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Profound Knowledge

Seven Thinking Levels
﴿‫ﻋﻠِﻴ ٌﻢ‬
َ ‫ﻋ ْﻠ ٍﻢ‬
ِ ‫ق ُآﻞﱢ ذِى‬
َ ‫﴾ َو َﻓ ْﻮ‬
o And above every man of knowledge there is One of
More Knowledge. (12:76)
o Over every knowledgeable person is one more knowing.

o ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺳﮯ اوﭘﺮ )ﺑﻬﯽ( اﻳﮏ ﻋﻠﻢ واﻻ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ‬

ِ ‫اور ﮨﺮ ﺻﺎﺣ‬
• There is an all-knowing above every person endowed
with knowledge. (Ibn `Abbas )
• Theoretical and Practical knowledge are the best signs of distinction; Deep
Thinking will present the clearest picture of every problem. (NAHJ-AL-BALAGHAH)
• Success is the result of foresight and resolution, foresight depends upon deep
thinking and planning and the most important factor of planning is to keep your
secrets to yourself. (NAHJ-AL-BALAGHAH)
• No knowledge is superior to deep thinking and prudence;
• Your supremacy over others is in proportion to the extent of your knowledge and
Revelation Of The Qur'an In Seven Ahrûf
It is a well-known fact that there are seven different ahrûf in which the Qur'an was revealed. In the Islamic
tradition, this basis can be traced back to a number of hadîths concerning the revelation of the Qur'an in
seven ahrûf (singular harf). Some of the examples of these hadîths are as follows:
• From Abû Hurairah: The Messenger of God(P) said: "The Qur'an was sent down in seven ahruf.
Disputation concerning the Qur'an is unbelief" - he said this three times - "and you should put into practice
what you know of it, and leave what you do not know of it to someone who does."[1]
• From Abû Hurairah: The Messenger of God(P) said: "An All-knowing, Wise, Forgiving, Merciful sent
down the Qur'an in seven ahruf."[2]
• From cAbdullâh Ibn Mascud: The Messenger of God(P) said: "The Qur'an was sent down in seven
ahruf. Each of these ahruf has an outward aspect (zahr) and an inward aspect (batn); each of the
ahruf has a border, and each border has a lookout."[3]
• And in another hadîth cAbdullâh Ibn Mascud said: The Messenger of God(P) said: "The first Book
came down from one gate according to one harf, but the Qur'an came down from seven gates according
to seven ahruf: prohibiting and commanding, lawful and unlawful, clear and ambiguous, and
parables. So, allow what it makes lawful, proscribe what it makes unlawful, do what it commands you to do,
forbid what it prohibits, be warned by its parables, act on its clear passages, trust in its ambiguous passages."
And they said: "We believe in it; it is all from our Lord."[5]
• And Abû Qilaba narrated: It has reached me that the Prophet(P) said: "The Qur'an was sent down
according to seven ahruf: command and prohibition, encouragement of good and discouragement
of evil, dialectic, narrative, and parable."[6]

And as for his words Each of the ahruf has an outward aspect (zahr) and an inward aspect
(batn), its outward aspect is the ostensive meaning of the recitation, and its inward
aspect is its interpretation, which is concealed.
The meaning of Hadîth is explained as:
1. As for the Prophet's(P) words concerning the Qur'an, each of the
ahruf has a border, it means that each of the seven aspects has a
border which God has marked off and which no one may
overstep. And as for his words Each of the ahruf has an
outward aspect (zahr) and an inward aspect (batn), its
outward aspect is the ostensive meaning of the recitation,
and its inward aspect is its interpretation, which is concealed.
And by his words each border ...... has a lookout he means that
for each of the borders which God marked off in the Qur'an - of
the lawful and unlawful, and its other legal injunctions - there is
a measure of God's reward and punishment which surveys it in
the Hereafter, and inspects it ...... at the Resurrection ......[4]
A verse in Qur'an related to esoteric interpretations:
He it is who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic (of established meaning); they are
the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the
part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one
knows its hidden meanings except God. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say:
"We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except
men of understanding.(Sura 3:7[1])

In the verse quoted above, there is a stop between …except God and And those who.. and reading
this way the verse attributes the knowledge of the Qur'an's hidden meanings to God alone. By
removing the stop it becomes:" one knows its hidden meaning except God and those who
are firmly grounded in knowledge, say…" which suggests that those firmly grounded in
knowledge can extract these hidden meanings.

