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<TERMINAL OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM> Submitted By <MAHTAB ALAM> <DEEPAK BHATI> Under The Guidance of <PRADEEP SEMWAL (FACILATATOR

)> <MINI PROJECT: 044> <IGNOU> <DEHRADUN>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We have great pleasure in acknowledging the deepest appreciation for all those who have helped us in developing the PROJECT from its infant stage to its completion. We are profoundly grateful to Mr.PRADEEP SEMWAL. for his invaluable guidance, support and immense co-operation. In spite of his hectic schedule, he provided us the necessary information and in-depth profile regarding the collection of data and its compilation. His encouraging attitude and keen interest motivated us during the project. Without his help this project would not have seen the light of day. At last but not the least, we would like to thank our friends for their witty criticism and amusing queries.

Table Of Contents TOPIC 1. Introduction 1.1 Objective of Project 1.2 Scope of Project 1.3 Project management 2. Type of the project 2.1 Overview of the Java 2.2 Object Orient Language 3. System Analysis & Design 3.1 System Analysis 3.2 System Design 3.3 System Coding 3.4 System Testing 3.5 SDLC 4. Detail of the project 4.1 - Team size 4.2 - Duration

5. Detailed Life Cycle of the project 6.1 DFD's 6.2 ER Diagram 6. System Requirements 6.1 Hardware Requirements 6.2 Software Requirements 7. Bibliography .

1- INTRODUCTION

An OPERATING SYSTEM is a large collection of software’s which manage resources of the computer system, such as memory, processor, file system and input output devices. It keeps track of the status of each resource and decides who will have a control over computer resources, for how long and when. An OPERATING SYSTEM Provide the interface to a running program and the O.S. User program receives O.S. Services through the set of system calls. Now days this feature is supported by all the High level languages. Like C, Pascal etc. Use of System calls is very much Similar to the subroutines in any program. There are list of commands through which user can interact with O.S.

1.1

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The main objective of the project TERMINAL OF OPERATING SYSTEM is to enhance the use of computers in the field of finding best available Command when opting for best Operating system. I have made this project for OPERATING SYSTEM FOR WINDOW XP. I have designed and developed this project to play the Linux operating system commands simply on the windows xp as an application program and not as independent bootable OS. This project is the software developed for IGNOU. Some of the advantages of my project are:  Full accuracy.  The delay associate with order making are eliminated, time required to reenter data is also eliminated.  Since data is not repeatedly keyed, the chances of error are reduced.  Less repetition of data.  Easy to update and retrieve the data.  User friendliness.  Because time delay is reduced, there is more certainty in information flow.  Operates on very tight margin.  Operates under time constraints.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT The project will be developed in such a manner that it can be used by a person who has very little knowledge about the computers. They just can run the program and using the command on the software type in English where they are standing and where they intend to go. The rest will be left to the system to determine the best possible output and display it with alternative Command. This project will enable the commuter to know the best possible output and thus save them from worries of taking unnecessary use command and thereby save their money and time. Initially, the project will be character based only where the user (whether user or employee) enters data through keyboard only. But with passage of time as people become more computer literate it can be enhanced to have a Graphical User Interface. Further, the scope of system can be enhanced by the use of touch screens where just the commuter is used the select every thing with the help of the finger tip. But as it requires more implementation cost this option can be ruled out temporarily. Thus, keeping all factors in mind, a character based system will be developed which will keep all the information regarding the various Command on the software. The user of the system will be able to manipulate the information i.e. add, delete and modify the Files. Based on this information the system will tell the commuter the optimum path for his journey.

1.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a Specific (and usually) one-time effort, for example, constructs a building or implementing a new computer system. Project Management includes developing a project plan, which includes defining project goals and objectives, specifying tasks or how goals will be achieved, what resources are need, and associating budgets and timelines for completion. it also includes implementing the project plan along with careful controls to stay on the “critical path”, that is, to ensure the plan is being managed according to plan. Project management usually Follows major phases (with various titles for these phases) including feasibility study, project planning implementation, evaluation and support / maintenance. (Program planning is usually of a broader scope than project planning, but not always.). Planning A Project The success of project will depend critically upon the effort , care and skill you apply in its initial planning . This article looks at the creative aspects of this planning.

