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School Needlework
A

Course of Study in Sewing designed


in Schools

for nse

OLIVE
Teacher of Sewing

C.
in

HAPGOOD
Boston Public Schools

" Learfi the sound qtialities of all useful siuffs, and tnake everything
and theti, every day, make
of the best you can get, avhatever its price.
some little piece of usefid clothing, seivn ivith your own fingers as strongly
as it can be stitched ; and embroider it or other^vise beautify it moderately
with fine needlework, such as a girl may be protcd of having done^
.

John Ruskin.

PUPIL'S EDITION

BOSTON,

U.S.A.

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS

Tr7/o

Copyright,

By olive

C.

1892,

HAPGOOD.

ALL kIGHTS RESERVED.


24.12

<3inn

Si

Company?

Ebe Btbena^um press


JBoston

PREFACE.

The

importance of instruction

now

School

is

comes

into greater prominence,

are necessary.

The demand

author, and this book


in the class-room.

and pupil

in

sewing

is

Its

in the Public

As manual

generally recognized.

training

new methods and

for these

was

helps

by the

felt

the result of practical experience

purpose

lightening the

is

to assist both teacher

teacher's

labors

by saving

constant repetition, and giving the pupil a manual for


reference, with the

hope that the information

thus- ac-

quired will assist in fitting her for the duties of

life.

Simplicity with completeness has been the aim throughout.

In the teacher's edition, the work

is

further supple-

mented by practical hints and suggestions as to successful


methods of teaching the lessons, and by courses of study
for Kindergarten, Primary, and Industrial Sewing.
It
also contains a

cabinet,

list

of

articles obtainable

for a

sewing

and talks on kindred subjects.

The author wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to


the teachers who have so kindly assisted her, and to
members of the School Board for their advice and interest
in the preparation of the work.

CONTENTS.

PART

I.

I'AGE.

General Directions

PART

II.

Plain Sewing

PART

13

III.

Ornamental Stitches

115

PART

IV.

Drafting, Cutting, and Making Garments

PART

129

170

V.

Description of Articles Used in Sewing

Index

187

PART

I.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.
Dear Girls

You have now become

prepare for woman's duties


sewing, which

we

will take

old

one of these

up as simply as

is

enough

to

the art of

possible.

following the given directions carefully, you will

By

become

able to dress your dolls, assist your mothers in mending,

make garments, fancy

articles, etc.

convenient outfit for your school sewing consists of

a bag large enough to hold certain necessary materials


and the garment to be made. The bag should be made
of dark or medium-colored cloth, so that it may not soil
easily, and should have a strong gathering tape.

The following

articles are needed.

bleached or half-bleached

cotton cloth

Half a yard of

for a

trial-piece

and sample work.


2.

Spools of white cotton, Nos. 40-80, also one of No.

50 colored cotton for basting.


3.

well-fitting

silver

or celluloid thimble,

for

the

second finger of the right hand.


4.

An

emery bag

to brighten the needle,

when

not go through the cloth easily.


5.

6.
7.
8.

A
A
A
A

paper of Nos. 5-10 ground-down needles.


pinball well filled with small pins.

tape measure.
piece of wax.

it

does

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

2
9.

pair of scissors, for girls in the higher classes.

Your name should be written with ink on the

bag,

paper of needles, spools of thread, and sample cloth.

An

easy way to remember the necessary articles

hand represent the cloth


finger, the spools of cotton

and emery bag


and the fourth

to let the

is

the thumb, the bag

the

first

the second finger, the thimble

the third finger, the needles and pins

finger, the tape

away

Directions for putting

measure and wax.

the work.

Before fold-

ing the work, run the needle in and out of the cloth, near
the last stitches, so as to keep

it

secure and aid in finding

the place at the next sewing lesson.


2.

To

fold the work,

and narrow enough

to

smooth

it

out, fold

go into the bag

it

lengthwise

then fold

it

the

opposite way.
3.

Put the thimble into the bag

first,

as

it is

apt to be

forgotten.
4.

up

After

all

the articles are placed in the bag, draw

it

closely.
5.

Wind

six inches of
6.

tape,
7.

the tape tightly around the bag until about


it

are

left.

left hand over the coil of


and wind once over the fingers and around the bag.
As the fingers are withdrawn, slip the end of the

Place two fingers of the

tape through, and draw tightly.


If the

above directions are carefully observed, no

girl

should report any missing article at the next lesson.


Directions for sewing.

Be very

careful to have clean

hands.
2.

Sit in

an erect position, never resting any part of

the arm on the desk.


3.

Do

not fasten the work to the desk or knee.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.
4.

Never sew without a thimble, either the top or the

side of
5.

it

Do

can be used.
not put the work or thread to the mouth, as

that will soil


6.

it.

In plain sewing, begin to sew at the end of

cloth, or at a seam, Jioldiiig the pai't of the

in the left
7.

the

work not sewed

Jiaiid.

When

scissors are not used, to break

the thread

place the left thumb-nail firmly over the last stitches

wind the thread around the right

forefinger,

and break

the thread with the right thumb-nail.


8.

Do

all

sewing nicely, making the stitches small and

even, having the

wrong

side look as neat as possible,

sewing the corners with great


9.

When

and

care.

obliged to take out the stitches, use the eye

and pick out one stitch at a time in stitchon one side, then on the other.
Before showing the work to the teacher, fasten the

of a needle,

ing, pick out the thread


10.

needle securely in the work.

