ([HFXWLYH6XPPDU\6SHHG(QIRUFHPHQW&DPHUD6\VWHPV2SHUDWLRQDO*XLGHOLQHV0DUFK
KWWSVDIHW\IKZDGRWJRYVSHHGPJWUHIBPDWVIKZDVDKWP    

10. Federal Highway Administration. Red Light Camera Systems. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/redlight/cameras/fhwasa05002/fhwasa05002.pdf
11. )HGHUDO+LJKZD\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6SHHG(QIRUFHPHQW&DPHUD6\VWHPV2SHUDWLRQDO*XLGHOLQHV0DUFKKWWSZZZJRRJOHFRPXUO"VD W UFW M T VSHHG
HQIRUFHPHQWFDPHUDV\VWHPVRSHUDWLRQDOJXLGHOLQHV VRXUFH ZHE FG  YHG &)04)M$$ XUO KWWS$))ZZZQKWVDJRY)'27)1+76$)7UDIÀF 
,QMXU\&RQWURO)$UWLFOHV)$VVRFLDWHG)LOHV)SGI HL 1L7\1VG$+US=MP&J XVJ $)4M&1(+Y($J.2%))46.K1PJ4-FQT4
12. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Communities using red light and/or speed cameras. May 2012. http://www.iihs.org/laws/cameramap.aspx
13. Ibid. 

Strengthen
Street-Crossing Ordinances
'HÀQLWLRQ

7KLVWDFWLFHQWDLOVDPHQGLQJH[LVWLQJVWDWHYHKLFOHDQGWUDIÀFVWDWXWHVWR
JLYHSHGHVWULDQVDZD\WRVLJQDOWRRQFRPLQJWUDIÀFWKDWWKH\LQWHQGWRFURVVEHIRUH
having to step into the roadway.

%HQHÀWV

*XLGDQFH

‡ Allows pedestrians to exercise their right-­of-­
way without putting themselves in the path of
oncoming vehicles

‡ Retain all pedestrian right-­of-­way statute
language

‡ Teaches safe pedestrian practices to children
and seniors
‡ &ODULÀHVWKHODZIRUSROLFHRIÀFHUV

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ Legal fees to create the statute amendment
‡ Resource requirements to advocate for the
amendment and build legislative support

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local legislature or ordinance
‡ State legislature

‡ $GGDGHÀQLWLRQRI´FURVVLQJWKHURDGZD\µWR
WKHGHÀQLWLRQVVHFWLRQRIYHKLFOHDQGWUDIÀF
laws
‡ &ODULI\DQGH[SDQGWKHGHÀQLWLRQRI´FURVVLQJ
the roadway” to mean when any part or
extension of a pedestrian—eg., foot, cane tip,
wheelchair, leashed animal, or crutch—moves
into the roadway and the pedestrian intends
to cross
‡ Create a strategic coalition with nontraditional
partners, including the disabled community,
seniors, advocates for the blind, and
GRJZDONHUV

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ In the absence of endorsements from national
associations or governmental departments,
cities are turning to best practices employed
by other municipalities

([DPSOHV
‡ Portland, OR 

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Oregon
Ray Thomas, an Oregon bicycle and pedestrian lawyer, and the
Willamette Pedestrian Coalition had been trying for years to induce
GULYHUVWR\LHOGPRUHFRQVLVWHQWO\WRSHGHVWULDQVLQFURVVZDONV2UHJRQ·V
H[LVWLQJVWDWXWHVSHFLÀHGWKDWDGULYHUVKDOOVWRSDQGUHPDLQVWRSSHGIRU
DSHGHVWULDQZKHQKHRUVKHLVFURVVLQJWKHURDGLQDFURVVZDON

*RYHUQRU-RKQ.LW]KDEHURI2UHJRQVLJQLQJWKH
street-­crossing bill into law August 24, 2011.
Source: Ray Thomas, Swanson, Thomas & Coon