A hadith from Muhammad which states that the Qur’an has an inner meaning,
and that this inner meaning conceals a yet deeper inner meaning, and so on (up to seven
levels of meaning)

A famous Sufi commentary on the Qur'an, the Persian book Kashf Al Asrar (The Unveiling of the
Mysteries) by Meybodi, mentions conventional interpretations as the first level of meaning and
esoteric interpretations as a deeper level.

It is common in Sufi writings to explain three or four levels of meaning of a Qur'anic concept.
•Remember that there are three kinds of people: one kind is of those learned people who are highly versed in the ethics of truth and
philosophy of religion, second is the kind of those who are acquiring the above knowledge and the third is that class of people who are
uneducated. They follow every pretender and accept every slogan, they have neither acquired any knowledge nor have they secured any
support of firm and rational convictions. Remember, Kumayl, knowledge is better than wealth because it protects you while you have to guard
wealth. It decreases if you keep on spending it but the more you make use of knowledge the more it increases. What you get through wealth
dis-appears as soon as wealth disappears but what you achieve through knowledge will remain even after you.
•O Kumayl ! Knowledge is power and it can command obedience. A man of knowledge during his lifetime can make people obey and
follow him and he is praised and venerated after his death. Remember that knowledge is a ruler and wealth is its subject.
•O Kumayl ! Those who amass wealth, though alive, are dead to realities of life, and those who achieve know-ledge, will remain alive
through their knowledge and wisdom even after their death, though their faces may disappear from the community of living beings, yet their
ideas, the knowledge which they had left behind and their memory, will remain in the minds of people".
•Kumayl says that after this brief dissertation, Imam Ali pointed towards his chest and said, "Look Kumayl! Here I hold stores and treasures
of knowledge. I wish I could find somebody to share it with me. Yes, I found a few, but one of them, though quite intelligent, was
untrustworthy, he would sell his salvation to get hold of the world and its pleasures, he would make religion a pretence to grasp worldly power
and wealth, he would make this Blessing of Allah (knowledge) serve him to get supremacy and control over friends of Allah and he would
through knowledge exploit and suppress other human beings. The other person was such that he apparently obeyed truth and knowledge, yet
his mind had not achieved the true light of religion, at the slightest ambiguity or doubt he would get suspicious of truth, mistrust religion and
would rush towards skepticism. So neither of them was capable of acquiring the superior knowledge that I can impart. Besides these two I find
some other person One of them is a slave of self and greedy for inordinate desires, which can easily drag him away from the path of religion,
the other is an avaricious, grasping and acquisitive miser who will risk his life to grasp and hold wealth, none of these two will be of any use
to religion or man, both of them resemble beasts having appetite for food. If sensible trustees of knowledge and wisdom totally disappear from
human society then both knowledge and wisdom will suffer severely, may bring harm to humanity and may even die out. But this earth will
never be without those persons who will prove the universality of truth as disclosed by Allah, they may be well-known persons, openly and
fearlessly declaring the things revealed to them or they may, under fear of harm, injury or deaths hide themselves from the public gaze
and may carry on their mission privately so that the reasons proving the reality of truth as preached by religion and asdemonstrated
by His Prophet may not totally disappear. How many are they and where could they be found? I swear by Allah that they are very few
in number but their worth and their ranks before Allah are very high.
•Through them Allah preserves His Guidance so that they, while departing, may hand over these truths to persons like themselves. The
knowledge which they have acquired has made them see the realities and visualize the truth and has instilled into them the spirit of faith and
trust. The duties which were decreed as hard and unbearable by them. They feel happy in the company and association of things which frighten
the ignorant and uneducated. They live in this world like everybody else but their souls soar to the heights of Divine Eminence. They are media
of Allah on this earth and they invite people towards Him. How I love to meet them O Kumayl ! I have told you all that I have to say, you can
go back to your place whenever you like".
How to increase Knowledge &
• One who takes lessons from the events of life, gets
vision, one who acquires vision becomes wise and one
who attains wisdom achieves knowledge.