We

will call the fleshy or soft part of

the forefinger a

sewing cushion.
What are the necessary articles for school sewing? Upon which finger is the
thimble worn ? For what is an emery bag used ? Where should the needle be placed
What should first be put into the bag ? Why should
before putting away the work ?
the bag be tied up carefully ? In what condition should the hands be ?
How should
Should the work be fastened to the desk or knee ?
a child sit while sewing ?
Should you ever sew without a thimble ? Should the work or thread be put to the
mouth ? Why ? In plain sewing where should you begin to sew ? In which hand
should the part of the work not sewed be held? How should the thread be broken?
How ought all sewing to be done ? Where should great care be taken ? What is
called the sewing cushion ?

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

NEEDLES AND THREAD.


Needles.

A needle

is

a small piece of steel, pointed at

one end, and having an eye

at

the other to receive a

thread.

Needles are of various sizes and shapes, according to


the uses for which they are intended.

sewing on cotton
and betweens the sizes
range from No. i, the largest, to No. 12, the smallest.
Sharps are long needles, ground-downs are shorter, and
betweens are still shorter. Ground-downs are excellent
for school use, as they do not bend or break easily.

Three kinds

cloth,

of needles are used in

sharps, ground-downs,

Betweens are used for heavy work.


Worsted and darning needles are used for yarn, and
Worsted needles have a long eye,
are of different sizes.
and either a sharp or a blunt point. A very long needle
A bodkin or tape needle has a
is used in millinery work.
long eye, and is used for running tape into a hem or
casing.

Let us examine our paper of needles.

It is

assorted

we may have needles suitable for all kinds of


stitches.
To open it, place a finger between the folds of
Now, opening the sides
the paper and separate them.
and short ends which cover the needles, we find twentyKeep them in their places
five needles in a secure case.
so that we may know the proper size to use for the thread
Beginning at the middle, we find three No. 5
or stitch.
so that

needles,

which should be used only with very coarse

thread

they are suitable for sewing on boot-buttons,

The

needles on each side are alike, so following

etc.

down one

NEEDLES AND THREAD.


side,

we

two No. 6 needles, used for sewing on coarse

find

next are three No. 7 needles, suitable for hemon towels, etc. then there are three No. 8 needles,

materials

ming

next are two No. 9 needles, used in hemming cotton cloth and the last is a No. 10 needle, for

for stitching

very fine work.


tie up the paper so
Never use a bent needle, as it
In passing a needle, hand the

After taking out a needle, fold and


that none

may drop

makes uneven

out.

stitches.

eye of the needle to the person, keeping the point towards


yourself.

A small

made from flax, silk, cotton, or


Thread made from flax is called
linen thread, and is very strong.
Thread made from silk
is called silk or twist, and is used when sewing on nice
textures.
Cotton thread can be obtained in many numbers, and is used when sewing on wash goods
the finer
the thread, the higher the number.
Thread made from
wool is called yarn, worsted, zephyr, etc., and is used for
darning, canvas-work, and fancy-work.
Thread.

wool,

is

twist

called thread.

new

spool of thread can be unfastened by slipping a

pin under the thread, where

it is

caught

in

To

the wood.

unwind the thread, hold the spool in the left hand, with
the end of the thread between two fingers.
Unwind the
thread until

holding

it

it

is

of

the required length.

When

the ends of the thumbs.


thread,

Break

securely in each hand, and snapping

keep the end of

the

it

it

by

across

not using a spool of

thread fastened in

the

wood.

Use a

piece of thread the length of the desk, or about

as long as the arm.

When

a shorter needleful.

If

using very fine thread, take

the thread

kinks,

remove the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

needle, and beginning at the work, draw the thread tightly^


between the thumb-nail and the end of the forefinger.
To prevent thread from kinking, thread the needle with
When using double
the end that hangs from the spool.
thread, as in gathering, sewing on buttons, etc., before

making the

knot,

draw the double thread, beginning

at

the needle, across the wax.

Threading the needle.

i.

Sit erect, bringing the needle

and thread as close to the eyes as necessary.


2.

Roll the end of the thread between the

cushion of the forefinger, so as to twist


3.

Hold the needle

steadily

it

between the thumb and

forefinger of the left hand, with the eye a


4.

Take the end

forefinger of

protrude,

of the thread

the right

thumb and

tightly.

little

above.

between the thumb and

hand, letting about half-an-inch

and put the thread through the eye

of

the

needle.
If preferred,

the thread can be held in the

left

hand,

and the eye of the needle passed over it.


To aid in threading a round-eyed needle with worsted
or loosely twisted thread, a

few

fibres of cotton-batting or

a fine thread can be rolled over the end.

end of the thread before rolling


Threading a long-eyed needle.

zephyr between the

left

it,

is
i

Waxing the

also helpful.

Hold the end

thumb and

of the

forefinger, allowing

half-an-inch to show.
2.

Place the pointed end of the needle on the cushion

of the forefinger,
3.

With the

and over the zephyr.

left

thumb

fold

the end of the zephyr

tightly over the needle.


4.

Withdraw the

needle,

and pass the eye of the

needle over the loop of zephyr.

NEEDLES AND THREAD.


Knots.

To make

a knot, as in Fig.

i,

wind the thread

around two or three fingers,


I

and crossing it, put the end


through the loop.
To bring a knot closs
end

the

of

thread.

thumb and

the

the

to
.

With

forefinger of the

take

right hand,

Fig.
'"

hold of the

Showing the thread

^ ^"* '^'^^^^

'^

'^

^^"^"

^P-

thread a few inches from the end.