But how could pedestrians “trigger” this statute to get drivers to yield
to them—without putting themselves into the path of an approaching
car? So Thomas and the Willamette Pedestrian Coalition tried to clarify
the existing statute language regarding pedestrian rights-­of-­way in
FURVVZDONVWRPDNHLWHDVLHUIRUGULYHUVWRXQGHUVWDQGDQGWKHSROLFHWR
enforce. The team considered the phrase “crossing the roadway” and

SURSRVHGDGGLQJWKHWHUPWRWKHVWDWXWH·VGHÀQLWLRQVVHFWLRQ7KHSURSRVHGGHÀQLWLRQOLVWHGGHVFULSWLYHVFHQDULRVWKDW
would indicate to drivers when pedestrians were “crossing the roadway.” 
256´&URVVLQJµRU´&URVVµWKH5RDGZD\LQD&URVVZDON
Crossing or Cross the Roadway in a Crosswalk occurs when any part or extension of a pedestrian, including but
not limited to a foot, wheelchair wheel, cane, crutch, bicycle tire, or leashed animal, moves into the roadway
and the pedestrian intends to cross the roadway.
(DFKVFHQDULRZDVGHVLJQHGWRFRUUHVSRQGWRDVXSSRUWLQJFRQVWLWXHQF\HJIRRWIRUVORZZDONLQJVHQLRUVELF\FOH
wheel" for cyclists, "wheelchair" for the disabled constituency, "cane" for the blind community, and "leashed animal" for
GRJZDONHUV7KRPDVDGGHGWKHODVWSKUDVH´DQGWKHSHGHVWULDQLQWHQGVWRFURVVWKHURDGZD\µLQUHVSRQVHWRSROLWLFDO
concerns that pedestrians might try to mislead drivers contrary to the bill’s intention.
Thomas and the Willamette Coalition then created a coalition based on these constituencies and hired a lobbyist,
whose salary was paid for by the Willamette Pedestrian Coalition and Bicycle Transportation Alliance. While this bill was
PDNLQJLWVZD\WKURXJKWKHOHJLVODWLYHSURFHVV2UHJRQH[SHULHQFHGDSROLWLFDOEDFNODVKDJDLQVWWKHF\FOLVWFRPPXQLW\
As a result, Thomas highlighted the elderly, disabled, and blind advocates within the coalition. He wrote a public letter
of support and attached it to the cover of the bill draft, which proved instrumental in contextualizing legislation for
politicians. Once the bill made it to the legislative council, its language was adopted wholesale. Thomas also prepared
testimonials for the public hearing about the bill, many of which came from former clients he’d represented over the
\HDUV7KHELOOSDVVHGERWKKRXVHVDQG*RYHUQRU.LW]KDEHUVLJQHGLWLQWRODZ$XJXVW1

1. Thomas, Ray. Personal correspondence. January 24, 2012. 

Install Pedestrian-Traffic
Managers at Problematic
Intersections
'HÀQLWLRQ

3HGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHUV 370V DUHWUDLQHGXQLIRUPHGLQGLYLGXDOV
that direct pedestrians across intersections or along crowded, mixed-­use paths where
FRQÁLFWVEHWZHHQSHGHVWULDQVFDUVDQGRUELF\FOHVDUHIUHTXHQW:KLOHWKH\DUHQRW
DXWKRUL]HGWRGLUHFWYHKLFOHWUDIÀFSHGHVWULDQPDQDJHUVFDQXVHWKHLUDUPVYRLFHV
whistles, or physical barriers to establish boundaries between modes of transportation.