The specification Before describing the role and creation of a specification, we need to introduce and explain a fairly technical term: a numbly is a person whose brain it totally numb. In this context, numb Means, “deprived of feeling or the power of unassisted activity”, in general, a numbly needs the stimulation of an electric cattle prod to even get the right office in the morning. A specification is the definition of your project: a statement of the problem, not the solution. Normally, the specification contains errors, ambiguities, misunderstandings and

enough rope to hang you. Thus before you embark upon the next six months of activity working on the wrong project , you must assume that a numbly was the chief author of the specification your received and you must read, worry, revise and ensure that everyone concerned with the project (from originator, through the workers, to the end-customers) is working with the same understanding. The outcome of this deliberation should be written definition of what is required, by when; and all involved must agree this. There are no short cuts of this; if you fail to spend the time initially, it will cost you far more later on. Testing and Quality No plan is complete without explicit provision for testing and quality. As a wise manager, you will know that this should be part of each individual phase of the project. This means that no activity is completed until it has passed the (objectively) defined criteria, which establishes its quality, and these are best defined (objectively) at the beginning as part of planning. When devising the schedule therefore you must include allocated time for these part of each activity . Thus your question is not only:” how long will it take”, but also: “how long will the testing take”, By asking both questions together you raise the issue of “how do we know we have done it right” at the very beginning and so the testing is more likely to be done in parallel with the implementation. You establish this philosophy for your team by includes testing as a justified(required) cost. Planning for error The most common error in planning is to assume that there will be no error in the implementation: In effect, the schedule is derived on the basis of “ if nothing goes wrong, this will take….” Of course, recognising that errors will occur is the reason for implementing a

monitoring strategy on the project. Thurs when the inevitable does happen, you can react and adapt the plan to compensate. However, by carefully considering error in advance you can make changes to original plan to enhance its tolerance. Quite simply, your, planning should include time where you stand back from the design and ask:” What can to wrong:” indeed, this is an excellent way of asking your team for their analyses of your plan.

2 - TYPE OF THE PROJECT 2.1 Overview of the java The project “TERMINAL OF THE OPERATING SYSTERM” is developed on the java software . Java an object oriented programming language conceived by JAMES GOSLINE, PATRICK NAUGHTON, CHRIS WARTH, ED FRANK AND MIKE SHERIDAN at Sun Microsoft Software in 1991.It took 18 month to develop the first working System version. This language was initially called “OAK” but was renamed “JAVA” in1995. Between the initial implementation of Oak in the fall of 1992 and the public announcement of java in the spring of 1995. . In the late nineties java began to replace the more familiar languages of that time like core, Advanced etc. no one pushed java. it wasn’t made the ‘official’ Sun Microsoft lab language. Thus without any advertisement java’s reputation spread and its pool of users grew. Gosline seems to have been rather surprised that so many programmers preferred java to older languages like FORTRAN or PLJI, or the never ones like Pascal and APL. But , that’s what happened. Possibly why java seems so popular is because it is reliable, simple and run time easy to use. Out of the dozens of languages available, the prize of purity is often given to Pascal. java was meant to be friendly, capable and reliable. Java is often called as the High Level Language since it was designed to have both: a relatively good programming efficiency(as compared to machine oriented languages) and a relatively good machine efficiency(as compared to problem oriented languages). WHY Java? We have chosen Java as the basis for our programming because of the following reasons: • It is the most powerful tool for development. Java is reliable, simple, fast and easy to learn. It can be made interactive (i.e) user friendly. • We are in depth knowledge about Java programming language. We have learnt about its functionalities like the usage of its various header files, keywords, functions etc. • Finally, it suits our software and has helped us in designing as per the needs. Object oriented language: Mostly I am using the object orient language for the creation of the project “Terminal of the operating system” and software runs on the java 1.4 software. The world and its application are not organized as function and values separate from one another. The problem solved does not think about the world in this manner. They always deal with their problems by concentrate on the object, their characteristics and behavior. The world is object orient, and object oriented programming expresses programming in

the ways, that model how people perceive the world. The real world object around us

Which we often use for performing different function and using object orient approach is Very close to our real life problem solving techniques. The basis in the object orient programming is that program is organized around the data being upon rather then operation performance. The basic idea behind object orient Programming is to combine both data its function that operate on the data into a single Unit called object. Now in the next section, we will learn about the basis concept used Extensively in the object orient approach.

