Forms of Energy Energy is the ability to do work.

It is one of the basic human needs and is an essential component in any development program. In this lesson, we are going to look at the forms that energy exists, namely: heat, chemical, and kinetic. These forms of energy may be transformed from one form to the other, usually with losses.

a. KINETIC ENERGY Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object which has motion whether it be vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another). To keep matters simple, we will focus upon translational kinetic energy. The amount of translational kinetic energy (from here on, the phrase kinetic energy will refer to translational kinetic energy) which an object has depends upon two variables: the mass (m) of the object and the speed (v) of the object. The following equation is used to represent the kinetic energy (KE) of an object.

Where: m = mass of object v = speed of object This equation reveals that the kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to the square of its speed. That means that for a twofold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of four. For a threefold

increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of nine. And for a fourfold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of sixteen. The kinetic energy is dependent upon the square of the speed. As it is often said, an equation is not merely a recipe for algebraic problem-solving, but also a guide to thinking about the relationship between quantities. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity1; it does not have a direction. Unlike velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum, the kinetic energy of an object is completely described by magnitude alone. Like work and potential energy, the standard metric unit of measurement for kinetic energy is the Joule. The different forms of kinetic energy are radiant energy, which includes light, x-rays and radio waves, heat, motion and sound.

b. CHEMICAL ENERGY Chemical energy is one form of potential energy, along with mechanical energy, gravitational energy, nuclear energy and electrical energy. All of these forms of energy are stored within an object and are converted to forms of kinetic energy when a force or change is applied. As stated by the first law of thermodynamics, energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be converted from one form to another. During chemical reactions, molecules can be created or destroyed. If a product is created, the chemical energy is stored in the bonds that make up the molecules. If something is broken down, the chemical energy is releases, usually as heat. If a reaction releases energy, it is called exothermic, and if it absorbs energy, it is called endothermic. One example of chemical energy is that found in the food that we eat. Stored in the bonds of the molecules that make up are food is energy. When we
1

Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone.

eat the food, the large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body. The process of breaking down and using the food by our cells is called respiration. During respiration, the chemical energy is converted to heat, kinetic energy and other forms of chemical energy, like that stored in the fat cells in our body. Food is just one example of a fuel - it is how animals, including humans, fuel their bodies. Other forms of fuel include wood and chemicals, such as petroleum. When wood is burned, the chemical energy within the cells of the wood break and heat is released. In the engine of a car or truck, the energy in the gasoline is converted to heat and motion, to make the car move. Perhaps the most convenient form in which to store energy is chemical energy. The foods we eat, combined with the oxygen we breathe, store energy that our bodies extract and convert into mechanical and thermal energy. The fuels that we burn in our automobiles, furnaces, and campfires also store energy in chemical form. Batteries store chemical energy as well, for later retrieval in the form of electrical energy. c. THERMAL ENERGY Energy is in essence the ability and power to perform tasks and do work. Thermal energy is this force that takes the form of heat. Heat is apparently the motion of molecules and atoms inside a substance. If the molecules and atoms vibrate rapidly inside a substance the hotter that substance will be and the greater the thermal energy produced and radiated by it would be. There is a close correlation between heat and temperature and if you increase the heat of a substance by applying energy, thereby causing the molecules and atoms inside the substance to travel or vibrate more rapidly you invariable increase the substance’s temperature. However, in the instance of water for example, once it reaches its boiling point you cannot raise its temperature further by increasing its

thermal energy. In this case the water would be converted into steam in the process of evaporation. The sun is the principal source of heat and its core is a mass of rapidlymoving gas particles. The sun’s radiated heat provides our planet with a very powerful stream of thermal, solar energy. Other forms of energy can also be transformed into thermal energy. For example, the burning of fossil fuels utilizes combustion to convert the stored solar energy in the fossil fuel (originally plants that absorbed sunlight in order to produce food) into thermal energy. We use thermal energy to generate electricity, heat our homes and enable steam-driven processes. The uses of thermal energy require heat to be transferred from a hot substance to a cold substance, which increases the temperature of the cold substance and thereby results in a change of state – whether from solid to liquid, liquid to gas, etc. Heat transference happens chiefly by three methods, or by a combination of them. 1. Conduction, where thermal energy is transferred through a solid substance or from one substance to another by means of transferring heat from one molecule to another, causing the molecules to get hotter thereby vibrating and colliding more frequently causing additional ones to become hotter and so on until the energy has sufficiently been dissipated into nearby molecules. Heat travels through a substance, and its value as a conductor is reliant upon its molecular structure. 2. Convection is the next process and in this process heat is transferred by the movement of hot particles. Convection occurs in liquids and gases, but not in solids as their particles are unable to move freely. Convected heat always travels to a colder place, and the hot particles that contain thermal energy are the ones

that travel. As an example, convection heaters blow out hot air particles which then disperse into cooler air. 3. Radiation, the sun is a good example of this process. The sun’s radiated energy is able to travel across space due to the fact that it does not need any particles of matter – unlike the processes of conduction and convection. This kind of radiant energy travels in electromagnetic waves and these waves are divided according to wavelength. An example of the application of this kind of energy is in the use of infrared lamps used to ease muscular pain. These lamps produce thermal heat generated by electricity which is transferred by radiation to the body.