%HQHÀWV
‡ 5HGXFHVSHGHVWULDQYHKLFXOHFRQÁLFWV
‡ Improves quality of life for residents by
GHFUHDVLQJKRQNLQJDQGEORFNHGLQWHUVHFWLRQV
‡ &ODULÀHVDQGUHLQIRUFHVVDIHURDGEHKDYLRU

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 3RWHQWLDOGLIÀFXOW\LQHVWDEOLVKLQJDXWKRULW\ZLWK
pedestrians and drivers
‡ Manpower and supervision costs

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Intersections with high rates of collisions
between pedestrians, vehicles, and/or
bicycles
‡ Congested intersections where vehicles
IUHTXHQWO\EORFNFURVVZDONV
‡ Any intersection with high volumes of
SHGHVWULDQDQGRUYHKLFOHWUDIÀFLQFOXGLQJ
construction sites, shopping malls, special-­
event venues, schools, hospitals, and religious
institutions

*XLGDQFH
‡ &UHDWHDFRPPLWWHHRIWUDIÀFHQJLQHHUVODZ
HQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHVDQGPHPEHUVRIWKH
community to identify problem locations and
RYHUVHHSHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHPHQWLQ
those areas
‡ Consider the following when assigning PTMs:
» Vulnerable pedestrians
» Width of the street and/or number of lanes
» Length of sight distance
» Vehicle speeds
» 3UHVHQFHRIWUDIÀFVLJQDOVVLJQDOVDQG
SDYHPHQWPDUNLQJV
» 7KHQXPEHURIVDIHJDSVLQWUDIÀF
» 9ROXPHRIWUDIÀFDQGSHGHVWULDQV 

‡ Hire pedestrian managers with experience
in managing people and vehicles, such as
UHWLUHGWUDIÀFHQIRUFHPHQWDJHQWVRUSROLFH
RIÀFHUV
‡ Train employees using nationally recognized
WUDIÀFVDIHW\VWDQGDUGV
‡ 7UDLQHPSOR\HHVXVLQJFODVVURRPDQGÀHOG
exercises covering:
» %DVLFWUDIÀFODZVLQFOXGLQJSDYHPHQW
PDUNLQJVDQGVLJQDJH
» :RUN]RQHVDIHW\HOHPHQWV
» 3URSHUXVHRIWUDIÀFVLJQVDQGVLJQDOV
» 0HWKRGVRIVLJQDOLQJGULYHUVDQGWDNLQJ
DGYDQWDJHRIJDSVLQWUDIÀF
» Crossing procedures and way to teach them
to pedestrians
» 6LWHVSHFLÀFWUDIÀFIDFWRUVDQGSRWHQWLDO
WUDIÀFKD]DUGV
» 3URIHVVLRQDOZRUNUHVSRQVLELOLWLHV
» Proper use of safety equipment
» Procedures for crashes
‡ Design mandatory pedestrian-­manager
XQLIRUPVWREHFOHDUO\YLVLEOHDQGLGHQWLÀDEOH
to both drivers and pedestrians
‡ Differentiate the mandatory pedestrian-­
manager uniforms from those of regular law-­
HQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUV1

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ 7KH0DQXDORQ8QLIRUP7UDIÀF&RQWURO
'HYLFHV 087&' SURYLGHVJXLGDQFHRQ
school crossing guards but doesn’t address
pedestrian management

([DPSOHV
‡ 1HZ<RUN1<

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: New York
The streets leading up to the Holland Tunnel in Manhattan experience
GDLO\WUDIÀFFRQJHVWLRQ&DUVURXWLQHO\EORFNLQWHUVHFWLRQVDQG
FURVVZDONVIRUFLQJSHGHVWULDQVWRZHDYHLQEHWZHHQWUXFNVDQGYDQVWR
FURVVWKHURDG7KHVHWUDIÀFSUREOHPVDUHHVSHFLDOO\DFXWHDORQJWKHVL[
ODQHVRI9DULFN6WUHHWZKHUHEORFNHGLQWHUVHFWLRQVSUHYHQWFURVVVWUHHW
WUDIÀFIURPJHWWLQJWKURXJKOHDGLQJWRH[FHVVLYHKRUQKRQNLQJ

3HGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHUVRQWKHVWUHHWVRI1HZ
<RUN1<Source: Sam Schwartz Engineering