3 - SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS: System Analysis refers into the process of examining a situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods. System design is the process of planning a new system to either replace or complement an existing system. But before any planning is done the old system must be thoroughly understood and the requirements determined. System analysis is, therefore, the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and using the

information to re-comment improvements in the system. Or in other words, System Analysis means a detailed explanation or description. Before computerized a system under a consideration, it has to be analyzed. We need to study how it functions currently, what are the problems, and what are the requirements that the proposed system should meet. The main components of the making software are: • System and software requirement analysis. • Design and implementation of software. • Ensuring, verifying and maintaining software integrity. System analysis is an activity that encompasses most of the tasks that are collectively called Computer System Engineering. Confusion sometimes occurs because the term is often used in context that eludes it only to software requirement analysis activities, but system analysis focuses on all system elements-not just software. • System analysis is conducted with the following objectives in mind. • Evaluate the system concept for feasibility. • Perform economic and technical analysis.

• Allocate functions to hardware, software, people, database and other system elements. • Establish cost and schedule constraints. • Create a system definition that form the foundation for all subsequent engineering work Identification of Need The first step of system analysis process involves the identification of need. The analyst (system engineer) meets with the customer & the end-user (if different from the customer). Identification of need is the starting point in the evolution of a computer-based system. The analyst assists the customer on defining the goals of the system. • What information will be produced? • What information is to be provided? • What functions and performances are required? Feasibility Study Feasibility study is done so that an ill-conceived system is recognized early in definition phase. During system engineering, however, we concentrate out attention on four primary areas of interest. Economic Feasibility : An evaluation of development cost weighted against the ultimate income or benefit from the developed system. • Technical Feasibility : A study of function, performance and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptance system. • Behavioural Feasibility : A determination of any infringement / violation/ liability that could result from the development of the system. • Alternatives : An evaluation of alternative approaches to development of the system.

Economic Analysis Among the most important information contained in a feasible study is Cost-Benefit Analysis an assessment of the economic justification for a computer-based system project. Cost-benefit analysis de8lineateas cost for project development and weights them against tangible (i.e. measurable directly in dollars) and intangible benefits of a system. Cost-benefit analysis is complicated by criteria that vary with the characteristics of system to be developed the relative size of the project and the expected return on investment desired as part of company’s strategic plan. In addition many benefits derived from computer – based system are intangible (e.g. better design quality through iterative optimization, increased customer satisfaction through programmer control and better decisions through reformatted and pre-analyzed sales data). Direct quantitative comparisons may be difficult to achieve. Technical Feasibility Technical Feasibility centers around the existing computer system (hardware, software, etc.) and to what extent it can support the proposed addition. For example, if computer is operating at 80 percent capacity an arbitrary ceiling then running another application could overload the system or require additional hardware. This involves financial considerations to accommodate technical enhancements. If the budget is a serious constraint, then the project is judged not feasible. Behavioral Feasibility People are inherently resistant to change, and computers have been known to facilitate change. An estimate should be made of how strong a reaction the user staff is likely to have toward the development of a computerized system. It is common knowledge that computer installations have something to do with turnover, transfers, retraining, and changes in employee job status. Therefore, it is understandable that the introduction of a candidate system requires special effort to educate, sell, and train the staff on new ways of conducting business.

