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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

LABORATORY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Traffic volume can be defined as the number of vehicle or pedestrians passing as a
given point on a lane or carriageway during a specified period of time. Traffic volume
studies are widely known as traffic counts and they are carried out to determine the basic
traffic data such as the number (volumes), classifications and directional movements of
roadway vehicles and pedestrians at a selected location. Traffic volume data can assist in
determining traffic flows or flow rates which describe the number of vehicles or pedestrians
per unit time passing (arriving or departing) a given reference point.
The various volume counts taken over different lengths of time are usually expressed in
vehicles per hour (vph).Other traffic volume characteristics obtained are average annual
daily traffic (AADT), average daily traffic (ADT), peak hour volume (PHV), and vehicle
miles of travel (VMT). The documentation of volume trends, critical flow time periods and
the influence of heavy and slow vehicles or motorcyclists or pedestrians on overall
vehicular traffic flow can be illustrated.
The sampling period depends very much on the intended use of the data recorded, the
resources available to the counting agency, the nature of the location being studied and the
type of count. Counting can be done from as low as 5-minute intervals to as much as a year.
In these studies, both manual and automatic counts are included in Part 1 and Part II
respectively.

2.0 OBJECTIVE
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To determine vehicle composition in the traffic flow stream.


To observe the traffic flow trend and movement pattern.
To estimate hourly volume and the average daily traffic (ADT).

3.0 APPARATUS
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Safety vest
Stop watch
Field data
Clip board
Mechanical hand counter

4.0 PROCEDURE
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LABORATORY
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Necessary preparations such as an accurate watch is performed and the correct time
was set, sufficient pens, field data forms and clipboards, mechanical hand tally
counters that are in good condition, safety vests and others.
Enumerators were arrived 30 minutes earlier at the site in order to familiarize with
location, distribute the equipment, fill in the general information of the tally forms
that comprised of sheet number, station ID, enumerators name, date, weather
condition and time to start or finish.
Enumerators have to do field measurements in order to define existing geometric
dimension for the intersection under study.
The layout of the intersection was sketched and dimensioned.
The current traffic movements (through, left turn, and right turn) were identified and
begun at the planned time.
Proper observers position was selected so that they can see clearly, safely and easily
count the traffic.
The counting is done at each lane of each intersection approach for volume
conditions.
The data is checked before leaving the field.

5.0 RECOMMENDATION
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Students should wear proper attire when entering the lab such as the lab jacket, long
trousers, and fully covered shoes. The safety vest is compulsory to wear before start
the experiment.
Students are not allowed to play around while they are in the lab to avoid accident
and severe injuries.
Choose the spot for taking the reading wisely and avoid sharp corner spot in order to
prevent dangerous act.
The instructions, objectives of the experiment, and materials were understood before
beginning work in lab.
Use clean sheet for recording data in order to prevent errors.
Communicate wisely among group members.
To get a proper results, the study should be conducted in a longer time span,
considering the factor of day and time.
It is also recommended to not conducting the test at peak time, since it is too
obvious and will badly affect the result.
Besides, locations with many obstructions are not good for the testing, especially
where a construction works is in progress.

6.0 RESULT
Traffic Volume
VEHICLE
CLASSIFICATION

DIRECTION MOVEMENT
3
4

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

Car/Taxi

Van & utilities

Lorry

Medium Lorry

Buses

Motorcycle

1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total
1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total

22
33
30
44
32.25

14
13
9
17
13.25

0
0
0
2
0.5

0
0
0
0
0

1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total

1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0

1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total

0
0
0
0
0

1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total

6
5
4
6
5.25

1st trial
2nd trial
3rd trial
4th trial
Average
Total

8
9
33
41
22.75

73
75
95
104
86.75
161
1
1
4
1
1.75
3

31
30
27
17
26.25

0
0
1
2
0.75

0
2
2
2
1.5

0
0
1
2
0.75

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0.25

0
0
1
0
0.25

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

13
22
25
32
23

2
3
3
7
3.75

4
3
1
3
2.75

1.5
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0.5
5.75

5
4
4
8
5.25

48
54
68
60
57.5
115

Total Vehicles Passing The All Lanes


Time

Car/taxi

Van &
Utilities

Lorry

Medium
Lorry

Bus

Motorcycle

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

15

140

80

30

153

95

45

164

134

60

186

151

Total

643

12

23

460

Percentage
(%)