Wind

2.

the end around the forefinger of the

left

hand,

about midway of the finger-nail.


Pressing tightly,

3.

ward on the side

roll

the end of the thread down-

the

of

thumb, twisting

it

once or

twice.

Bring the second finger upon the thumb, and over

4.

the thread.
Lifting the forefinger, draw up the thread with the

5.

right hand.

The knot can

also be

made with

the right hand.

To fasten the thread in sewing, take two or three stitches


in the same place, or sew back a few stitches.
Fasten
silk

very securely as

When

it is

learning to sew,

on white
takes are

cloth, as

more

it

apt to
it

is

work

out.

best to use colored thi^ead

makes the stitches plainer, and misFor colored work, choose

easily seen.

thread or silk a shade darker than the material, as

work

lighter.

Twist

is

twirled the opposite

it

will

way from

cotton thread.

The

size of the needle

upon the quality

and thread to be used, depends

of the work.

A coarse needle and

thread

are used for coarse work, and a fine needle and thread for
fine

work.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

The numbers

and thread needed for the

of needles

different kinds of stitches in cotton cloth

Hemming,

^
Tuckmg,
,

No. 9^ needle. No. 70 or 80 thread.

I
'

Running,
Stitching,

No. 8 needle, No. 50 or 60 thread.

Overhanding,
Overcasting,

No. 7 or 8 needle. No. 40 or 50 thread.

Button-holes,

7 or 8 needle, No. 36 or

rNo.

.'

40 thread.

What is a needle ? Why is an assorted paper of needles necessary ? Why should


the paper ? Why should the paper of needles be kept
they be kept in their places
How should a needle be passed to any one ? What is thread ? What is
tied up ?

thread

made from

flax called

about cotton thread?


broken from the spool
what should be done ?

What

What

is

made from silk called ? What is said


made from wool called? How is thread

thread

is

thread

How

long a piece of thread should be used ? If it kinks


of the thread should be put into the needle ?
What is done to the end of the thread before threading the needle? What part of
the finger should the thread be wound around, in order to bring a knot close to the

end

of the thread

down

the side of the

fastened in sewing?

needle and thread

hemming ? tucking ?

Which end

How many
thumb ?

times should the thread be twisted, when rolling

What

is

the next thing to do

Next

How

is

it

thread

should a coarse needle and thread be used?


A fine
and thread should be used on cotton cloth for
running ? stitching ? overhanding ? overcasting ? button-holes ?

When

What

size needle

basting? gathering?

CLOTH.
Cloth

is

a fabric

woven from

cotton, wool, linen, or silk.

the cheapest, and silk the m.ost expensive in

Cotton

is

price.

From

cotton

are

made many

qualities

of

un-

bleached, half-bleached, and bleached cloth, also calicoes,

ginghams, muslins, nainsooks, cambrics,


are

made

flannels, cashmeres,

and many

Linen cloth is made in


linen lawn to heavy canvas
goods.

etc.

From wool

varieties of dress

all

grades, from the finest

it

is

generally used

for

CLOTH.
collars, cuffs,

Silk

etc.

is

handkerchiefs, table-cloths, napkins, towels,

made

into

dress-silks,

ribbons, satins, vel-

vets, etc.

Soft, pliable, white cotton cloth (often

muslin) of

medium

quality

is

called

best for a beginner to use

at first.

threads of the cloth are called the warp and the

The

The

woof.

threads running lengthwise are the warp^

those running across from selvedge to selvedge are the


easily seen

woof ; both can be

The warp

on a piece of coarse crash.

usually stronger than the woof, and for this

is

reason, any part of a garment requiring strength, should

be cut lengthwise of the cloth.

woven

sometimes drawn out of


you can ravel a thread the
width or length of the cloth, it is straight, or will become
If it looks uneven, it can be drawn
so after washing.
into place by stretching it on the bias.
Calico, when
torn, often looks very uneven, and should be pulled into
Cloth

is

straight, but is

shape by pressing.

When

shape.

The

selvedge of cloth

is

the finished lengthwise edge,

The raw edge is the edge that


is cut or torn.
A fold is the edge made by doubling one
part of the cloth over the other.
The nap is the shaggy
and cannot be

ravelled.

substance on the surface of the cloth.


cloth, cut in

of the cut

hand,

roll

To tear a piece of

one inch by a thread, then, holding a corner

between the thumb and forefinger of each


the edges from you, and tear steadily

a fine

piece of cloth must be torn carefully.


is cloth ?
Name some kinds of cloth made from cotton from wool; from
from silk. What are the threads of the cloth running lengthwise of the goods
called ?
Those running across ? How can you tell when a piece of cotton cloth is

What

linen

how
What

looks uneven,

straight

If it

of cloth

The raw edge ?

it be drawn into shape ?


What is the selvedge
a fold ? How should a piece of cloth be torn ?

can
is

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

lO

SCISSORS AND CUTTING.

pair of scissors

an instrument used for cutting,

is

consisting of two blades crossing each other, and

on a

moving

pivot.

many sizes. Large scissors are called


and small scissors with the ends of the

Scissors are of

shears (Fig.

2, c),

blades rounded

pocket scissors (Fig.

are called

they are convenient to carry in the pocket.


the round

bow

for the

is

two of the fingers


other,

Fig. 2.

a.

ward.

Showing
c,

thumb, and the oval bow

this

d), as

is

for

more pointed than the


blade should be held down-

one blade

and when cutting

2,

In shears,

is

b, button-hole scissors
pocket scissors.

ladies' scissors;

shears

d,

In button-hole scissors

(Fig.