Enemy of Knowledge & Wisdom

Avarice dulls the faculties of judgment and wisdom.
•Avarice : Extreme greed for material wealth ;Reprehensible acquisitiveness;
insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)

Peak of Knowledge & Wisdom

Exaltation is superior to Knowledge

• Exaltation: The elevation of a person (as to the status of a god)
Esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an
Confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle

An esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or
mystic meanings to the text by the interpreter. In this respect, its method is different from the conventional exegesis of
the Qur’an, called tafsir. Esoteric interpretations do not usually contradict the conventional (in this context called
exoteric) interpretations; instead, they discuss the inner levels of meaning of the Qur'an. A hadith from Muhammad
which states that the Qur’an has an inner meaning, and that this inner meaning conceals a yet deeper inner
meaning, and so on (up to seven levels of meaning), has sometimes been used in support of this view.[1][2]
Some Islamic sects impose strict limitations on esoteric interpretations.
In Arabic, batin refers to the inner or esoteric meaning of a sacred text, and zahir to the apparent
or exoteric meaning. Hence, the term batiniyya is sometimes applied to those who refer to an
esoteric interpretation.
In Sufi tradition, it is believed that the esoteric meanings of the Qur'an can be extracted through mystic
experiences, and as such, esoteric interpretations presented by Sufi Shaykhs are considered authentic.
Throughout its history , Sufism has widely used esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an. The metaphysical
basis of a Sufi interpretation is Kashf (unveiling) or Zawq (tasting).Sufi writings make frequent
references to the Qur'an and present esoteric interpretations either explicitly or implicitly. Implicit forms
being quoting a verse in a certain context which suggests that the meaning of the verse is related to the
ideas presented.
There are some verses in the Qur'an whose conventional interpretations suggest mystic ideas and Sufis
have commented extensively on them.
While all Sufi interpretations are basically mystic, three major trends in Sufi interpretations can be
recognized, mystic, philosophic, and esoteric.
Mystic Interpretations
1. Mystic: Having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the
intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding
2. Mystic: Someone who believes in the existence of realities beyond human

1. Interpreting religious terms as describing inner qualities:

2. Interpreting Qur'anic stories from a mystic perspective:
3. Poetic interpretations:
4. Interpreting a verse in a sense very different from its conventional meaning:
5. Comments on Qur'anic initial letters:
6. Mystic remarks concerning Qur'anic verses like the famous saying "I am the
dot (Arabic alphabet: ‫( )ب‬English: B) of Bismillah"

Philosophic Interpretations:
1. These interpretations have a philosophical structure and
sometimes serve as the basis of a mystic philosophy. Hallaj was one
of the early Sufis who presented such interpretations
The Noble Quran's claim:
1. "Verily in this is a Message for any that has a heart and understanding or
who gives ear and earnestly witnesses (the truth). (The Noble Quran,
2. "They prefer to be with (the women), who remain behind (at home): their
hearts are sealed and so they understand not. (The Noble Quran, 9:87)"
The heart communicates with the brain and body in four ways:
• Neurological communication (nervous system)
• Biophysical communication (pulse wave)
• Biochemical communication (hormones)
• Energetic communication (electromagnetic fields)
The Heart's Electromagnetic Field
The heart's electromagnetic field--by far the most powerful
rhythmic field produced by the human body--not only envelops
every cell of the body but also extends out in all directions into the
space around us. The cardiac field can be measured several feet
away from the body by sensitive devices. Research conducted at
IHM suggests that the heart's field is an important carrier of
Levels and Forms of Understanding
Understanding of the Qur'an may have various levels and take different

• Firstly, that you comprehend its simple, literal meaning, as when

you read a book in a language you know, or as an Arabic-knowing
person would understand the Qur'an. Such comprehension must be
the bare minimum requirement, the key to all other stages, but it is
not enough.

• Secondly, that you find out how the learned have understood it,
either by hearing their expositions or reading their exegeses and
other sources.

• Thirdly, that you study and ponder, on your own, to discover and
absorb its meaning, to attain Tadhakkur and, if you have the
capability and need, then Tadabbur as well.

