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FLOW THROUGH TRIANGULAR NOTCH

AIM: - To calibrate to given notch and to determine its co-efficient of discharge Cd of 600 or 900
notches.
AIM: - To determine the force exerted by the jet of water striking a fixed flat plate at right angle
to it.
force exterated on any body is equal to the resulting change in moment of the body.
Based on this law the force exterted by the jet of water moving with velocity V striking
fixed plate at right angle to it can be determined as
Procedure
1. First Balance the lever mechanism to Zero & stant the pump/ motor
2. Allow some time to flow water on the jet
3. As the water coming from the jet impact on the vanes the lever mechanism goes to up
word direction.
4. Now load the weight on lever mechanism and balance the lever mechanism with the help
of control valve.
5. Take depth of water for 10 cm with time From collecting tank
6. Calculate the impact force by formulas
7. Repeat the above procedure for more times
Note: above procedure is same for inclined plate too
Observation
1. Dia of nozzle d 8 mm = 0.8cm
Area of collecting tank A = LxB 45x
Instruments:
1. Notch Apparatus
2. Piezometer or point Gauge
3. Stop watch & Scale
FLOW THROUGH VENTURIMETER
AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the given venturimeter.
Instruments need
1. Venturi Apparatus

2. Collecting tank
3. U- Tube and stop watch
Theory: The discharge through Venturimeter is given by
a 1a 2
Q Cd
2g H
2
2
a1 a 2
Here:
Q = Discharge
Cd = Co-efficient of Discharge
g = Acceleration due to gravity
a1 = Inlet area of venturimeter
a2 = Area of throat

a 1a 2

Q Cd

a1 a 2

2g H

H = Difference of pressure between inlet & throat.


Here Q = K

Cd

a 1a 2
2

a1 a 2

2 gH

Then K
Theory:- The discharge through V-notch is given by.
Q
Putting K

= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2 H5/2


= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2

K
Discharge Q = KH5/2

or

Q
H5/ 2

By measuring the head of water H over the sill of the notch


If

H1
H2

= Initial reading at the sill of notch


= Final reading at the sill of notch

H
d
t
A

= Head of water over sill of notch, H=H2-H1


= Depth of collection of water in measuring tank
= Time for ..

= Area of measuring tank

Qact

Then

Ad
cm 3 sec
t

Q = KH 5/2

Q
H5/ 2

we have
k= 8/15Cd 2g tan /2

Cd

15 K
8 2 g tan / 2

For 900 notch tan Q/2 = tan 90/2 =tan 450 =1

Cd

15 K
8 2g

So
we have Q= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2 H5/2
15 Q
Cd
8 2 g tan / 2 H 5 / 2
To get discharge equation for a given notch Q = K.Hn
By taking logarithm on both side
Log K Log K
Log Q
Log H
-----------doubt
Putting group of log Q vs log H
From equation if H=0 (means no flow takes place just at a level)
Then log Q =log K

Q = K.Hn
log Q = log K+ log Hn
n

Log Q Log K
Log H

If By
Graph

H=o
log Q = log K
K = Antilog of log K
Example = if K = 9.78
n = 2.53
Then
Q = 9.78H2.53
V1

Q
a1

a 1 d

Sudden enlargement
(1) Loss of head due to sudden contraction consider a junction of pipes having
dia of D & d D is greater thand
Let the flow be from longer dia to smaller dia pipe the water while passing through longa dia
gets contracted to a narrow neck at point. I & this expands to fill the pipe of small dia pipe.
Loss of energy due to sudden contraction is given by
2

hc KC

V1
2g

0.5

V1
2g

Probable value of tc is Kc =0.5


Loss of energy in bend
When a pipe line has to change its direction or bend or elbow is or inserted between the
two straight portions of the pipe which make angle loss of energy due to bend.
i.e.
Procedure
1. Measure the dia of both pipes and dimension of the collecting tank.
2. Connect the manometer to the apparatus
3. The sudden enlargement and sudden contraction pipes is property connected to the
respective tapping.
4. Allow the water flow through pipes

5. Open the inlet valves.


6. When water enters the manometer carefully open the top most outlets in one action to
expel the air bubbles (if any).
7. Then immediately close the out lets in one action.
8. Gradually adjust the exit valve and when mercury becomes constant measure in.
9. Measure the discharge and loss of head using formula.
10. Measure the Discharge in collecting tank with respect to time too.
Observation
1. Area of collecting tank
2. Dia of large Pipe
3. Dia of small Pipe
4. Area of large Pipe
5. Area of small Pipe

A = 63x44
= 2772 cm2
D = 2.5 cm
d = 2 cm
a1 =
a2 =

FIRCTION THROUGH PIPE (major losses)