2,

b)

a screw

attached to regulate the size of the button-hole.

is

When

passing scissors, hand the bows to the person, keeping


the point towards yourself.

In order to cut straight, draw out a thread of the cloth,

and cut along the


see page 116).

line thus

made

(for

drawing a thread,

In materials from which a thread cannot

be easily drawn, fold the cloth where it is to be cut, pin


the selvedges together on each side, crease, and cut on
the crease.

In materials in which the threads are plainly

SCISSORS

AND CUTTING.

marked, either by plaids or stripes, there


drawing a thread or folding the cloth.

II

is

no need of

PART

II.

PLAIN SEWING.
Jewing

The

is

work done with the needle and

thread.

following directions should be before the

'during class work.^

pupil

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

14

DRILLS.
Drill No.

For
using the needle
A needle and
Place the thimble on the second
practice

1.

thimble.
Materials.
Directions.

in

and

a thimble.

finger

of the right hand.

Hold the pointed end of the needle between the end


of the thumb and forefinger of the right hand.
Place the thimble on the eye of the needle.
3.
4. Push the needle between the thumb and forefinger,
being careful not to cramp the other fingers.
With the left hand push the point back into its
5.
2.

former position.
6.

Repeat

until

For
No.

Drill No. 2.

hemming,

easily.

practice in the motion of stitching,

8 needle, No. 50 thread,

and a

strip of

cotton cloth.

Pig. 6.

Directions.
2.

can be done

etc.

Materials.

white

it

Showing

Hold the

the work and hands

in

position.

Thread the needle, but make no knot.

cloth over the forefinger of the left hand.

DRILLS.

keeping

it

in place with the

15

thumb and second

finger, as

in Fig. 6.
3.

Hold the needle between the thumb and the

fore-

finger of the right hand.


4.

Insert the needle from

little of

right to

left,

taking up a

the cloth, and push the needle nearly through.

Take the pointed end of the needle between the


thumb and cushion of the forefinger of the right hand.
5.

6.

Draw

the needle and thread through, bringing the

thimble finger down near the forefinger, with the thread


passing between the third and
little

7.

little

Keep

fingers.

the

finger nearly straight to guide the thread.

Repeat

until the

For
No.

Drill No. 3.

motion

is

learned.

practice in the motion of basting,

running, gathering, etc.


Materials.

8 needle. No. 50 thread,

and a

of cotton cloth.

Fig. 7.

Showing the work and

hands

in

position.

strip

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

i6

Directions.

l.

Have

the needle threaded, but

make

no knot.
Hold the cloth between the thumb and forefinger
2.
of each hand, as in Fig. 7.

right elbow

With the

3.

away from the

side,

put the

point of the needle through a few threads of the cloth,


placing the thumb and forefinger of the right hand over it.

Pressing the end of the thimble against the eye of

4.

the needle, take three or more stitches in the cloth over


the cushion of the

No.
6.

moving only the elbow

(Fig. 7.)

joint.
5.

left forefinger,

the needle and thread through as in Drill

Draw
2.

Repeat

until the

motion

Fig. 8.

Directions.

of

in

ed^e of cotton

no knot.

learned.

For practice the motion overcasting.


No. needle, No. 50 thread, and a folded

Drill No. 4.

Materials.

is

cloth.

Showing the work and hand

i.

Have

in

position.

the needle threaded, but

make

DRILLS.

Hold the

2.

ly

fold of the cloth slanting across the

of the cushion of the left forefinger, keeping

with the thumb and second finger, as in Fig.

Put the needle in from the back of the

3.

ing

Draw

4.

No.

towards the

it

left

it

edge

in place

8.

fold, point-

shoulder.

the needle and thread through as in Drill

2.

Drill No.

handing.
Materials.

For
No. 8
5.

edge of cotton

Fig. 9.

Directions.

practice

in

the

motion of over-

needle, No. 50 thread, and a folded

cloth.

Showing the work and hand

i.

Have

in

position.

the needle threaded, but

make no

knot.
2.

Hold the

edge
and around the end
place with the thumb and

fold of cloth horizontally along the

of the cushion of the left forefinger,


of the finger, keeping

second finger, as in Fig.

it

9.

in

i8

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

Hold the

3.

bending the

away from the side, without


and so that the palm of the hand is

right elbow

wrist,

towards you.
Insert the needle from the back of the fold, point-

4.

ing

Draw

5.

No.

directly towards the chest.

it

the needle and thread through as in Drill

2.

CANVAS-WORK.
The

stitches in

sewing can be easily learnt on canvas,

using bright-colored single or

split

zephyr, according to

the quality of the canvas.

Pig, 10.

Showing different stitches taken

on canvas,

CREASING AND PINCHING.

Fig. 10 represents a corner of a square of canvas, with

the stitches taken in the following order:


1.

Uneven

basting.

6.

Catch-stitch.

Button-hole stitch.

2.

Running.

7.

3.

Stitching.

8.

Darning.

4.

Overcasting.

9.

The edges

5.

Overhanding.

are

worked with

the blanket or loop-stitch.

CREASING AND PINCHING.

crease for sewing

made by

is

pressing the edge until a line

sew

on.

Materials.

bleached

made on

ten-inch

cotton cloth.

is

strip

(A more

folding the cloth, and

made, which serves to


of

bleached

distinct

line

or

half-

can

be

the bleached than on the half-bleached cotton

cloth.)