• Fourthly, that you discover its meaning by obeying its messages

and by fulfilling the duties and mission that it entrusts to you.
'Analytical Thinking' vs. 'System Thinking in
the Study of the Quran '

'Analytical Thinking', in the study of the Quran, focuses on

breaking the Quran into its constituent parts and studying the
individual verses in isolation, with 'analytical thinking' taking
the verses in isolation, often ending up drawing wrong
conclusions from the study of the Quran

‘System Thinking' works by expanding the view to take into

account larger and larger number of other verses of the Quran
relevant to the topic under study, and seeing the 'big picture'. it
is always advisable to exercise 'system thinking' and never lose
site of the 'big picture' of the Quranic Injunctions.
The Seven Levels of Judgment (Acupuncture Education Series #5)
• The Seven Levels of Judgment is a map showing us how to incorporate the entire Universe in a way that nourishes
our True Nature as opposed to our illusory and separate selves. We begin the first level physically as an infant and
progress through each succeeding level as we progress through material life and pass through maturity in our
return to spirit. The Seven Levels of Judgment described by George Ohsawa in The Book of Judgment (1966, p.
143) are:
1. Mechanical,
2. Sensory,
3. Sentimental,
4. Intellectual,
5. Social,
6. Ideological, and
7. Supreme.
The various levels of interpretation along with their typical problems are listed below in order of
increasing hermeneutical complexity:

1. Lexical: What is the meaning of a particular word?

2. Intra-Versal/Sentential: Who or what is the referrent of a particular pronoun?
3. Inter-Versal/Pericopal: What is the relation between verses? Do they constitute a single meaning/unit of
thought, or are they distinct?

4. Narratological ("Qissaic"): What is the story being told? Why do the characters in it react in the way they do?
5. Historical/Ethnological: What events or personages are being described? What cultural practices are being
reported and how do they relate the jāhilī scene?

6. Legal ("Hukmic"): What are the legal implications of a particular verse and how do these relate to the remaining
corpus of Islamic holy law? Is the ruling limited in scope to the circumstances or even unique instant in which it was
revealed, or does it define a general principle with broad applicability?
The Seven Levels of Meaning of Sanskrit
Every syllable of Sanskrit has seven levels of
1. vach artha ⇒ dictionary meaning
2. bhava artha ⇒ meaning according to an attitude of awareness
3. guru artha ⇒ meaning according to your guru
4. darshan shashtra artha ⇒ meaning according to your school of

5. sampradaya artha ⇒ meaning according to your tribe of sadhus

6. svadaya artha ⇒ meaning according to your own level of realization
7. gupta artha ⇒ hidden meaning
The Five Levels of Interpretation
The Torah may be viewed, generally speaking, on five different levels.

1. The first four levels are called PaRDeS, which is an acronym for Pshat, Remez, Drush
and Sod. Pshat is the most basic literal meaning of the Torah text. It is not necessarily
identical to the apparent plain meaning of the text, but is an explanation of the text based
on the tradition as it has been handed down in the Oral Torah (Mishnah and Talmud)
following closely the literal meaning. Most traditional Jewish editions of the Torah are
published together with Rashi's commentary, which is the classic example of Pshat
2. The second level, called Remez, departs from the literal meaning of the text in search
of hints and allusions. Linguistic analysis of the text and gematria are basic techniques of
the Remez exegesis.
3. The third level, Drush, is the homiletic exposition of the text. It includes moralistic
homilies as well as derivation of legal rulings based on the text. It is typically found in
aggadic and halakhic midrashim.
4. The fourth level, Sod, literally means secret. It involves esoteric interpretation of the
scripture and is the subject of Kabbalah.
5. Finally, the fifth level, Sod of Sod, the secret of secrets, is the innermost meaning of
the Torah as it is expounded in the philosophy of Chassidism.
As stated in the Zohar, “Three things are bound up one with the other: Israel is bound with the
Torah and the Torah is bound up with G-d.” All of the levels of Torah exegesis as well as
the levels of the soul are related to the four letters of the Tetragrammaton, the Proper
Name of G-d:
PaRDeS - the four levels of interpretation
The word PRDS is also an acronym (called in
Judaism “notarikon”) for:

1. (P)ashat (Heb. “simple”)

2. (R)emez (Heb. “hint”)
3. (D)rash (Heb. “search”)
4. (S)od (Heb. “hidden”)