QUIZ (3 pts) 1. Determine the kinetic energy of a 625-kg roller coaster car that is moving with a speed of 18.3 m/s. Solution: KE = 0.5*m*v2 KE = (0.5) * (625 kg) * (18.3 m/s)2 KE = 1.05 x105 Joules (3 pts) 2. Give one example for each kind of heat transfer. a. Conduction b. Convection c. Radiation (2 pts) 3. Give one example for chemical energy conversion. (2 pts) 4. Give the Equation used to represent Kinetic Energy. Answer:

FORMS OF ENERGY a. Kinetic Energy – the energy of motion – a Scalar quantity Eq. for Kinetic Energy:

Example of Kinetic Energy: Ball A

Ball B

Different forms of kinetic energy: 1. radiant energy; 2. x-rays and radio waves; 3. heat; 4. motion; and 5. sound

b. Chemical Energy – one form of potential energy Example of stored Chemical Energy:

c. Thermal Energy – force that takes the form of heat

Thermal Energy is transferred from the human (higher oC) to the Ice Water (lower o C)

Not hot or cold (thermal equilibrium)

Hot thermal energy from boiling water (higher oC) is transferred to the human (lower oC)

Water filled w/ ice cubes (0 oC)

Warm water (37 oC) Human body (37 oC)

boiling water (100 oC)

Three Methods of Heat Transfer 1. Conduction – is the process of thermal energy transfer without any flow of the material medium.

2. Convection – is the transfer of thermal energy by means of currents in a fluid (liquid/ gas).

3. Radiation – is the continual emission of infrared waves from the surface of all bodies, transmitted without the aid of a medium.

Energy is transferred from one object to another when a reaction takes place. Energy comes in many forms and can be transferred from one object to another as heat, light, or motion, to name a few. For the blue ball to move to the position of the green ball, energy must be given to the blue ball. This energy would be in the form of motion, with the person lifting the blue ball to a higher level. This form of energy is called kinetic energy.

In the picture above the person lifts the blue ball over his/her head so that is the same distance above the ground as the green ball. In order to raise the ball he/she uses energy in the form of movement.

INTRODUCTION to Thermal Energy:
What causes transfer of thermal energy?  difference in temperature Example: Why do you feel cold when you touch ice water?  Human body temperature (approx 37°C) is warmer then ice water( approx 0°C). Hence, when a human is in contact with ice water, he will feel cold. Thermal energy form the human had been transferred to the ice water. Hence, the human will feel cold. However, Thermal Energy will not be transferred when there is thermal equilibrium (no difference in temperature). Thus, there will be no gain or loss in Thermal Energy. (Refer to picture)

Thermal Energy is transferred from the human (higher oC) to the Ice Water (lower o C)

Not hot or cold (thermal equilibrium)

Hot thermal energy from boiling water (higher oC) is transferred to the human (lower oC)

Water filled w/ ice cubes (0 oC)

Warm water (37 oC) Human body (37 oC)

boiling water (100 oC)

Radiation Definition: radiation is the continual emission of infrared waves from the surface of all bodies, transmitted without the aid of a medium. -Emitted from the surface of all bodies -Does not require a medium -Can take place in a vacuum -Continual emission of thermal energy in the form of infrared waves Sun: emits electromagnetic waves (infrared waves) -Infrared waves has radiant heat (thermal energy) -Thermal energy reaches the Earth by radiation -Impossible by conduction or convection because of the vacuum (*conduction and convection requires a medium to take place and convection can only be set up in fluids (gases/ liquids))

Forms of Energy Energy is the ability to do work. It is one of the basic human needs and is an essential component in any development program. In this lesson, we are going to look at the forms that energy exists, namely: heat, chemical, and kinetic. These forms of energy may be transformed from one form to the other, usually with losses.

a. KINETIC ENERGY Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object which has motion - whether it be vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another). To keep matters simple, we will focus upon translational kinetic energy. The amount of translational kinetic energy (from here on, the phrase kinetic energy will refer to translational kinetic energy) which an object has depends upon two variables: the mass (m) of the object and the speed (v) of the object. The following equation is used to represent the kinetic energy (KE) of an object.