The Hudson Square Connection, which is the affected neighborhood’s
%XVLQHVV,PSURYHPHQW'LVWULFW %,' KLUHG6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ
66( SHGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHUV 370V DWVHOHFWORFDWLRQVDORQJ
9DULFN6WUHHWWRNHHSLQWHUVHFWLRQVDQGFURVVZDONVFOHDUWRLPSURYH
SHGHVWULDQVDIHW\DQGNHHSFURVVVWUHHWWUDIÀFPRYLQJ66(WKHQ
FRPSDUHGWUDIÀFDQGTXDOLW\RIOLIHFRQGLWLRQVZLWKDQGZLWKRXW370V
RQ9DULFN6WUHHW,WVVWXG\VKRZHGWKDW370VKHOSHGUHGXFHFURVVZDON
EORFNDJHVE\XSWRLQWHUVHFWLRQVEORFNDJHVE\XSWRDQG
KRUQKRQNVE\XSWR,QDGGLWLRQWRWKHPHDVXUHGEHQHÀWV
ÀHOGREVHUYDWLRQVVKRZHGUHGXFHGMD\ZDONLQJDQGJHQHUDOO\VDIHU
pedestrian behavior at the locations with PTMs.2

3HGHVWULDQWUDIÀFPDQDJHUVRQWKHVWUHHWVRI1HZ<RUN1<
Source: Sam Schwartz Engineering
1. 6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ3HGHVWULDQ 7UDIÀF0DQDJHPHQW3URJUDP*XLGHOLQHV
2. 6DP6FKZDUW](QJLQHHULQJ3HGHVWULDQ 7UDIÀF0DQDJHPHQWRQ9DULFN6WUHHW3LORW3URJUDP(YDOXDWLRQ6WXG\-DQXDU\, 

Organize Pedestrian
Safety-Enforcement Operations
'HÀQLWLRQ

Pedestrian safety-­enforcement operations are police-­run public-­
education and enforcement efforts to improve driver compliance to pedestrian
\LHOGODZV'XULQJDQRSHUDWLRQRQHSROLFHRIÀFHURUFRPPXQLW\YROXQWHHUDFWVDVD
SHGHVWULDQZKLOHEHLQJPRQLWRUHGE\DQRWKHURIÀFHUZKRWKHQSXOOVRYHUQRQ\LHOGLQJ
drivers to give warnings or citations.

%HQHÀWV
‡ Raises driver awareness of pedestrian right-­of-­
way
‡ Raises public awareness of pedestrian right-­
of-­way
‡ Reduces number of pedestrian complaints at
intersections
‡ Reduces collisions, injuries, and economic
losses associated with crashes

&RQVLGHUDWLRQV
‡ 3URYLGLQJDGHTXDWHVWDIÀQJDQGIXQGLQJ

‡ Invite local departments of transportation
or pedestrian-­advocacy groups to provide
educational and safety materials at the
operation
‡ Reach out to pedestrian advocates, police
agencies, and local government
‡ Alert approaching drivers of the operation to
emphasize the educational aspect of event
‡ $VVLJQDPLQLPXPRIÀYHRIÀFHUVWRWKH
operation location:

‡ Potential negative public reaction to
enforcement operation

» 2QHWRWZRSODLQFORWKHVRIÀFHUVRU
FRPPXQLW\YROXQWHHUV SHGHVWULDQGHFR\V 

‡ Long-­term impacts of operation on pedestrian
safety

» One spotter

$SSURSULDWH&RQWH[WV
‡ Local
‡ State

» 7ZRRUPRUHXQLIRUPHGRIÀFHUVLQFKDVH
vehicles
‡ 3URYLGHUDGLRVWRDOORIÀFHUVLQWKHRSHUDWLRQ
for better coordination

*XLGDQFH

‡ Clothe decoy pedestrians in highly visible
clothing. Effectiveness does not depend on
ZKHWKHUWKHRIÀFHULVLQXQLIRUPRUSODLQFORWKHV

‡ 6HHNIXQGLQJVRXUFHVVXFKDV1DWLRQDO
+LJKZD\7UDIÀF6DIHW\$GPLQLVWUDWLRQJUDQWV
which are administered by a state highway-­
safety agency