These are the four levels of understanding the

scriptures. Each layer is deeper and more intense
than the last, like the layers of an onion.
The Key to Knowledge
• An imaginative, creative desire to learn
enhances here & Hereafter life-potential.
• The quest for scientific, artistic,
philosophical, and spiritual truths is
equally as important as the desire for love.
The System of Profound Knowledge
The System of Profound Knowledge comes from
W. Edwards Deming.
• Hard work is not enough. What is needed is a
transformation of the prevailing style of
• The System of Profound Knowledge has four
1. Appreciation for a system
2. Knowledge about variation
3. Theory of knowledge Profound: Showing intellectual penetration or
emotional depth

4. Psychology Knowledge:
The psychological result of perception
and learning and reasoning
Theory of Profound Knowledge
1. Appreciation for a system. that is, understanding that all the parts of
a business are related in such a way that if you focus on optimizing one part,
other parts may suffer A leader must understand the system he or she is
attempting to manage. Without this understanding the system can not be
managed or improved. A system cannot understand itself or manage itself.
Optimization of the parts does not optimize the whole. System optimization
requires coordination and cooperation of the parts which requires leadership.
2. Knowledge about variation..that is, a knowledge of common cause
and special variation.Refers to Shewhart's concept of common or system causes
of variation and outside assignable or special causes of variation. Relates to the
Red Bead experiment and blaming people for variation caused by the system.
3. Theory of Knowledge. that is, how we learn things . Knowledge
depends on theory. Information is not knowledge. Experience teaches nothing
without theory. Practice makes permanent, not perfect. Copying examples does
not lead to knowledge.
4. Knowledge of Psychology. that is, what motivates people. Leaders
must understand human behavior to motivate, coordinate and manage people to
optimize the system.
Deming's Fourteen Points
1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay
in business, and to provide jobs.
2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their
responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.
3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the
product in the first place.
4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimise total cost. Move toward a single supplier for
any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.
5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus
constantly decrease costs.
6. Institute training on the job.
7. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is
in need of overhaul, as well as supervision of production workers.
8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company.
9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems
of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.
10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such
exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie
beyond the power of the work force.
11a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership.
11b. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.
12a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors
must be changed from sheer numbers to quality.
12b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of
workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objective.
13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job.
Thinking Levels
• Level 7: Thinking (Philosophical & Logical)
• Level 6: Creating
• Level 5: Evaluating
• Level 4: Analyzing
• Level 3: Applying
• Level 2: Understanding
• Level 1: Remembering
Thinking Level No. 1: Remembering
1. Factual answers, recall and recognition. Recalling information. Recognizing, listing, describing, retrieving,
2. Cognitive: Can read a text to find specific details
3. Metacognitive: Knows a range of ways of finding which texts might contain specific details
4. Verbs: Tell, List, Describe, Relate, Locate, Write, Find, State, Name, Identify, Label,
Recall, Define, Recognise, Match, Reproduce, Memorise, Draw, Select, Write,
5. Knowledge acquisition: involves the identification of new knowledge, which can be read or heard.
6. Associated thinking skills: Memorisation
7. Materials Situations: Events, people, newspapers, magazine articles, definitions, videos, dramas,
textbooks, films, television programs, recordings, media presentations
8. Potential Activies & Products: Make a list of the main events. Make a timeline of events. Make a facts
chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. List all the
…in the story. Make a chart showing.. Make an acrostic. Recite a poem
9. Level 1— Unilateral Descriptions: define terms, paraphrase information, restate the
question but add little or nothing new to the issue or question.
10. Hat colour: White
11. Concerns: facts, figures, information.
12. Key questions to involve in activities: What information do we have? What information do we need to get?

· Cognitive: What to do (Can undertake a task)

