tutorial and exercise on algebraic vectors

© All Rights Reserved

13 views

tutorial and exercise on algebraic vectors

© All Rights Reserved

- AP Physics B - Kinematics Review
- Chapter 1 Version 1 of Vector Analysis Written by Hameed Ullah
- Coordinate Transformation
- Microsoft Power Point - STATICS Handouts 3
- 02AP Physics C - Vectors
- force resultants
- Degree Regular 1
- 계산기메뉴얼
- Slides 2.1-2.3 F12.pdfPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/JewettPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/JewettPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/Jewett
- Cal133 Multiplication of Vectors the Scalar or Dot Product
- Chapter 04
- Geometric Computing in Computer Graphics Using Conformal Geometric Algebra
- mechanics 2
- strang vectors
- strang crossproduct
- 鍏ㄩ泦+Time-harmonic+electromagnetic+fields+Harrington+R.F
- IA-06Triple Product and Product of Four Vectors(31-36)
- 2D Vectors MS
- AS-AL_SOW_9702_v3_1
- Lecture 2 Vectors (3)

You are on page 1of 24

To represent a vector numerically, we do this in a very similar manner as

coordinate points, i.e. we split the vector movement into a horizontal followed

by a vertical component.

Example

a is 2 squares to the right followed by

3 squares up.

We write this as

a=

b=

2

3

d=

2

3

2

3

Page

c=

2

3

Consider

1

3

followed by

4

2

The equivalent is

1

3

5

1

4

2

5

1

corresponding components:

Example:

2

3

2

3

1

4

1

4

2 (1)

(3) 4

2 (1)

(3) 4

that number:

Example:

2x

2

3

2 x 2

2 x (3)

Page

4

6

Exercise 3

1.

2

3

1

4

4. If u =

3

4

3

9

2

5

5.

2.

1

3

, v=

6

8

and w =

6.

3

10

2

1

2

4

3.

1

2

, find (a) u + v

3

7

7.

5

7

(b) u + v + w

a

b

c

d

8. Find x:

(a) x +

9. u =

1

2

2

3

and v =

3

1

(a) 3u + 3v

10. p =

3

1

and q =

(a) 3(p + q)

5

7

(b) x -

2

3

5

7

, find

(b) 3(u + v)

1

5

(c) 5u - 5v

, find

(b)

Page

(d) 5(u - v)

This is another method of writing the components of a vector in an easier

form.

as i.

1

0

0

1

as j.

combinations if i's and j's.

2

3

Example:

= 2i + 3j

numerical form - simply combine the appropriate components.

Example:

In numerical form

3

2

In i, j form

4

1

7

3

Exercise 4

1. u =

3

2

and v =

(a) 2u + 5v

2. u =

2

2

,v=

1

3

(a) 2v + u

3. a =

5

2

,b=

(a) 3b - c

4

1

4

3

(b) 4u - 3v

and w =

2

1

(b) 3v - w

and c =

2

1

(c) 2w - u

(b) b - 2a

Page

(c) 3c - 4b

(a) 2p + q

(b) p - 3q

(c) 3p + 2q

(d) 2(p + q)

(e) -4p - q

(f) 2p - 4q

Position Vectors

This is the vector from the origin to a given point.

Example:

y

4

3

2

1

O

3

3

4

= 3i + 4j.

Note that the coordinates of A are the components of its position vector.

We can use the position vectors of two points to find the vector joining the two

points.

Example:

Page

y

A

a

O

x

b

B

a = 6i + j

b = 5i - 4j

A

a

O

b

B

AB = -a + b = b - a

This rule can be used to find the vector joining any two points if we know the

coordinates of the points and hence their position vectors.

In words, the rule states that the vector from one point to another is the

position vector of the SECOND point minus the position vector of the FIRST

point.

For the above example, AB = b - a

= (6i + j) - (5i - 4j)

= i + 5j or

Example:

1

5

p = 5i + 2j

PQ

q = -2i - 3j

=q-p

Page

= -7i - 5j

Page

Exercise 5

1. P is the point (2,3) and Q is the point (7,5). Write down the position vectors

of OP and OQ in component form. Calculate the components of the vector

PQ.

B is the point (6,2)

C is the point (-2, 1).

(a) Find a, b and c.

(b) Find AB, BC and CA.

For each of these points find its position vector in terms if i and j.

Page

Answers

Exercise 3

1.

1

1

5.

1

4

9. (a)

2.

6.

3

2

5

3

7.

12

3

10. (a)

3.

