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Stakeholder analysis can be defined as a methodology for gaining an

understanding of a
system, and for assessing the impact of changes to that system, by
means of identifying the
key stakeholders and assessing their respective interests

dapat diartikan sebagai metodologi untuk mencapai kesepakatan dalam


system, dan untuk mengkaji dampak dari perubahan system tersebut,
dengan mengidentifikasi stakholders kunci dan kepentingan mereka.
Stakeholder analysis is methodology to achieve common agreement
toward system and to assess the impact of its change by identifying the
key stakeholders and their interests.

Socio-Economic Methodologies Best Practice Guidelines: Stakeholder


Methodologies In Natural Resource Management

Governing can be considered as the totality of interactions, in


which public as well as private actors participate, aimed at solving
societal problems or creating societal opportunities; attending to
the institutions as contexts for these governing interactions; and
establishing a normative foundation for all those activities.
Governance can be seen as the totality of theoretical conceptions
on governing.

Many different labels have been used to describe the interactive


patterns of multiple organizational systems, and we employ
collaboration as our primary descriptor of managing across
governments and organizations. In the public administration literature,
the term governance is often used to describe a wide range of
organization types that are linked together and engaged in public

activities, enlarging (and changing) the domain of government.


Governance connotes that more than public agencies are involved
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of Collaboration / 21
in the formulation and implementation of policy, which suggests
the declining relationship between jurisdiction and public management
(Frederickson 1999, 702). Although Frederickson identifies governance as an emergent managerial phenomenon, others
point to the increasing number of structural relationships between
public and nonpublic organizations, and the increasingly complex
mixes of public and private activities that must be incorporated
into frameworks of understanding, regardless of their impact
(Campbell and Peters 1988). It is within this latter framework that
we look to current governance as involving multiple organizations
and connections that are necessary to carry out public purposes.

Dengan demikian DAS merupakan satuan wilayah alami yang


memberikan manfaat produksi serta memberikan pasokan air melalui
sungai, air tanah, dan atau mata air, untuk memenuhi berbagai
kepentingan hidup, baik untuk manusia, flora maupun fauna. Untuk
memperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan berkelanjutan perlu disusun
sistem perencanaan pengelolaan DAS yang obyektif dan rasional.
Perencanaan pengelolaan DAS bersifat dinamis karena dinamika proses
yang terjadi di dalam DAS, baik proses alam, politik, sosial ekonomi
kelembagaan, maupun teknologi yang terus berkembang.
Watershed is a natural unit which productively beneficial and providing
water supply through river, groundwater, and or water spring, to sustain
livelihood for human, flora and fauna.

Daerah aliran sungai (DAS), yang dipandang sebagai ekosistem tata air
dan digunakan sebagai unit pengelolaan sumberdaya alam vegetasi,
tanah dan air yang rasional, merupakan wilayah daratan dengan batas
alam berupa punggung-punggung bukit sehingga tidak selalu bisa
berhimpitan dengan batas administrasi pemerintahan.
Watershed as hydrological ecosystem and rational natural resources
management unit is terrestrial area with natural boundaries such as ridge,
hence it is not always tangent with administrative boundaries.
Dengan demikian perbedaan batas wilayah tersebut tidak perlu
dipertentangkan tetapi perlu ditata keselarasannya, agar keterkaitan
antar wilayah administrasi dalam satuan DAS bisa terhubung secara
serasi melalui jalinan daur hidrologi. Penggunaan DAS sebagai satuan
wilayah pengelolaan adalah untuk memberikan pemahaman secara
rasional dan obyektif bahwa setiap kegiatan yang dilakukan di suatu
tempat (on site) di bagian hulu DAS memiliki dampak atau implikasi di
tempat lain (off site) di bagian hilir DAS; atau sebaliknya bahwa
pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam di wilayah hilir merupakan hasil dari
daerah hulu yang secara daerah otonomi atau administrasi berbeda
wilayah pengelolaannya.

Menurut Dixon (1986), pengelolaan DAS didefinisikan sebagai proses


formulasi dan implementasi dari suatu rangkaian kegiatan yang
menyangkut sumberdaya alam dan manusia dalam suatu DAS dengan
memperhitungkan kondisi sosial, politik, ekonomi dan faktor-faktor
institusi yang ada di DAS dan di sekitarnya untuk mencapai tujuan sosial
yang spesifi

According to Dixon (1986) cit Paimin (2002), Watershed management can


be defined as formulation and implementation process of activities series
regarding to the natural and human resources by considering condition of
social, politic, economy, and institutional factors in adjacent watershed to
reach specific social objectives.