Metacognitive: How to do it: (Know how to approach it, the different ways of doing it,
having methods available and understanding a range of possible processes
and strategies)
Thinking Level No. 2: Understanding
1. Translating, interpreting, showing understanding. Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising,
paraphrasing, classifying, explaining
2. Cognitive: Can answer questions about a document that has been read
3. Metacognitive: Knows how to pick out key features of documents,and how to identify those things
not known
4. Verbs: Explain, Interpret, Outline, Discuss, Distinguish,Predict, Restate, Translate,
Compare, Describe, Relate, Generalise, Summarise, Put into your own words,
Paraphrase, Convert, Demonstrate, Visualise, Find out more information about
5. Comprehension: involves being able to demonstrate an understanding of particular
knowledge or information presented.
6. Associated thinking skills: Question, discuss, explanation, doing a task
7. Materials Situations: Speech, stories, drama, cartoons, diagrams, graphs, summaries, outlines,
analogies, posters, bulletin boards.
8. Potential Activies & Products: Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you
think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence
of events. Retell the story in your own words.
9. Paint a picture of some aspect you like. Write a summary report of an event.Prepare a flow chart to illustrate
the sequence of events. Make a colouring book.Level 2—Simplistic Alternatives: take a side but do not explore
other alternatives; they make unsupported assertions or simplistic arguments.
10. Hat colour: Red
11. Concerns: emotion, feelings, hunches, intuition
12. Key questions to involve in activities: What do I feel about this matter right now?
Thinking Level No. 3 Applying
1. Using information gained in different, familiar situations. Using information in another familiar situation
Implementing, carrying out, using, executing.
2. Cognitive: Can use information or techniques in other contexts or
3. Metacognitive: Knows which techniques to use to recall specific information or
skills in a range of situations
4. Verbs: Solve, Show, Use, Illustrate, Construct Complete, Examine Classify, Choose Interpret, Make
Put together, Change, Apply,Produce, Translate, Calculate, Manipulate, Modify, put into
ractice Modify, put into practice.
5. Application: involves the use of knowledge in another context, perhaps through writing in another form or
talking about a written text.
6. Associated thinking skills: Abstraction and transfer
7. Materials Situations: Diagrams, sculptures, illustrations, dramatisations, forecasts, problems, puzzles,
organisations, classifications, rules, systems, routines.
8. Potential Activies & Products: Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Make a diorama to
illustrate an important event. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a papier-mache map to
include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular
point. Make up a puzzle game showing the ideas from an area of study. Make a clay model of an item in the
area. Design a market strategy for your product. Dress a doll in costume. Paint a mural. Write a textbook
9. Level 3—Basic Analysis/Reasoning: make a serious attempt to construct an argument or to analyze multiple
arguments by appealing to simple evidence for support.
10. Hat colour: Black
11. Concerns: caution, truth, judgement, fitting the facts
12. Key questions to involve in activities: Does this fit the facts? Will it work? Is it safe? Can it be done?
Thinking Level No. 4: Analyzing:
1. Break into parts to examine more closely. Breaking information into parts to
explore Understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing,
interrogating, Finding.
2. Cognitive: Can ask questions about information, and can compare and
contrast answers with existing knowledge or understanding
3. Metacognitive: Knows a range of techniques that can be used when questions are
asked of information or data
4. Verbs: Analyse, Distinguish, Examine, Compare Contrast, Investigate
Categorise, Identify Explain, Separate Advertise, Take apart
Differentiate, Subdivide, deduce,
5. Materials Situations: Surveys, questionnaires, arguments, models, displays,
demonstrations, diagrams, systems, conclusions, reports, graphed information
6. Analysis: involves being able to elicit questions about information that is given or
presented, and to find ways of answering these questions.
7. Associated thinking skills: Categorising, characterisation, comparison, contrast
8. Potential Activies & Products: Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write
a commercial to sell a new product. Conduct an investigation to produce
information to support a point of view. Construct a graph to illustrate selected
Information. Make a jigsaw puzzle. Make a family tree showing relationships. Put
on a play about he study area. Write a biography of the study person. Prepare a
report. Arrange a party and record as a procedure. Review apiece of art including
form, colour and texture
Thinking Level No. 5: Evaluating:
1. Judge, use criteria, rank, substantiate. Justifying a decision or course of action Checking,
hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging
2. Cognitive: Can bring together information from a range of sources and create a
coherent outcome
3. Metacognitive: Knows a range of techniques that will enable coherent outcomes to be
created when a range of sources of information and details are being used
4. Verbs: Judge, Select, Choose, Decide, Justify, Debate, Verify, Argue, Recommend,
Assess, Discuss, Rate, Prioritise, Determine, Critique, Evaluate, Criticise,
Weigh, Value, estimate, defend
5. Materials Situations: Recommendations, self-evaluations, group discussions, debates,
court trials, standards, editorials, and values.
6. Potential Activies & Products: Prepare a list of criteria to judge Remember to
indicate priorities and ratings. Conduct a debate about a special issue. Make a booklet about
5 rules you see as important to convince others. Form a panel to discuss views. Write a letter
to.... advising on changes needed at … Write a half yearly report. Present your point of view.
7. Synthesis: involves being able to use a range of sources, to draw together common themes,
and to bring together a coherent explanation that accounts for the range of details observed.
8. Associated thinking skills: Collating, creating
9. Level 5—Empirical Inference: add to the level of sophistication by introducing empirical
evidence to strengthen their theoretical argument; they examine appropriate, historical data
to evaluate the validity of an argument and draw a conclusion based upon these results.
10. Hat colour: Green
11. Concerns: exploration, proposals, suggestions, new ideas, alternatives for action
12. Key questions to involve in activities: What can we do here? Are there some different
Thinking Level No. 6: Creating:
1. Combine information with new situations to create new products, ideas, etc. Generating new
ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing,
2. Cognitive: Can make decisions about information or ideas using a specific range of
criteria Metacognitive: Knows the techniques that enable evaluation to be
undertaken reasonably and reliably
3. Verbs: Create, Invent, Compose, Predict Plan, Construct Design, Imagine Propose,
Devise Formulate, Combine, Hypothesize, Originate, Add to, Forecast,
4. Materials Situations: Experiments, games, songs, reports, poems, speculations,
creations, art, inventions, drama, rules.
5. Evaluation: involves a critical review and reflection from which judgements can arise
but which should be informed.
6. Associated thinking skills: Relevancy, ordering, prioritising, judgement
7. Potential Activies & Products: Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building
to house your study. Create a new product, give it a name and then devise a marketing
strategy. Write about your feeling sin relation to …Design a record, book or magazine cover.
Sell an idea. Devise a way to …Compose a rhythm or put new words to an old song.
8. Level 6— Merging Values with Analysis: Be able to move beyond objective analysis to
incorporate subjective interests.
9. Hat colour: Blue
10. Concerns: Thinking about thinking
11. Key questions to involve in activities: Where are we now? What is the next step? What
order is needed? How can we summarise?
Thinking Level No. 7:
Philosophical & Logical Level of Thinking:
Reflective Thinking: Choosing with Purpose, Power and Intention.
Epistemological assumption: (The philosophical theory of knowledge)
¾ One's understanding of the world is not "given" but must be actively constructed and that knowledge must be understood in
relationship to the context in which it was generated.
¾ Some interpretations or knowledge claims may be judged as more plausible than others.
¾ While absolute truth will never be ascertained with complete certainty, some views may be evaluated as more reasonable
¾ Judgments must not only be grounded in relevant data, but that they must also be evaluated to determine their validity.
Criteria used to make such evaluations include, for example:
‰ Conceptual soundness
‰ Coherence (Logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts)
‰ Degree of fit with the data
‰ Meaningfulness
‰ Usefulness
‰ Parsimony (Extreme stinginess)