Fig. II.

Creasing.
in Fig. II.

i.

Showing the
Hold the

position of the hands.

cloth firmly with the hands as

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

20
2.

turn

Beginning

at the

upper right-hand end, of the

down towards you

cloth,

the edge one-fourth of an inch

in

depth, for three or four inches.


3.

Holding the cloth tightly between the hands, crease

the edge with the end of the thumb-nail and the cushion
of the left forefinger, until

it

remain

will

flat

and has a

sharp edge.
4.

Fold and crease the next three inches

in the

same

manner, and so continue to the end.


5.

Holding the right-hand corner

of the fold

firmly,

crease the entire length.


Pinching.

half-inch fold

i
At the right end of the crease, lay a
between the thumb and forefinger of the
.

right hand.
2.
is

Lay another over

this,

and so

on, until all the cloth

folded.
3.

Pinch the

4.

Turn the other

folds,

and turn up the edge.


side of the cloth towards you,

the sharp edge will serve as a line


If

to

sew

and

on.

the cloth has been well creased, pinching

seldom

is

necessary.
What is a crease? What purpose does it serve in sewing?
hold the cloth in creasing? At which end should you begin?

How
How

should you
the edge

is

turned? How is it creased? How should the edge of the fold look? After the
After
cloth has been once creased, what should be done to the entire length ?
turning up the edge, what should be done ? Why ?

BASTING.

21

BASTING.
Basting

done by taking long stitches to keep the

is

cloth in place for sewing.


Materials.

No.

and a half-yard

8 needle, No. 50 colored thread, pins,

strip of cotton cloth, with

one of the long

sides creased.

lMm/^^\Wto.it(rmmmnnff-\\vm-mmmwjn^\mmi>

Fig.

12.

Showing

In even basting,

both

sides.

even basting stitches, needle inserted.

make

the stitches short and alike on

This method of basting

is

used for the seams

of a dress-waist, or for several thicknesses of cloth.

Fig. 13.

Showing

uneven basting

stitches, needle in

position.

In uneven basting, take stitches half-an-inch long on


the upper side, and as small as possible on the under side.

This

is

the proper basting for ordinary work, as the

stitches serve for a guide in sewing.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

22

The

basting, in Fig. 14,

and two short stitches

Fig.

14.

is

done by taking one iDng

alternately.

Showing

needle

Basting.

a method of basting used on heavy cloth,


the proper position for putting away the work.

in

Practise Drill No. 3 (page 15).


it securely.

1.

Make

a knot in the thread to hold

2.

Begin

at the right-hand side of the cloth.

3.

Place the right-hand corners exactly together, hav-

ing the sharp edge of the crease towards you.

Fig.

4.

15.

Showing

the needle

in

position for beginning.

Insert the needle on the crease one-eighth of an

inch from the end of the cloth, and take up a few threads
(Fig. 15).
5.

Let the needle remain

in

the cloth, and pin the

opposite ends together, by placing a pin vertically through

the cloth.
6.

Put a pin in the middle vertically.

STITCHING.

Draw

7.

23

the needle through, and proceed with the

basting required, holding the work as in Fig. 7 (page 1 5),


taking each stitch on the crease, and keeping the edges
even.

Fasten the thread securely by taking three or four

8.

stitches in the

Suggestions.

same

threads are loose.


it

basting, or

when

the

a child tries to sew without having

If

the work basted,

The

place.

Never sew without


will pucker,

and must be ripped

out.

short stitches on the under side keep the cloth in

place,

and prevent

from slipping.

it

Take

short basting

hand work, but longer stitches may be taken


machine sewing. When learning to baste, only one

stitches for

for

stitch at a time should

be taken, but later several stitches

can be taken before drawing the needle through.


threads should be taken out

How

How

when

the

work

is

Basting

finished.

made in even basting ? For what


should uneven basting stitches be taken ?
What is the first step in basting ? Where begin ? What should be done to the
corners ?
How must the edges be held ? Where do you insert the needle ? Before
drawing it through, what should be done ? Where should each stitch be taken ?
How should the thread be fastened? What purpose do the short stitches on the
under side serve ? When the work is finished, what should be done ?
purpose

is

basting done

is

even basting used

are the stitches

How

STITCHING.
Stitching

is

done by taking a stitch backward on the


cloth, and a longer stitch forward on

upper side of the

the under side, making the stitches meet.


Materials.

No.
cotton
Practise

yard strip of
Stitching.

8 needle. No.

cloth,

50 thread, and a half


doubled and basted.

Drill

No. 2 (page

14).

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

24
1.

Make

2.

Hold the work over the cushion

a small knot in the thread.

finger, as in Fig.

6 (page

of the left fore-

14).

Insert the needle at the right-hand corner of the

3.

cloth,

between the edges of the seam, one-eighth of an

inch from the end, and one thread of the cloth below the
basting.
4.

Draw

the needle and thread through.

Put the point of the needle back a few threads from


5.
where the needle came through the cloth, and bring it
out the same distance beyond.

Fig. 16.

6.

Showing the stitches.

Continue, putting the needle back each time into

the end of the last stitch.


7.

Make

(Fig. 16),

the stitches even and keep the seam straight

leaving one thread of the cloth between the

and the basting.


Fasten the thread, by inverting the cloth, and tak8.
ing a few stitches directly over the last ones made.
9. Join the thread, by making a small knot, and con-

stitches

seam; or by taking one stitch with the


new thread, leaving half-an-inch of the thread to be
brought to the left, and to be sewed over with the next
cealing

few

it

in the

stitches, allowing

it

to

wind

in

and

out.