12

12

(b)

12

3

(b)

1

3

6

5

4. (a)

a c

b d

8. (a)

(c)

10

15

(c)

11

25

3

4

2

7

(b)

(b)

7

10

(d)

10

15

0

6

Exercise 4

1. (a)

26

11

2. (a)

0

8

3. (a)

14

2

, 26i + 11j

, 8j

4. (a) 5i - j

(b)

1

8

(b)

, i + 8j

, -14i + 2j

(c)

(b)

(b) -i - 18j

0

17

6

5

(c) 8i + j

, -17j

6

0

, 6i

, 6i + 5j

(c)

(d) 6i + 4j

(e) -9i + 7j

Exercise 5

1. OP =

2

3

, OQ =

7

5

, PQ =

5

2

0 4 4

2. 1 , 2 , 3

3. (a)

4

0

4. a = 4i

6 2

, 2 , 1

b = -3i + j

10

7

2 8 6

(b) 2 , 1 , 1

c = -6j

Page

d = i - 3j

, -10i + 7j

(f) -26j

Page

Consider a =

3

4

a

4

3

We write the length of a as | a |.

We can use Pythagoras's Theorem to find the length of a.

| a | = (32 + 42) = 5

In general, if p =

a

b

Exercise 1

1. Write down the lengths of the following, leaving in square roots where

necessary.

(a)

2

1

(e)

3

2

(b)

1

8

(f)

4

3

(c)

4

7

(d)

12

5

(a) If |u| = |v| then u = v

(b) If u = v then |u| = |v|

3. Calculate the magnitude of the vector PQ is P and Q are the points:

(a) (5, 0) and (10, 4)

Page

Answers

Exercise 1

1. (a) 5

(b) 65

2. (a) F

(b) T

3. (a) 41

(b) 10

(c) 65

(d) 13

(c) 41

(d) 58

Page

Vectors can be represented mathematically in two ways: Cartesian form

(horizontal and vertical components), and polar form (magnitude and

direction).

A vector is represented by a straight line whose length is proportional to the

magnitude of the vector, and with an arrow pointing in the direction in which

the vector is acting.

c

at an angle to the horizontal.

This is written

ac = | ac |

component ab (or x) and a vertical component bc (or y).

ab = |ac| cos

bc = |ac| sin

For example, a displacement of 5 metres at an angle of 30 o to the horizontal

can be represented in polar form as 5 30o

and in Cartesian form as 5 cos 30o = 4.33 horizontally

5 sin 30o = 2.5 vertically.

So the vector 5 30o can be said to be the resultant of 4.33 horizontally plus

2.5 vertically.

This is written as (4.33, 2.5)

Page

If the vector ac is represented in Cartesian form as x horizontally and y

vertically then

|ac| = (x2 + y2)

and = tan-1 (y/x)

For example, the resultant of a force 6 kN horizontally and a force of 4 kN

vertically is a force of

(36 + 16) = 7.21 kN

at an angle of tan-1 (2/3) = 33.82o

This is written as 7.21 33.82o

TUTORIAL

Q1. Determine by calculation the magnitude and direction of the force F in

each of the following, and hence express in polar form:

a)

b)

c)

d)

following vectors:

a)

8 35o

b)

21 83o

c)

6.5 54o

d)

15.8 65o

e)

12.4 42o

f)

16 28o

Page

ANSWERS

Q1.

a) 10 53.1o

b) 7.6 23.2o

c) 10.6 37o

a) (6.55, 4.59)

b) (2.56, 20.84)

c) (3.82, 5.26)

d) (6.68, 14.3)

e) (9.21, 8.30)

f) (14.13, 7.51)

d) 14.6 32.7o

Q2.

Page

DotProduct

Thesearevectors:

Theycanbemultipliedusingthe"DotProduct"

Calculating

YoucancalculatetheDotProductoftwovectorsthisway:

ab=|a||b|cos()

Where:

|a|isthemagnitude(length)ofvectora

|b|isthemagnitude(length)ofvectorb

istheanglebetweenaandb

Sowemultiplythelengthofatimesthelengthofb,thenmultiplybythecosineof

theanglebetweenaandb

ORyoucancalculateitthisway:

Page

ab=axbx+ayby

Sowemultiplythex's,multiplythey's,thenadd.

Bothmethodswork!

Example:Calculatethedotproductofvectorsaandb:

ab=|a||b|cos()

ab=1013cos(59.5)

ab=10130.5075...

ab=65.98...=66(rounded)

ab=axbx+ayby

ab=65+812

ab=30+96

ab=66

Bothmethodscameupwiththesameresult(afterrounding)

Alsonotethatweusedminus6forax(itisheadinginthenegativexdirection)

Page

RightAngles

Whentwovectorsareatrightanglestoeachotherthedotproductiszero.

