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In-Flight Contingencies


a. Update: Special Procedures for In-flight Contingencies In Oceanic Airspace. This
paragraph contains procedures for in-flight contingencies in oceanic airspace that are now
published in Section 15.2.2 of ICAO Document 4444 (Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management). Effective February 16, 2006, operators are expected to follow the
procedures printed below. The effective date for the guidance has been coordinated with the Air
Traffic Services providers in the Atlantic and Pacific. The guidance will, therefore, be applicable
in all Pacific and Atlantic oceanic FIRs including Oakland, Anchorage, New York and San Juan
NOTE 1: The only significant procedural change from in-flight contingency procedures
previously published in ICAO Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030) is to the track
offset. The track offset has been changed to 15nm for contingencies requiring the aircraft to
depart cleared altitude and/or track prior to obtaining a revised clearance. In the "General
Procedures" section below, see paragraphs 3b and 4.
NOTE 2: Prior to this harmonization, the track offset for in-flight contingencies was 30nm in the
North Atlantic (NAT) and 25nm in Pacific airspace.
1. Although all possible contingencies cannot be covered, these procedures provide for the more
frequent cases such as:
(a) Inability to maintain assigned flight level due to meteorological conditions, aircraft
performance or pressurization failure;
(b) En route diversion across the prevailing traffic flow; and
(c) Loss of, or significant reduction in, the required navigation capability when operating in an
airspace where the navigation performance accuracy is a prerequisite to the safe conduct of
flight operations.
2. These procedures are applicable primarily when rapid descent and/or turn-back or diversion
is required. The pilot's judgement shall determine the sequence of actions to be taken, having
regard to the prevailing circumstances. Air traffic control shall render all possible assistance.

1. If an aircraft is unable to continue the flight in accordance with its ATC clearance, and/or an
aircraft is unable to maintain the navigation performance accuracy specified for the airspace, a
revised clearance shall be obtained, whenever possible, prior to initiating any action.
2. The radiotelephony distress signal (MAYDAY) or urgency signal (PAN PAN) preferably spoken
three times shall be used as appropriate. Subsequent ATC action with respect to that aircraft
shall be based on the intentions of the pilot and the overall air traffic situation.
3. If prior clearance cannot be obtained, an ATC clearance shall be obtained at the earliest
possible time and, until a revised clearance is received, the pilot shall:
(a) Leave the assigned route or track by initially turning *90 degrees to the right or to the left.
When possible, the direction of the turn should be determined by the position of the aircraft
relative to any organized route or track system. Other factors which may affect the direction of
the turn are:
(1) The direction to an alternate airport, terrain clearance;
(2) Any lateral offset being flown, and the flight levels allocated on adjacent routes or tracks.
*FAA EXPLANATORY NOTE: a turn of less than or greater than 90 degrees may be required,
depending on the type of contingency and whether the pilot intends to continue in the same
direction or reverse course.
(b) Following the turn, the pilot should:
(1) If unable to maintain the assigned flight level, initially minimize the rate of descent to the
extent that is operationally feasible;
(2) Take account of other aircraft being laterally offset from its track;
(3) Acquire and maintain in either direction a track laterally separated by 28 km (15 NM) from
the assigned route; and
(4) Once established on the offset track, climb or descend to select a 0H`lt level which differs
from those normally used by 150 m (500 ft);
(c) Establish communications with and alert nearby aircraft by broadcasting, at suitable
intervals: aircraft identification, flight level, position (including the ATS route designator or the
track code, as appropriate) and intentions on the frequency in use and on 121.5 MHz (or, as a
back-up, on the inter-pilot air-to-air frequency 123.45 MHz);
(d) Maintain a watch for conflicting traffic both visually and by reference to ACAS (TCAS) (if

(e) Turn on all aircraft exterior lights (commensurate with appropriate operating limitations);
(f) Keep the SSR transponder on at all times; and
(g) Take action as necessary to ensure the safety of the aircraft.
4. When leaving the assigned track to acquire and maintain the track laterally separated by
28 km (15 NM), the flight crew, should, where practicable, avoid overshooting the track to be
acquired, particularly in airspace where a 55.5 km (30 NM) lateral separation minimum is
(Extended Range Operations By Aircraft With Two-Turbine Power-Units)
If the contingency procedures are employed by a twin-engine aircraft as a result of an engine
shutdown or failure of an ETOPS critical system, the pilot should advise ATC as soon as
practicable of the situation, reminding ATC of the type of aircraft involved, and request
expeditious handling.