HALF-BACKSTITCHING.
-

Suggestions.

ing

In

raw edges,

the same
a strain

if

shoulder seams, the seams of

25

manner sew all seams havis coming on them, as in


drawers, etc.
A bias seam

should be sewed from the broad part to the narrow.


How

How

the work held


Where is the needle first
brought out ? As you continue, where should
the needle always be inserted? How should the stitches be made? How many
threads of the cloth should be left between the basting and the stitches? How
should the thread be fastened ? How should the thread be joined ?
inserted

is

stitching

done ?

Where

Where next ?

is

.?

is it

HALF-BACKSTITCHING.

Showing the

Half-backstitching
that the needle

is

is

stitches and the needle

the

same

position.

stitching,

except

put only half-way back, thus leaving a

space between the stitches (Fig.

How

as

in

17).

does half-backstitching differ from stitching ?

HEMMING.

hem

is

a fold,

of a piece of cloth,
Materials.

No.

of cotton cloth.

made by twice turning over the edge


and then sewing it down.
9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a

strip

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

26

To

prepare the hem,

make

a fold one-fourth of an inch

wide, and crease; then fold again one-fourth of an inch

deep and crease. Baste near the edge of the first fold
For wider hems, have the
with uneven basting stitches.
first fold one-fourth of an inch wide, being careful to crease
it

thoroughly, as

much depends upon

second fold the required width,

crease the

this;

which can be done evenly,

by measuring every two inches with a paper or other


If a very wide hem is required, baste as you
measure.
measure, first along the upper edge of the hem, and then
'

along the lower edge.


first

narrow

Fig.

y.

2.

Practise

in

cotton cloth.

position for beginning the work.

Drill No. 2 (page 14).

6 (page

of the left fore-

14).

Pointing the needle from you, insert

of the fold, one-third of an inch

and bring
4.

hem on

Have no knot in the thread.


Hold the hem across the cushion

finger, as in Fig.
3.

woollen cloth, baste down the

then baste as for a

Showing the needle

Hemming',
1.

fold,

On

it

it at the edge
from the right-hand end,

out close to the end, as in Fig.

8.

Carefully draw the needle through, leaving a

of the thread at the end, to

be tucked under the

hem

little

with

HEMMING.

27

the point of the needle, and to be sewed

down with

the

first stitches.

5. Take up one or two threads of the doth, and


one
or two threads of the fold, keeping the
needle on a line

with the hem, and pointing towards the

Fig.

19.

Draw

6.

Showing the work as


the

When

7.

Fig. 20.

shoulder.

looks on the right side.

and continue, making the


(Figs. 19 and 20).
the thread becomes too short for use,
either

stitches close

cut or break

needle

it

left

out

and slanting

it.

Showing the work as

it looks on the wrong side;


and how to
the double line representing the old
thread, and
the black line the new thread.

join the thread,

8.

left of

the

To

join the thread (Fig. 20).


If there is no end
the thread, pick out a few stitches, always
leaviitg

end

betzveen the hem.

under the

fold,

With the

needle,

and towards the thumb.

draw the end


Begin with a

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

28

new

needleful, as

when commencing

the work, putting

the needle into the last hole the short end

came out

of,

and sewing both ends down with the next stitches.


9. At the end of the work, fasten the thread by taking
two or three stitches over each other in the fold.
Hems should be begun and finished by
Suggestions.
A narrow hem
neatly overhanding the ends of the fold.

on

stiff cloth, as

seams

of a

of the

and

wear

The

need not be basted.

linen,

garment should be sewed before hemming, to

conceal the

end

on table

edges.

Before

turning the

seam should be cut

when basting

should exactly match.


easily, fold

it

first

fold,

the

to avoid extra thicknesses

seams or stripes
In sewing, to hold a wide hem
the

over and over until

hem,
it is

a convenient width.

How should the hem be folded ? Where and how should it be


times should a wide hem be basted? How many times should
a wide hem on woollen cloth be basted ? Should there be a knot in the thread ? How
How should the needle point? Where is the needle inserted?
is the hem held?
How should the thread be drawn through? What is done with the end? How is
How should the needle be held? How should the stitches be
the stitch made?
taken? In joining the thread, where should the end of the old thread be left?
Where should the end be drawn ? In, starting with a new needleful of thread, where
should the needle be put ? What should be done with the two ends ? In fastening,
where and how should the stitches be taken ? What should be done to the ends of a
What

basted?

hem

is

hem ?

How many

RUNNING.
Running

is

done by passing the needle

in

and out

of

the material at regular intervals.

The

rule for running

is

to take

up two threads

of the

cloth and pass over two threads, but the light in the average school-room does not permit this, nor is it wise to
The general principle is
strain the eyes trying to do so.
to pass over as

much

of the cloth as

you take

up.

RUNNING.

29

Running.

No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a


Materials.
yard strip of cotton cloth, doubled and basted.

half-

Practise Drill No. 3 (page 15).


a small knot in the thread.

1.

Make

2.

Hold the work

and cushion

in the left hand,

between the thumb

of the forefinger, as in Fig. 7 (page 15).

3.

Sew

4.

Insert the needle between the edges of the seam, at

directly below the basting.

the right-hand corner, and take the stitches (Fig. 21) over

the cushion of the

(page

as

Drill

in

No. 3

15).

Fig. 21.

Showing the stitches,

and the needle

in

position.