How will these technology issues affect cost? The results obtained from technical analysis form the basis for another go/no-go decision on the test system. If technical risk sever, if models indicate that the desired function cannot be achieved, if the pieces just won’t fit together smoothly-it’s back to the drawing board! Information Gathering Strategy to gather information Gathering information in large organization is difficult and takes time. All relevant personal should be consulted and no information should be overlooked. The strategy consist of • Identify information sources. • Evolving a method of obtaining information from identified source. • Using an information flow model of organization. Information Sources The main sources of information for the : • User of the system. • Forms and documents used in the organization. • Procedure manuals and rule books, which specify how various activities, are

carried in the organization. • Various reports used in the organization. Method for searching information Information gathering first starts with conversation with top-level management. An overview of organization, available information and objective to be met for the proposed system are manually gathered from the top management. A gross system model is then worked out and verified. For collecting quantitative data from number of person in organization, questionnaires are useful. The primary purpose of interview is to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data (current as well as desired data).

While • • • • • • • user.

interviewing keeping some point in mind. Make a prior appointment with the person to be interviewed. Read the background material and prepare the reports with checklist. State again the purpose of the interview at the beginning of interview. Obtain permission to take notes. Don’t use computer jargon. Try to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information. Summarize the information gathered during the interview and verified by

Information and Requirements The existing system was insufficient in terms of speed and accuracy. It has the drawbacks in terms of management views and operational drawbacks. It took a lot of time in executing the queries & preparing the simple reports and also in searching the records. And also, the manual and current system took so much labour, time and effort to present the simplest of task. So that the entire problem leads to the design of a new system. User Requirements • Besides all the jobs that were being done in the existing system, the user expected certain other features to be added to the package. • The number of reports that were being generated was not enough so various new reports that were required to be generated according to his needs. • The user expected more effective checking and validations at various levels. Also, the user wants instantaneous information. Performance Requirements The following performance characteristics were taken care of while developing the system : • User Friendliness : The system is easy to learn and understand. A naïve user can also use the system effectively, without any difficulty. • User Satisfaction : The system is such that it stands up to the user expectations.

• Response Time : The response of all the operation is good. This has been made possible by careful programming. • Error Handling : Response to user errors and undesired situation has been taken care of to ensure that the system operates without halting. • Safety and Robustness : The system is able to avoid or tackle disastrous

action. In other words, it should be foul proof. The system safeguards against undesired events, without human intervention. Acceptance Criteria The following acceptance criteria were established for evaluation of the new system • he system developed should be accurate and hence reliable i.e. the error rate should be minimized and the output should be accurate and consistent. • The developed software should provide all the functions. Further, the execution time should be very low and response should be good. • It should satisfy the criteria specified in functional and performance requirements. • The system should have scope to foresee modifications and enhancements i.e. it should be able to cope up with changes. • User Friendliness : The system should satisfy the user’s need. It should be easy to learn and operate. • Modularity : The system should have relatively independent and single functionparts that can be put together to make complete system. • Maintainability : The development system should be such that the time and effort for program maintenance and enhancement is reduced. • Timeliness : The system should operate well under normal peak and recovery conditions.

Exception Handling To ensure that the system doesn’t halt in case of undesired situations or events, the following exception conditions were taken care of by providing the corresponding exception responses while developing the system. While executing the screen, if the user tries to skip a field that cannot have a null value, an appropriate message is displayed, conveying to the user that the data has to be entered into that field. Once the value has been entered into a field, the cursor moves to the next field. While a user enters date in invalid format, the system displays a message showing the valid format they should enter. • Security: The system provides protection of information through the mechanism of password incorporated into it. Therefore, only authorized user can access that database. • Accuracy: The system in accurate. Thus, productivity/utility is high. • Portability : The system has been written in Developer 2000 as front end and Oracle as backend and is portable to any platform-supporting Oracle. • Throughput: The system gives a reasonably high throughput. • Flexibility: The system is such that likely changes/modifications can be easily incorporated. DATA COLLECTION The use of questionnaire might seem an attractive idea as data can be collected from a lot of people without having to visit them all. While this is true, the method should be used with care since it is difficult to design a questionnaire

which is both simple and comprehensive. Also, unless the questions are kept short and clear, they may be misunderstood by those questioned, making the data collected unreliable. A questionnaire may be the most effective method of fact-finding to collect a small amount of data from a lot of people. A questionnaire can also be used as a means of verifying

data collected from a large number of staff; when time is short; and when a hundred percent coverage is not essential. a questionnaire can also be used as a means of verifying data collected using other methods or as the basis for the question and answer section of a fact-finding interview. Another effective use of a questionnaire is to send it advance of an interview. This will enable the respondent to assemble the required information before the meeting which means that the interview can be more productive. When designing a questionnaire, there are three sections to consider: A heading section which describes the purpose of the questionnaire and contains the main references-name, staff identification number, date, etc. A classification section for collecting information which can later be used for analyzing and summarizing the total data, such as age, sex, grade, job title, location, etc. A data section made up of questions designed to elicit the specific information being sought by the analyst.