Where: m = mass of object v = speed of object This equation reveals that the kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to the square of its speed. That means that for a twofold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of four. For a threefold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of nine. And for a fourfold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of sixteen. The kinetic energy is dependent upon the square of the speed. As it is often said, an equation is not merely a recipe for algebraic problem-solving, but also a guide to thinking about the relationship between quantities. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity2; it does not have a direction. Unlike velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum, the kinetic energy of an object is completely described by magnitude alone. Like work and potential energy, the standard metric unit of measurement for kinetic energy is the Joule. The different forms of kinetic energy are radiant energy, which includes light, xrays and radio waves, heat, motion and sound.

b. CHEMICAL ENERGY
2

Scalars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone.

Chemical energy is one form of potential energy, along with mechanical energy, gravitational energy, nuclear energy and electrical energy. All of these forms of energy are stored within an object and are converted to forms of kinetic energy when a force or change is applied. As stated by the first law of thermodynamics, energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be converted from one form to another. During chemical reactions, molecules can be created or destroyed. If a product is created, the chemical energy is stored in the bonds that make up the molecules. If something is broken down, the chemical energy is releases, usually as heat. If a reaction releases energy, it is called exothermic, and if it absorbs energy, it is called endothermic. One example of chemical energy is that found in the food that we eat. Stored in the bonds of the molecules that make up are food is energy. When we eat the food, the large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body. The process of breaking down and using the food by our cells is called respiration. During respiration, the chemical energy is converted to heat, kinetic energy and other forms of chemical energy, like that stored in the fat cells in our body. Food is just one example of a fuel - it is how animals, including humans, fuel their bodies. Other forms of fuel include wood and chemicals, such as petroleum. When wood is burned, the chemical energy within the cells of the wood break and heat is released. In the engine of a car or truck, the energy in the gasoline is converted to heat and motion, to make the car move. Perhaps the most convenient form in which to store energy is chemical energy. The foods we eat, combined with the oxygen we breathe, store energy that our bodies extract and convert into mechanical and thermal energy. The fuels that we burn in our automobiles, furnaces, and campfires also store energy in chemical form. Batteries store chemical energy as well, for later retrieval in the form of electrical energy. c. THERMAL ENERGY Energy is in essence the ability and power to perform tasks and do work. Thermal energy is this force that takes the form of heat. Heat is apparently the motion of molecules and atoms inside a substance. If the molecules and atoms vibrate rapidly inside a substance the hotter that substance will be and the greater the thermal energy produced and radiated by it would be. There is a close correlation between heat and temperature and if you increase the heat of a substance by applying energy, thereby causing the molecules and atoms inside the substance to travel or vibrate more rapidly you invariable increase the substance’s temperature. However, in the instance of water for example, once it reaches its boiling point you cannot raise its temperature further by increasing its thermal energy. In this case the water would be converted into steam in the process of evaporation. The sun is the principal source of heat and its core is a mass of rapidly-moving gas particles. The sun’s radiated heat provides our planet with a very powerful stream of thermal, solar energy. Other forms of energy can also be transformed into thermal energy. For example, the burning of fossil fuels utilizes combustion to convert the stored solar energy in the fossil fuel (originally plants that absorbed sunlight in order to produce

food) into thermal energy. We use thermal energy to generate electricity, heat our homes and enable steam-driven processes. The uses of thermal energy require heat to be transferred from a hot substance to a cold substance, which increases the temperature of the cold substance and thereby results in a change of state – whether from solid to liquid, liquid to gas, etc. Heat transference happens chiefly by three methods, or by a combination of them. 1. Conduction, where thermal energy is transferred through a solid substance or from one substance to another by means of transferring heat from one molecule to another, causing the molecules to get hotter thereby vibrating and colliding more frequently causing additional ones to become hotter and so on until the energy has sufficiently been dissipated into nearby molecules. Heat travels through a substance, and its value as a conductor is reliant upon its molecular structure. 2. Convection is the next process and in this process heat is transferred by the movement of hot particles. Convection occurs in liquids and gases, but not in solids as their particles are unable to move freely. Convected heat always travels to a colder place, and the hot particles that contain thermal energy are the ones that travel. As an example, convection heaters blow out hot air particles which then disperse into cooler air. 3. Radiation, the sun is a good example of this process. The sun’s radiated energy is able to travel across space due to the fact that it does not need any particles of matter – unlike the processes of conduction and convection. This kind of radiant energy travels in electromagnetic waves and these waves are divided according to wavelength. An example of the application of this kind of energy is in the use of infrared lamps used to ease muscular pain. These lamps produce thermal heat generated by electricity which is transferred by radiation to the body.

RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Boni Ave., Mandaluyong City College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

In Partial Fulfillment of the Subject: ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Report: Forms of Energy a. Kinetic Energy b. Thermal Energy c. Chemical Energy

Submitted to: Engr. Mario Barerra IE Professor

Submitted by: Lannie P. Faustino Marianie M. Mariño BS Industrial Engineering CEIT-06-1001A Dec. 7, 2010