Fasten, by putting the needle through to the under

5.

side,

forefinger,

left

and taking two or three stitches

in the

same

place.

Join the thread, by sewing over the last stitches, or

6.

by making a knot and concealing


the seam.
Suggestions.

it

between the edges

To avoid puckering

in running,

begin at

the right hand and smooth the seam between the

thumb and

forefinger.

Running

is

of

left

used for seams, which

do not require great strength, also for tucking.


How
is

the

is

running done

work held ?

Where

What

is

the principle to be followed in running ? How


Where is the needle inserted ?
?

are the stitches taken

How should the stitches be taken?


should the thread be joined ? When

How
is

should the thread be fastened?


running used ?

How

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

50

RUNNING AND

BACKSTITCH.

Running and a backstitch consists of two or more running stitches and a backstitch, taken alternately.
No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a halfMaterials.
yard strip of cotton cloth, doubled and basted.

Fig. 22.

Showing the

and needle

stitches,

in

position for putting

away the work.

Begin as for running.


i
Running and a backstitch.
2. Take three running stitches.
Take one backstitch.
3.
4. Repeat, which will cause cv;.ry third and fourth
stitch to meet (Fig. 22).
Another method is to take three running
Suggestions.
stitches, making the third twice the length of the others,
and then, putting the needle back to the middle of the
.

last stitch,

proceed as before.

In this manner, the stitches

on the right side resemble running, but on the


there

is

a slight difference.

Running and

wrong

side

a backstitch

used when the seam needs to be sewed a

little

is

stronger

than by running.
Of what does running and a backstitch consist ?
stitch

used?

When

is

running and a back

OVERCASTING.

31

OVERCASTING.
Overcasting

raw edge

done by taking loose stitches over the


keep it from ravelling.
No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, and a stitched
is

of cloth, to

Materials.

strip of cotton cloth.

Fig. 23.

Showing the stitcnes,

and needle

in

position.

Practise Drill No. 4 (page 16).


Find one-eighth of an inch and one-fourth
inch on the measure (page 13).
Overcasting.
1.

2.

of

an

Place the thumb-nail on the cloth one-eighth of an

inch below the raw edge.


depth, and twice as

far,

The

stitches are to be of this

or one-fourth of an inch, apart.

3.

Make

4.

Hold the work over the

a small knot in the thread.


left forefinger, as in Fig. 8

(page 16).
5.

Begin

6.

Insert the needle one-eighth of an inch below the

at the right-hand

end of the seam.

edge, and between the edges of the seam, in order to hide

the knot.
7.

Pointing the needle towards the

left

shoulder, take

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

32

the next stitch one-fourth of an inch to the

left,

and over

both edges of the cloth.


Continue, taking up the same number of threads

8.

each time, being careful to

Do

9.

make the

spaces equal.

not draw the stitches tightly, but

let

them

lie

loosely over the edge (Fig. 23).

To

10.

fasten

the

draw the needle nearly

thread,

through the cloth where the next stitch should come.

Turn over the

withdraw the needle, and fasten the

cloth,

thread at this point, being careful that the stitches do


not show on the right side.

To

11.

join the thread,

make

a small knot in the

new

thread, and put the needle between the edges of the seam,

through the

little hole,

which was made when the needle

was withdrawn.

Before

Suggestions.

threads and

overcasting, take out the basting

the edges evenly.

trim

All seams whose

edges ravel should be overcast, and, therefore, a selvedge

seam does not need

to be overcast.

The above

difficult

to do nicely.

casting

on underclothes,

or any fine material,

waist,

taken.

very

is

directions are for over-

In

etc.

Overcasting
overcasting

dress

smaller stitches should be

seam should be overcast from the broad

bias

part to the narrow, or with the grain of the cloth.


What
is

Why

?
How deep are the stitches taken ?
At which end is the work begun ? Where

overcasting
?

How
is

far apart

How

the needle inserted

How should the needle point How far to the left should the next stitch be
How do you continue with the stitches How is the thread fastened How
?

taken
is

is

work held

the

the thread joined

need to be overcast ?

What

How

should be done before overcasting


is a bias seam overcast ?

When

does a seam

OVERHANDING.

33

OVERHANDING.
Overhanding

is

done by sewing closely over two edges


of the cloth may be either a selvedge

The edge

of cloth.

or a creased fold.
Materials.

No.

two selvedge

strips or

carefully basted

needle,

No. 60 thread, and either

two folded

strips of cotton cloth,

together with even stitches,

near the

edge.

Fig. 24.

Showing overhanding stitches,

Overhanding.
1.

Practise

Have no knot

Drill

No.

needle

(page

in

position.

7).

in the thread.

Hold the work horizontally along the edge of


of the left forefinger^ and around the end

2.

citshion

the finger, as in Fig. 9 (page 17).


Pointing the needle towards you, insert
3.

it

at

the
of

the

edge nearest you, taking up two or three threads of


the cloth.
4.

Carefully draw the thread through, leaving half-an-

inch of the thread.


5.

Hold the

so that
26, a).

it

half-inch of thread

may be sewed

down with

over by the

first

the thumb,

stitches (Fig.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

34
6.

Pointing the needle towards the chest, put

both edges, taking up as

Fig. 25,

little of

it

through

the cloth as possible.

Showing how the stitches should

look on the under side,

with the seam opened.

Take the stitches at the side of the cushion, and


make them close and even, having perpendicular lines on
the under side of the seam (Fig. 25), and oblique lines
7.

across the edges (Fig. 24).