3.2 SYSTEM DESIGN INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEM DESIGN 6.1 INTRDUCTION OF PHYSICAL DESIGN 6.1.1 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 6.1.2 DESIGN OVERVIEW 6.1.2.1 PROCESS MODELING 6.1.2.2 DATA MODELING 6.1.3 DESIGN OBJECTIVES 6.1.4 DESIGN DECSION 6.1.5 DESIGN OVERVIEW 6.1.5.1 HIGH LEVEL DESIGN 6.1.5.2 LOW LEVEL DESIGN 6.2 INTERFACE DESIGN 6.2.1 DESCRIPTION OF OUTPUT 6.2.2 INPUT DESIGN OUTPUT DEFINITIONS

INPUT DEFINITIONS 6.3 DATABASE DESIGN 6.4 DATA STORES

INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEM DESIGN Design The most creative and challenging phase of the system life cycle is system design. The term design describes a final system and the process by which it is developed. It refers to the technical specifications (analogous to the engineer’s blueprints) that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It also includes the construction of programs and program testing. The key question here is : How should the problems be solved? The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format. Samples of the output (and input) are also presented. Second input data and master files (data base) have to be designed to meet the requirements of the proposed output. The operational (processing) phase are handled through program construction and testing, including a list of the programs needed to meet the system’s objectives and complete documentation. Finally, details related to justification of the system and an estimate of the impact of the candidate system on the user and the organization are documented and evaluated by management as a step toward implementation. The final report prior to the implementation phase includes procedural flowcharts, record layouts, report layouts, and a workable, plan for implementing the candidate system. Information on personnel, money, hardware, facilities, and their estimated cost must also be available. At this point projected costs must be close to actual costs of implementation.

6.1 Introduction of Physical Design The systems objectives outlined during the feasibility study serve as the basis from which the work of system design is initiated. Much of the activities involved at this stage are of technical nature requiring a certain degree of experience in designing systems, sound knowledge of computer related technology and thorough understanding of computers available in the market and the various facilities provided by the vendors. Nevertheless, a system cannot be designed in isolation without the active involvement of the user. The user has vital role to play at this stage too. As we know that data collected during feasibility study will be utilized systematically during the system design. It should, however, be kept in mind that detailed study of the existing system is not necessarily over with the

completion of the feasibility study. Depending on the plan of feasibility study, the level of detailed study will vary and the system design stage will also vary in the amount of investigation that still needs to be done. This investigation is generally an urgent activity during the system design, as the designer needs to study minute’s details in all aspects of the system. Sometimes, but rarely, this investigation may form a separate stage between Feasibility Study and Computer System Design. Designing a new system is a creative process, which calls for logical as well as lateral thinking. The logical approach involves systematic moves towards the end product keeping in mind the capabilities of the personnel and the equipment at each decision making step. Lateral thought implies encompassing of ideas beyond the usual functions and equipment this is to ensure that no efforts are being made to fit previous solutions into new situations. 6.1.1 Design Methodology The framework for the new system developed during analysis guides the scope of the systems design. More clearly defined logical method for developing system that meets user requirements has led to new techniques and methodologies that fundamentally attempt to do the following: • Improve productivity of analysts and programmers • Improve documentation and subsequent maintenance and enhancements.

] • • • • Cut down drastically on cost overruns and delays Improve communication among the user, analyst, designer, and programmer. Standardize the approach to analysis and design. Simplify design by segmentation.