¾ Learning approaches that individuals might have: (Gardner (1991)

‰ Linguistic (related to language )
‰ Logical/mathematical
‰ Musical
‰ Kinaesthetic (The ability to feel movements of the limbs and body,Body Language)
‰ Spatial/visual (Pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space, "spatial ability"; "spatial
‰ Interpersonal (Occurring among or involving several people, or social)
‰ Intrapersonal/intrapreneur (A person employed to work independently within a
company in order to introduce innovation and to revitalize and diversify its
Area of intelligence & Possible Software

1. Linguistic : Word Processing, Story Books, Mathematical Spreadsheets

2. Musical : Composing Software, Logo ,CD-ROMs, Talking Books
3. Kinaesthetic: Collaborative Projects, Data Logging And Control
Activities, E-Mail, Interactive whiteboards
4. Visual Spatial: Presentation Software, DTP, Video Clips, Digital
Cameras, Art Packages, Interactive whiteboards
5. Intrapersonal: Myself Databases, Internet Research, Word
6. Interpersonal: E-Mail, Collaborative Activities, Newspaper
Publishing, Video Conferencing, Interactive whiteboards
Levels of Meaning in Business .
﴾ ً ‫ﻋﻠْﻤﺎ‬
ِ ‫ب ِز ْدﻧِﻲ‬
ِّ ‫﴿ َو ُﻗ ْﻞ َر‬
And say:
"My Lord! Increase me in knowledge."

Thank you!
End of Presentation