‡ 6WDWLRQDQRWKHURIÀFHUQHDUE\WRSXOORYHU
and issue warnings or citations (possibly with
WUDLQLQJSURJUDPVLQVWHDGRIÀQHV WRDQ\
violators

‡ Schedule operations in the daytime in clear
weather

‡ Record the operation to show in court, if
needed

‡ Select locations where pedestrian accidents
have occurred and/or where pedestrians
UHSRUWGLIÀFXOW\JHWWLQJDFURVVWKHVWUHHW

‡ Inform drivers of their right to contest the
citation in court

‡ 0HDVXUHDQGFDOFXODWHEUDNLQJDQGVLJKWOLQH
distance for each operation in advance to
ensure accurate citations
‡ 1RWLI\WKHSXEOLFLQDGYDQFHRIWKHWLPH
location, and purpose of the planned
pedestrian safety-­enforcement operation
through press releases, news articles, and TV
reports to avoid charges of entrapment and to
promote awareness of pedestrians 

‡ 1RWLI\HOHFWHGRIÀFLDOVDQGLQYLWHWKHPWR
witness the operation

‡ Document and publicize the operation and its
results to the public and media before, during,
and afterward1

3URIHVVLRQDO&RQVHQVXV
‡ Pedestrian enforcement operations
are eligible for federal, state, and local
transportation-­safety grants

Tactics

Advocacy
Policy
Land Use
Design & Engineering
Encouragement & Education
Enforcement

Case Study: Las Vegas
/DV9HJDV19KDVWULHGWRDGGUHVVLWVKLJKUDWHVRISHGHVWULDQIDWDOLWLHV
through targeted enforcement operations to reinforce safe driver and
SHGHVWULDQEHKDYLRUV1HYDGDIXQGVWKHVHHQIRUFHPHQWRSHUDWLRQVE\
PDNLQJSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\HOLJLEOHIRUWDUJHWHGHQIRUFHPHQWIHGHUDO
KLJKZD\VDIHW\JUDQWV6WDIÀQJOLPLWDWLRQVDUHDGGUHVVHGWKURXJKWKH
Joining Forces program, which is a multi-­jurisdictional law-­enforcement
program created by a statewide memorandum of understanding that
DOORZVODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVLQRQHVWDWHMXULVGLFWLRQWRLVVXHWLFNHWV
in another for targeted-­enforcement operations concerning driving
XQGHUWKHLQÁXHQFHVSHHGVHDWEHOWVDQGSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\
/DZHQIRUFHPHQWRIÀFHUVZRUNZLWK819/6DIH&RPPXQLW\3DUWQHUVKLS
6&3 SURJUDPDORFDOWUDQVSRUWDWLRQVDIHW\DGYRFDF\RUJDQL]DWLRQ
WRSODQSHGHVWULDQVDIHW\HQIRUFHPHQWRSHUDWLRQV2IÀFHUVVHOHFW
WKHORFDWLRQRIWKHRSHUDWLRQLQKLJKULVNDUHDV EDVHGRQRQJRLQJ
GDWDFROOHFWLRQ DQGUXQWKHRSHUDWLRQEDVHGRQDWZRGD\WUDLQLQJ
provided by SCP.

Top: Police in Alpharetta, GA, conducting a
pedestrian safety-­enforcement operation.
Source: PEDS.org, Flickr
Center: Georgia State University Police conducting
a pedestrian safety-­enforcement operation,
Atlanta, GA. Source: PEDS.org, Flickr
Bottom: Georgia State University Police conducting
a pedestrian safety-­enforcement operation,
Atlanta, GA. Source: PEDS.org, Flickr

Before and after each event, SCP performs media outreach, which is
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the need to yield to crossing pedestrians. The more media attention
a pedestrian safety-­enforcement operation receives, the more that
safety message is reinforced to the general public. The most recent
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published nationwide and 175 million viewers were estimated to have
seen it on the evening news. 2

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‡ Madison, WI
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‡ Utah
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