6.1.2 Design Overview Process Modeling Graphical description of a system’s data and how the processes transform the data is known as Data Flow Diagram (or DFD). Unlike detail flowcharts, DFDs do not supply detailed descriptions of modules but graphically describe a system’s data and how the data interact with the system. 3.3 SYSTEM CODING: The coding of the project “Terminal of the operating system” available at the submission of the final mini project of the iv semester. 3.4 SYSTEM TESTING: The purpose of system testing is to consider all the likely variations to which it will be subjected and then push the system to its limits. It is a tedious but necessary step in system development. Testing is vital to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, the goal will be successfully achieved. Inadequate testing or nontesting leads to errors that may not appear until months later. This creates two problems : 1. The time lag between the cause and the appearance of the problem (the longer the time interval, the more complicated the problem has become) and 2. The effect of system errors on files and records within the system.

A small system error can conceivably explode into a much larger problem. Effective testing early in the process translates directly into long term cost saving from a reduced no. of errors. Another reason for system testing is its utility as a user oriented vehicle before implementation. The first test of a system is to see whether it produces the correct output. Following this step, a variety of other tests are conducted : 1. Volume Testing – In this test we create as many records as would normally reproduced to verify that the hardware and software will function correctly. The user is usually asked to provide test data for volume testing. 2. Stress Testing – The purpose of stress testing is to prove that the candidiate system does not malfunction under peak loads. Unlike volume testing, where time is not a factor, we subject the system to a high volume of data over a short time period. 3. Recovery and Security – A forced system failure is induced to test a backup recovery procedure for file integrity. Inaccurate data are entered to see how the system response in terms of error detection and protection. Related to file integrity is a test to demonstrate the data and programs are secure from unauthorized access. 4. Usability Documentation and Procedure – The usability test verifies the user friendly nature of the system. This relates to normal operating and error handling procedures for example. One aspect of user friendliness is accurate and complete documentation. The user is asked to only use the documentation and procedures as a guide to determine whether the system can be run smoothly.

The proper choice of test data is as important as the test itself. If test data as input are not valid or representative of the data to be produced by the user, then the reliability of the output is suspected. Test data may be artificial or live. Properly created artificial data should provide all combinations of values and formats and make it possible to test all logic and transaction path subroutines. Unlike live data, which are biased toward typical values, artificial data provides extreme values for testing the limits of the candidate system. The purpose of the system testing is to identify and correct errors in the candidate system. As important as this phase is, it is one that is frequently compromised. Typically, the project is behind schedule or the user is eager to go directly to conversion. In system testing, performance and acceptance standards are developed. Substandard performance or service interruptions that result in system failure are checked during the test. The following performance criteria are used for system testing: 1. Turnaround time is the time elapsed between the receipt of the input and the availability of the output. In online systems, high-priority processing is handled during peak hours, while low-priority processing is done later in the day or during night shift. The objective is to decide on and to evaluate all the factors that might have a bearing on the turnaround time for handling all applications. 2. Backup relates to procedures to be used when the system is down. Backup plans might call for the use of another computer. The software for the candidate system must be tested for compatibility with a backup computer. In case of a partial system breakdown, provisions must be made for dynamic reconfiguration of the system. For example, in an online environment, when the

printer breaks down, a provisional plan might call for automatically “dumping” the output on tape until the service is restored. 3. File protection pertains to storing files in a separate area for protection against fire, flood, or natural disaster. Plans should also be established for reconstructing files damaged through a hardware malfunction. 4. The human factor applies to the personnel of the candidate system. During system testing, lighting, air conditioning, noise, and other environmental factors are evaluated with people’s desks, chairs, CRTs etc. Hardware should be designed to match human comfort. This is referred to as ergonomics. It is becoming an extremely important issue in system development. Types of System Tests After a test plan has been developed, system testing begins by testing program modules separately, followed by testing “bundled” modules as a unit. A program module may function perfectly in isolation but fail when interfaced with other modules. The approach is to test each entity with successively larger ones, up to the system test level. System testing consists of the following steps: 1. Program(s) testing. 2. String testing. 3. System testing. 4. System documentation. 5. User acceptance testing. Program Testing. A program represents the logical elements of a system. For a program to run satisfactorily, it must compile and test data correctly and tie in properly rs: syntax and logic. A syntax error is a program statement that violates one or more rules