Example:calculatetheDotProductfor:

ab=|a||b|cos()

ab=|a||b|cos(90)

ab=|a||b|0

ab=0

ab=axbx+ayby

ab=1212+169

ab=144+144

ab=0

Thiscanbeahandywaytofindoutiftwovectorsareatrightangles.

Page

ThreeorMoreDimensions

Thisallworksfinein3(ormore)dimensions,too.

Example:Findtheanglebetweenthefollowingvectors:

Wehave3dimensions,sodon'tforgetthezcomponents:

ab=axbx+ayby+azbz

ab=94+28+710

ab=36+16+70

ab=122

Nowfortheotherformula:

ab=|a||b|cos()

Butwhatis|a|?Itisthemagnitude,orlength,ofthevectora.Wecanuse

Pythagoras:

|a|=(42+82+102)

|a|=(16+64+100)

|a|=180

Likewisefor|b|:

Page

|b|=(92+22+72)

|b|=(81+4+49)

|b|=134

Andweknowfromthecalculationabovethatab=122,so:

ab=|a||b|cos()

122=180134cos()

cos()=122/(180134)

cos()=0.7855...

=cos1(0.7855...)=38.2...

TheDotProductgivesascalar(ordinarynumber)answer,andissometimescalled

thescalarproduct.

Page

Page

Page

Page

a . b=|a||b|cos

Note this is similar to the Dot product formula, except sin is used instead

of cos.

EXAMPLE

If |a|=12 , and |b|=10 , and the angle between the vectors is 40o, find

the magnitude of the cross product.

EXERCISE

Calculate the CROSS PRODUCT magnitude for the following vectors:

1.

2.

|a|=1.4 , |b|=0.433 , =2

[ |a b|=11.7 ]

[ |a b|=0.0212

|a|=4 , |b|=1 , =5

|a|=4 , |b|=1 , =90

|a|=2.34 , |b|=9.34 , =13.3

[ |a b|=0.349 ]

[ |a b|=4 ]

[ |a b|=5.03 ]

]

3.

4.

5.

Page

- AP Physics B - Kinematics ReviewUploaded bymrbirrell
- Chapter 1 Version 1 of Vector Analysis Written by Hameed UllahUploaded bySikandar Khan
- Coordinate TransformationUploaded bymiracle0102010513
- Microsoft Power Point - STATICS Handouts 3Uploaded byMikko Valdez
- 02AP Physics C - VectorsUploaded byFastopio
- force resultantsUploaded byalagar krishna kumar
- Degree Regular 1Uploaded byAjibade Taofik
- 계산기메뉴얼Uploaded byChang Hyun Cho
- Slides 2.1-2.3 F12.pdfPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/JewettPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/JewettPhysics for Scientists and Engineers (Vol. 1), 8th Edition, Serway/JewettUploaded byJames Young
- Cal133 Multiplication of Vectors the Scalar or Dot ProductUploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- Chapter 04Uploaded byHaiqal Aziz
- Geometric Computing in Computer Graphics Using Conformal Geometric AlgebraUploaded byneilwu
- mechanics 2Uploaded byKarren Medrano
- strang vectorsUploaded byapi-261282952
- strang crossproductUploaded byapi-261282952
- 鍏ㄩ泦+Time-harmonic+electromagnetic+fields+Harrington+R.FUploaded byAnish Devnani
- IA-06Triple Product and Product of Four Vectors(31-36)Uploaded bybimal prasad
- 2D Vectors MSUploaded bygzautan
- AS-AL_SOW_9702_v3_1Uploaded bySubarna Lamsal
- Lecture 2 Vectors (3)Uploaded byCamille Jesca Bernardez
- Truss ElementUploaded byRavishanker Baliga
- Engineering Mechanics 1Uploaded byishan
- ResnickUploaded byRubens Vilhena Fonseca
- Mid 2005Uploaded byDarrshan Cool
- Test2Uploaded byRajat Kalia
- BsifUploaded byPawan Dubey
- Cross ProductUploaded byLaghari Hassan Xoheb
- Chapter 9_ Sources of the Magnetic FieldUploaded byPhuc Huy Nguyen Phuong
- Linear Algebra- Inner Product SpacesUploaded byS B
- 1d kinematicsUploaded byEdgar Ubalde