Contingency, Diversion and SLOP procedures

Contingency procedures for aircraft descending through MNPS airspace
(These procedures are in addition to those found in the PANS-ATM, 15.2)
An aircraft that is not MNPS/RVSM approved and is unable to maintain a flight level above
MNPS/RVSM airspace should descend to a flight level below MNPS/RVSM airspace in
accordance with PANS ATM 15.2.2.
An aircraft compelled to make a descent through MNPS airspace, whether continuing to
destination or turning back, should, if its descent will conflict with an organized track:
a) plan to descend to a level below FL 280;

b) prior to passing FL 410, proceed to a point midway between a convenient pair of organized
tracks prior to entering that track system from above;
c) while descending between FL 410 and FL 280, maintain a track that is midway between and
parallel with the organized tracks; and
d) contact ATC as soon as practicable and request a revised ATC clearance.
En -route diversion across the prevailing NAT air traffic flow
Before diverting across the flow of adjacent traffic, the aircraft should climb above FL 410 or
descend below FL 280 using the procedures specified in PANS-ATM 15.2.2 . However, if the pilot
is unable or unwilling to do so, the aircraft should be flown at a level which differs from those
normally used by 150 m (500 ft) until a revised ATC clearance is obtained.

Procedures for strategic lateral offsets within NAT airspace

(These procedures have been developed in accordance with the PANS-ATM, 15.2.4)
Note: The following incorporates lateral offset procedures for both the mitigation of the
lateral overlap probability and wake turbulence encounters.
It has been determined that allowing aircraft conducting oceanic flight to fly lateral offsets, not
exceed 2 NM right of centre line, will provide an additional safety margin and mitigate the risk of
conflict when non-normal events such as aircraft navigation errors, altitude deviation errors and
turbulence-induced altitude-keeping errors occur.
This procedure provides for offsets within the following guidelines. Along a route or track there

be three positions that an aircraft may fly: centre line or one or two miles right. Offsets will not
exceed 2 NM right of centre line. The intent of this procedure is to reduce risk (add safety
by distributing aircraft laterally across the three available positions.
a) Aircraft without automatic offset programming capability must fly the centre line.
b) Operators capable of programming automatic offsets may fly the centre line or offset one or
two nautical miles right of centre line to obtain lateral spacing from nearby aircraft. (Offsets
will not exceed 2 NM right of centre line.) An aircraft overtaking another aircraft should offset
within the confines of this procedure, if capable, so as to create the least amount of wake
turbulence for the aircraft being overtaken.
c) Pilots should use whatever means is available to determine the best flight path to fly.
d) Pilots should also fly one of the three positions shown above to avoid wake turbulence.
Aircraft should not offset to the left of centre line nor offset more than 2 NM right of centre line.
Pilots may contact other aircraft on frequency 123.45, as necessary, to coordinate the
best wake turbulence offset option.
Note: It is recognized that pilots will use their judgement to determine the action most
appropriate to any given situation and have the final authority and responsibility for the safe
operations of the aeroplane.
e) Pilots may apply an offset outbound at the oceanic entry point and must return to centre line
at the oceanic exit point.
f) Aircraft transiting oceanic radar areas may remain on their established offset positions.

g) There is no ATC clearance required for this procedure and it is not necessary that ATC be

Extracted from NAT MNPSA Operations Manual Edition 2005.
The full Manual can be retrieved from:



The vertical dimension of MNPS Airspace is between FL285 and FL420 (i.e. in terms of normally
used crusing levels, from FL290 to FL410 inclusive).
The lateral dimensions include the following Control Areas (CTAs):
REYKJAVIK (to the North Pole)
NEW YORK OCEANIC North of 27N but excluding the area west of 60W and south of 3830'N
Some idea of these dimensions can be obtained from the map on the cover and the maps in
Chapters 2 and 3. However, for specific dimensions, reference should be made to ICAO
Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc. 7030) -NAT/RAC.
(available at ).
Pilots MUST NOT fly across the North Atlantic within MNPS Airspace, nor at flight levels 290 to
410 inclusive anywhere within the NAT Region, unless they are in possession of the appropriate
Approval(s) issued by the State of Registry or the State of the Operator.

The North Atlantic is the busiest oceanic airspace in the world. In 2004 more than 370,000
flights crossed the North Atlantic and the annual traffic growth rates are now returning to the
typical figures of between 5 and 10%. For the most part in the North Atlantic, Direct Controller
Pilot Communications (DCPC) and Radar Surveillance are unavailable. Aircraft separation
assurance and hence safety are nevertheless ensured by demanding the highest standards of
horizontal and vertical navigation performance/accuracy and of operating discipline. Within NAT
MNPS Airspace a formal Approval Process by the State of Registry of the aircraft or the State of
the Operator ensures that aircraft meet defined MNPS Standards and that appropriate crew
procedures and training have been adopted.

Chapter 12: A Check List for Pilots Not Familiar With Operations in NAT MNPS Airspace
12.1 To assist those pilots who are less familiar with operating in NAT MNPS Airspace, the
following short check list has been prepared:
(1) Are you sure that your State of Registry has granted approval for both RVSM and MNPS
operations in connection with this flight by this aircraft ? (See Chapter 1: Operational Approval
and Aircraft System Requirements for Flight in the NAT MNPS Airspace)
(2) If it has, are the letters X' and W' in Item 10 of your flight plan?
(3) If you are intending to follow an organised track, and bearing in mind that the OTS changes
every 12 hours, do you have a copy of the valid track message, including when applicable, any
"TMI Alpha Suffixed" changes to it? (See THE NAT TRACK MESSAGE in Chapter 2: The Organised
Track System (OTS)
(4) Are you familiar with the Mach Number Technique? (See Chapter 7: Application of Mach
Number Technique)
(5) Have you had an accurate time check referenced to UTC, and is the system you will be using
on the flight deck for MNPS operation also accurately referenced to UTC? Is this time accuracy
going to be maintained for the planned duration of the flight ? (See Chapter 8 - Importance of
Accurate Time)
(6) If using GPS, have you checked the latest NOTAMs regarding the serviceability of GPS
satellites and have you performed a Satellite Navigation Availabilty Prediction Programme

analysis? (See Chapter 8: MNPS Flight Operation & Navigation Procedures)

(7) If flying via the special Greenland/Iceland routes, have you checked the serviceability of
your one remaining LRNS and of your short range navigation systems plus the ground
navigation aids which you will use? (See Chapter 10 - Partial or Complete Loss of
Navigation/FMS Capability by Aircraft having State Approval for Unrestricted Operations in MNPS
(8) If flying a non-HF equipped aircraft, is your route approved for VHF only? (See Chapter 4,
Flights Planning to Operate Without HF Communications, paragraph- 4.2.11.)
(9) If flying other than on the special routes, are you sure that both your LRNSs are fully
(10) Have you planned ahead for any actions you might need to take should you suffer a failure
of one LRNS? (See Chapter 10: - Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or
(11) Are you sure that both your primary altimetry systems and at least one altitude alerter and
one autopilot are fully operational ?
(12) Are you familiar with the required procedures for flight at RVSM levels? (See Chapter 9).
12.2 If, as a pilot, you have any doubt about your answers to these questions, it may be
necessary for you to consult with the Civil Aviation Department of your State of Registry.