of the language in which it is written. An improperly defined field dimensions or omitted keywords are common syntax errors. These errors are shown through error messages generated by the computer. A logic error, on the other hand, deals with incorrect data fields, out-of-range items, and invalid combinations. Since diagnostics do not detect logic errors, the programmer must examine the output carefully for them. When a program is tested, the actual output is compared with the expected output. When there is discrepancy, the sequence of instructions must be traced to determine the problem. The process is facilitated by, breaking the program down into self-contained portions, each of which can be checked at certain key points. The idea is to compare program values against desk-calculated values to isolate the problem. String Testing. Programs are invariably related to one another and interact in a total system. Each program is tested to see whether it conforms to relate programs in the system. Each portion of the system is tested against the entire module with both test and live data before the entire system is ready to be tested. System Testing. System testing is designed to uncover weaknesses that were not

found in earlier tests. This includes forced system failure and validation of the total system as it will be implemented by its user(s) in the operational environment. Generally, it begins with low volumes of transactions based on live data. The volume is increased until the maximum level for each transaction type is reached. The total system is also tested for recovery and fallback after various major failures to ensure that no data are lost during the emergency. All this is done with the old system still in operation. After the candidate system passes the test, the old system is discontinued. System Documentation. All design and test documentation should be finalized and entered in the library for future reference. The library is the central location for maintenance of the new system. The format, organization, and language of each corroboration should be in the line with system standards.

5 – DETAIL OF THE PROJECT 5.1 Team size: The creation and development of the project “Terminal of the operating system” involved two members. In this project some point like as System Analysis, System Requirement specification, System coding, Detail life cycle of the project, type of the project and Bibliography created by ourselves and the other remaining Create by other team member. 5.2 - Duration: Development and completion of the project took approximately one month. Team effort and dedication proved crucial role in the timely completion of the assigned task. It was the kind coordination of faculty of IGNOU STUDY CENTRE and mentor PRADEEP

PROGRAM DESIGN (DFD) 1. Analysis (DFD’s ER diagrams etc.) Level 0:

Level 1:

Level 2: Only Expand Terminal of the operating system, rest is same

E – R Diagram.

5 – SYSTEM REQUIRMENT I have used JAVA 1.4 as the front end & play with the linux as the back end in the implementation of the project. Java was derived from standard, and is an event-driven programming in core java is done visually, which means that as you design, you will know your application will look on execution. The predecessor of java was standard (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Standard was mainly interpreter-based, whereas Java is partly interpreterbased and partly compiler-based. The main advantage of java is that it is a Rapid Application Development Tool. This is the main reason why java is extensively used

as a high level language. OPERATING SYSTEM “Windows xp professional sp-2” Microsoft’s Windows xp professional sp-2 operating system is, with little doubt, the most significant and highly publicized computer software release. While computer users will undoubtedly debate the utility of the improvement and enhancements for months (or years) to come, the simple fact is that Windows xp professional sp-2 is almost certain to become the operating system of choice for most PC users within a short time. This is certainly true of users currently running earlier versions of Windows or Windows for workgroups.

The following Hardware and Software will be used to develop the system: 5.1 Hardware Requirement Hardware: Processor – Intel Pentium III 850Mhz. RAM – 128 MB Monitor – 15” Color Monitor CD ROM – 52X Hard disk – 20 (giga-byte) 5.2 Software Requirement: Front End Tool _ Java Back End Tool _ Suse and play with the Linux operating system Platform Used _ Windows xp professional xp-2 Operating System

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The Complete Reference java Fifth edition by Schildt Black book of java The Complete Reference Unix by Shell programming by Yashwant Kanitker Oracle Developer 2000 (FORMS 5.0) by Ivan Bayross Oracle Developer / 2000 forma by Albert Lulushi. Developer 2000 – Forms 6.0, STG Materials Element of System Analysis and Design by IGNOU Course Material Software Engineering By Ian Somerville Or IGNOU Materials.