- Our crumbling buildings, glasgowUploaded byChris Findlay
- 06-GB Moment ConnectionsUploaded bycbler
- Cleaning Sandstone - risksUploaded byChris Findlay
- Floor SystemsUploaded byChris Findlay
- Tatasteel-patternbook.pdfUploaded byChris Findlay
- Evolution and Sustainability of in-situ Concrete Flat Slabs in Office BuildingsUploaded byChris Findlay
- Abstract - Sustainability - Assessment of the PotentialUploaded byChris Findlay
- wave energyUploaded byChris Findlay
- Structural Efficiency (1)Uploaded byChris Findlay
- 6-Bridge Inspection and Repair Methods-Timber Bridge Repair Details and Best PracticesUploaded byChris Findlay
- Part-7.pdfUploaded byBiswajeet Panda
- TBMM_Part2Uploaded byChris Findlay
- ACI 211.1Uploaded byduke5550
- 7936 Anacostia Riverwalk Trail Pedestrian Bridge to the National Arboretum Project Synopsis Dec2017Uploaded byChris Findlay
- Yath Dalby Building Report 07Uploaded byChris Findlay
- Composite Slim Floor Beams with shear connectionsUploaded byChris Findlay
- F14-856 - Demolition and Site Clearance DocumentUploaded byChris Findlay
- Structural Steelwork Design Brief 2010-2011Uploaded byoloanodelpozo
- 3 Industrial FloorsUploaded byvikram_1578e
- AppendixHPreContractStageRiskRegister.pdfUploaded byChris Findlay
- Raymond JoyceUploaded byChris Findlay
- Mills Analysisofthecost 2010Uploaded byChris Findlay
- Appendix L Warrington Risk RegisterUploaded byChris Findlay
- Suds and the Draft Flood and Water Managent BillUploaded byChris Findlay
- Oddicombe Beach Chalet Rebuild - Risk RegisterUploaded byChris Findlay
- Moment Distribution MethodUploaded bySamuel Shim
- Wat Rm 08 Regulation of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems SudsUploaded byChris Findlay
- SBI-Sustainability_of_steel_framed_buildings.pdfUploaded byChris Findlay
- Economic aspects of using steel framed buildings with composite floors.pdfUploaded byChris Findlay

- Core 3 - Ch 2 - 1 - Trigonometry AdaptedUploaded byAhadh12345
- FINAL B.INGGRIS 2.pdfUploaded byAnri Bhocah Vanser
- 1.Plane Coordinate GeometryUploaded byPoh Koon Seng
- Bob Coecke and Ross Duncan- Interacting Quantum ObservablesUploaded bydcsi3
- test1solUploaded byyizzy
- 5.8-Rational Zero Theorem - StudentsUploaded byEnas Basheer
- Tactile Trigonometry HandoutUploaded bysmarie89
- Math Study Guide - Quadratic FunctionsUploaded byEducareLab
- 11th Maths Support Materia for Excell in StudyUploaded bycpverma2811
- Circles Arc Length and Sector Area EasyUploaded byKanokporn Leerungnavarat
- triangles unit testUploaded byapi-252821229
- MIT Exam1 s13 SolutionsUploaded byRoumen Guha
- rr10102-mathematics-iUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Bead on WireUploaded byAshish Bansal
- Physics Project on circular motionUploaded byishan
- GradientUploaded byMd. Nazmun Sadat Khan
- Licensure Examination in Mathematics - November 1997Uploaded byJeric Ponteras
- TAREA1(2)Uploaded byNancy santiago
- Byth T.S., Robertson E.F.-algebra Through Practice a Collection of Problems in Algebra With Solutions. Groups(1985)Uploaded byhippojunkie
- Fundamentals Warp TutorialUploaded bytomy_it
- 11 Maths NcertSolutions Chapter 10 3Uploaded byShishir Kant Singh
- 165 - Additive Number Theory 2.pdfUploaded byVishakh Kumar
- MODULE 2 LEARNING NOTES.docxUploaded bysamwel kiwale
- [Lahiri] Lecture Notes on Differential Geometry.pdfUploaded byJulian Rey
- The wavelet transform, Time-Frequency localization and Signal analysis. Daubechies.pdfUploaded byEusebio Alberto Ariza García
- Feibleman - What Science Really Means by Feibleman and FriendUploaded byJohannes Tinctoris
- 1 Laplace Transforms - Notes.pdfUploaded bySbo
- day 2 - segment length distance formula and midpointUploaded byapi-253195113
- Moment Diagram by Parts SolmanUploaded byJosell Caipang
- 15 462 Fall03 WrAssign1 AnswerUploaded byBayu Yudha Pratama

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.