Potential Energy An object can store energy as the result of its position.

For example, the heavy ball of a demolition machine is storing energy when it is held at an elevated position. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Similarly, a drawn bow is able to store energy as the result of its position. When assuming its usual position (i.e., when not drawn), there is no energy stored in the bow. Yet when its position is altered from its usual equilibrium position, the bow is able to store energy by virtue of its position. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.

“Potential energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth's gravitational field. “ The potential energy of an object in this case is given by the relation:

PE = mgh
Where: PE = Energy (in Joules) m = mass (in kilograms) g = gravitational acceleration of the earth (9.8 m/sec2) h = height above earth's surface (in meters)

Mass Energy Mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content. The mass of a body as measured on a scale is always equal to the total energy inside, divided by a constant c2 that changes the units appropriately:

where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum, which is 299,792,458 meters per second. In the formula, c2 is the conversion factor required to convert from units of mass to units of energy. The formula does not depend on a specific system of units. Using the International System of Units, joules are used to measure energy, kilograms for mass, meters per second for speed. Note that 1 joule equals 1 kg·m2/s2. In unit-specific terms, E (in joules) = m (in kilograms) multiplied by (299,792,458 m/s)2. In natural units, the speed of light is set equal to 1, and the formula becomes an identity. Conservation of mass and energy The concept of mass–energy equivalence unites the concepts of conservation of mass and conservation of energy, allowing particles which have rest mass to be converted to other forms of energy which have the same mass but require motion, such as kinetic energy, heat, or light. Kinetic energy or light can also be converted to particles which have mass. The total mass inside an isolated (totally closed) system remains constant over time for any single observer in an inertial frame, because energy cannot be created or destroyed and, in all of its forms, trapped energy has mass. According to the theory of relativity, mass and energy as commonly understood are two names for the same thing, and one is not changed to the other. Rather, neither one appears without the other. Thus, when energy changes type and leaves a system, it takes its mass with it.

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Electromagnetic radiation energy radiated in the form of a wave as a result of the motion of electric charges. A moving charge gives rise to a magnetic field, and if the motion is changing (accelerated), then the magnetic field varies and in turn produces an electric field. These interacting electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to one another and also to the direction of propagation of the energy. Thus, an electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave. If the direction of the electric field is constant, the wave is said to be polarized. Electromagnetic radiation does not require a material medium and can travel through a vacuum. The theory of electromagnetic radiation was developed by James Clerk Maxwell and published in 1865. He showed that the speed of propagation of electromagnetic radiation should be identical with that of light , about 186,000 mi (300,000 km) per sec. Subsequent experiments by Heinrich Hertz verified Maxwell's prediction through the discovery of radio waves, also known as hertzian waves. Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation, occupying only a small portion of the possible spectrum of this energy. The various types of electromagnetic radiation differ only in wavelength and frequency; they are alike in all other respects. The possible sources of electromagnetic radiation are directly related to wavelength: long radio waves are produced by large antennas such as those used by broadcasting stations; much shorter visible light waves are produced by the motions of charges within atoms ; the shortest waves, those of gamma radiation , result from changes within the nucleus of the atom. In order of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency, various types of electromagnetic radiation include: electric waves, radio waves (including AM, FM, TV, and shortwaves), microwaves, infrared radiation , visible light, ultraviolet radiation , X rays , and gamma radiation. According to the quantum theory , light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation may at times exhibit properties like those of particles in their interaction with matter. (Conversely, particles sometimes exhibit wavelike properties.) The individual quantum of electromagnetic radiation is known as the photon and is symbolized by the Greek letter gamma. Quantum effects are most pronounced for the higher frequencies, such as gamma rays, and are usually negligible for radio waves at the long-wavelength, low-frequency end of the spectrum.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is just a name that scientists give a bunch of types of radiation when they want to talk about them as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes-- visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects. Only extremely hot objects or particles moving at very high velocities can create high-energy radiation like X-rays and gamma-rays. Here are the different types of radiation in the EM spectrum, in order from lowest energy to highest:

There are some general properties shared by all forms of electromagnetic radiation: 1. It can travel through empty space. Other types of waves need some sort of medium to move through: water waves need liquid water and sound waves need some gas, liquid, or solid material to be heard.
2. The speed of light is constant in space. All forms of light have the same speed of

299,800 kilometers/second in space (often abbreviated as c). From highest energy to lowest energy the forms of light are Gamma rays, X-rays, Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared, Radio. (Microwaves are high-energy radio waves.)
3. A wavelength of light is defined similarly to that of water waves---distance

between crests or between troughs. Visible light (what your eye detects) has wavelengths 4000-8000 Ångstroms. 1 Ångstrom = 10-10 meter. Visible light is sometimes also measured in nanometers: 1 nanometer = 10-9 meter = 10 Ångstroms, so in nanometers, the visible band is from 400 to 800 nanometers. Radio wavelengths are often measured in centimeters: 1 centimeter = 10 -2 meter = 0.01 meter. The abbreviation used for wavelength is the greek letter lambda: .

1. What is Potential Energy? (1 pt) 2. A box has a mass of 5.8kg. The box is lifted from the garage floor and placed on

a shelf. If the box gains 145J of Potential Energy (PE), how high is the shelf? (5pts) 3. In natural units, the speed of light is set equal to ___?__, and the formula becomes an identity. (1 pt) 4. Give at last 3 types of radiation in the EM spectrum. (3 pts)

1. Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.

2. Solution: PE = mgh; h = PE / mg H= 145J / (5.8kg) * (9.8 m/sec)2 H = 2.55 meter high 3. 1 4. Radiowaves, infrared light, visible, ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays

Rizal Technological University Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City College of Engineering and Industrial Technology Industrial Engineering Department

In Partial Fulfillment in the Requirements of the Subject: SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

REPORT: Detailed System Design

Submitted by: Faustino, Lannie Matias, Danica Dawn

Submitted to: Engr. Maia Victoria Lazaro

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