55.5

0.5

40

Each Types of Vehicles Passing all Lanes

Car/taxi

Van & Utilities

Lorry

Medium Lorry

Bus

Motorcycle

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LABORATORY

TOTAL VEHICLES PASSING LANES ACCORDING TIME


400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
9.15-9.30

9.30-9.45

9.45-10.00

10.00-10.15

TOTAL VEHICLES PASSING LANES ACCORDING TIME


400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

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MAWAR SQUARE

LABORATORY

Intersection Diagram:

MAIN ROAD

Hourly volume
Total vehicles passing lane according to time
Time

Volume
(vehicles)

9.15-9.30
9.30-9.45
9.45-10.00
10.00-10.15

230
255
309
350

9.15 ~ 10.15
Rate of flow ; (9.15 9.30) =

1144

(volume (veh) x 60)15


=

Hourly volume =

Rate of
flow
(veh/h)
920
1020
1236
1400

(230 x 60)15 = 920 veh/h

(Total Rate of Flow)4


=

(920+1020+1236+1400)4 = 1144 veh/h


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LABORATORY

Average Daily Traffic (ADT)


VEHICLES CLASSIFICATION
Car / Taxi
Van & utility
van besar/lori sedang
lori besar
Buses
Motorcycles

VOLUME (veh)
161
3
2
0
6
115

Total (veh in 60 minutes)


ADT (veh per minutes)
ADT (veh per day)

287
4.783
6888

ADT = Total volume (veh) / 60


= 287 / 60 min
= 4.783 veh per minutes x 60 x 24
= 6888 veh per day.

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LABORATORY

7.0 DISCUSSION
Traffic volume study was carried out to count the number of vehicles passing a specific
reference point on a road section within a specified period of time. Each mechanical hand
tally counter represents each flow. The study shows that the number of each type of vehicles
passes from each direction, as well as the number of each vehicles passes from each
direction in every 15 minutes within an hour, from 0915 a.m. up to 1015 a.m. For each 15
minutes that had been conducted with the number of vehicles taken, result for peak hour for
the road can be taken.
Throughout the observation, the traffic volume increases from 09:15 to 09:30 and from
10:00 to 10:15. While, the traffic volume decreases from 09:30 to 10:00. Direction 3
recorded as the highest number of vehicles travelled the selected location which is 587
vehicles in total. At the same time, Direction 1 recorded 267 vehicles in total which falls
under the second highest vehicle volume passes the location. In contrast, both Direction 5
and Direction 6 recorded as the lowest vehicle volume travelled the same location
throughout the study, which are 18 and 17 in total respectively. This indicates that there are
more vehicle travelled in the main road (from Gate 1 and Gate 2) compared to the minor
road (from Laboratory of Civil Engineering).
More than half of the vehicle passes the selected location are cars which are recorded about
55.24%. Motorcycles record as the second highest vehicle travelled the selected location
(41.24%), followed by buses (1.98%), van & utilities (1.03%) and medium lorry (0.52%).
There is no heavy lorry passing the intersection recorded throughout the study.
Flow rate of vehicles per hour was calculated to estimate the peak hour factor (PHF) which
represents the ratio of total hourly volume to the maximum flow rate within 1 hour. Average
vehicles volume per hour was calculated in order to estimate the average daily traffic (ADT)
to measure present demand of traffic flow per hour and per day.

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LABORATORY

8.0 CONCLUSION
Based on the data collected and analyzed from traffic volume study, the traffic volume
observed in the selected location can be considered falls under LOS B. From the analysis of
the data collected, the most critical time period is from 10:00 to 10:15 a.m., where the
traffic volume in the intersection increases.
Since there were no heavy vehicles pass through the intersection, the effect of the heavy
vehicles will reduce the traffic volume. Changing the lanes for these vehicles which will
reduce the speed of the passenger cars and the other vehicles and this will reduce the flow.

9.0 REFERENCES

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY
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10.0

Tahmidul Islam Tarabi, Report on Traffic Volume Study, date of retrieved 17th
September 2014 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/59266481/Report-on-TrafficVolume-Study
Farhan Haider, Traffic Engineering Laboratory, date of retrieved 17th September
2014
from
http://www.uet.edu.pk/export/sites/UETWebPortal/faculties/facultiesinfo/transportati
on_management/labs/Traffic_Enginn_lab.pdf
Muzhafar Kamal, Junction Capacity-Highway Lab Report, date of retrieved 17th
September 2014 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/237179125/Traffic-JunctionHighway-lab-Report
Setting Local Speed Limits (2012). Retrieved on 13th November 2014 from
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/2733/
setting-local-speed-limits.pdf

APPENDIX

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

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