*^

Showing, the edges of the seam being separated, how the


end of the thread is fastened m beginning, how the stitches should
look on the side towards you, and how to join the thread (the
double line representing the old thread, and the black line the new

Fig. 26.

thread).

OVERHANDING.

35

When

Joining the thread (Fig. 26).

8.

becomes too short for

use,

the thread

draw the needle through the

further edge of the cloth, as in taking a stitch.

Insert

the needle at the opposite edge, one-fourth of an inch to


the

left,

the

new

thread.

at the hole

Pointing the needle from you, insert

where the old thread

hanging.

is

thread through until about an inch

end under the thumb.


insert

it

Draw the
Have no knot in

taking up one thread of the cloth.

thread through, and remove the needle.

is left,

Draw

it

the

and hold the

Pointing the needle towards you,

at the nearest edge,

exactly opposite

the last

stitch on the other edge.


Hold the ends under the
thumb, while the threads along the top are being overhanded afterwards, cut the ends off.
;

Fig. 27.

The

Showing another way of joining the thread.

thread can also be joined as in Fig. 27.

ferred, a knot can be used

If pre-

by beginning back and sewing

over a few stitches, and afterwards cutting off the knot.


9.

Finish the seam by turning the work around, and

overhanding back four or

five stitches

this will fasten the

thread securely.
10.

When

the seam

is

finished,

thread, open the seam, and rub

it

draw out the basting


first on one side and

then on the other with the thumb-nail until

it is flat.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

36
Suggestions.

sewing," also

This

stitch

is

sometimes called

The

over and over."

*'

''top-

stitches should only

be deep enough to hold, taking care to avoid making a


The work will not pucker if the
ridge in the seam.
needle

is

pointed towards the chest, and the stitches are

at the side of the cushion, not

taken

The

finger.

shown by overhanding two pieces


side of the sewing

may be used

thumb and

be finished

it between
hand and rubbing.

How and where should


?
should be done with the end of the thread ? How are
Mention one way of joining the thread. How should the seam

made?

.?

Either

A seam

as the right side.

forefinger of each

How is overhanding done


the needle be inserted

the stitches

of striped cloth.

is

be pressed open by holding

in stiff material can

the

around the end of the

necessity of taking the stitches properly

What

is

How should the work be held

What

done

after the

seam

is

finished

GATHERING AND PLACING OF GATHERS.


Gathering

is

done by running the needle

the cloth, passing over twice as


It is

used

much

and out of

is

in joining a full part to a plain part, as

to a band.

No.

Materials.

needle. No.

40

an apron

needle, and a large blunt-pointed

and lower edge, and creased


Gathering.

taken up.

thread, and a piece of cotton cloth half-a-

yard long and seven inches wide,

I.

in

cloth as

Practise

Find the middle

hemmed

at the sides

at the top.

Drill

No.

(page 15).

of the creased edge,

and mark

the.

place by cutting a small notch in the edge (Fig. 28), or

by making a cross-stitch with colored thread, one inch


from the edge (Fig. 28).

GATHERING.
2.

Use

37

a single or double thread a

the space to be gathered.


the gathers in place, but

is

little

longer than

double thread helps to keep

more apt

to knot than a single

thread.
3.

Make

cannot
4.

slip

a good- sized knot in the thread, so that

through the

With the

the work in the

it

cloth.

right side of the cloth towards you, hold


left

hand, between the

thumb and cushion

of the forefinger, as in Fig. 7 (page 15).


5.

Insert the needle on the

the knot, and through the

Fig. 28.

wrong

hem

to

side, so as to conceal

keep the knot secure.

Showing the middle marked by a notch


showmg

stitch, also

and by a crossgathering stitches.

6. Sew on the crease, taking several stitches before


drawing the needle through.
Do not count the threads, but take up about half as
7.

many

as

you

skip,

take up two threads and pass over

i.e.,

four threads (Fig. 28).


8.

If a

knot, that cannot be untied,

comes

in the gather-

ing thread, you will have to begin again.


9.

When

the seam

the thread, and

make

is

finished,

remove the needle from

a knot in this end of the thread.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

38
10.

Put a pin in vertically, close to the

last stitch, tak-

ing up a few threads of the cloth.


11.

Carefully draw up

the cloth, but not too tightly.

'f'-?.

imilihmimmim

Fig. 29.

12.

Showing the thread drawn

Wind

of the pin a

up,

and fastened around a

pin.

the thread over the top, and under the point

number

of times, crossing the thread at the

middle of the pin (Fig. 29).

Fig. 30.

Showing the placing of gathers

Placing" or stroking^ of gathers.

with a large blunt needle.

With the

towards you, begin at the /^/-hand edge.

right side

GATHERING.
2.

39

Hold the work between the


as

finger,

Fig.

in

30,

left thumb and forekeeping the thumb below the

gathering thread.
3.

Put the point of the large needle under the gather-

ing thread, holding


4.
little

it

obliquely.

Press the needle towards the thumb, bringing the


plait

thumb, and drawing the needle

the

uncter

downwards.

down

5.

Pinch

6.

Continue

it

stitch.

Suggestions.

tightly.

in this

The

way, putting the needle under each

part to be gathered should be divided

into halves, quarters, or eighths, according to the "Vidth.

When

the part

is

only divided into halves, a notch

may be

avoided by beginning the gathering in the middle.


In placing, the eye of the needle can be used instead of
a blunt-pointed needle.

The upper

often need a stroke of the needle.


is

made

torn.

in placing,

In thin,

marks are apt

stiff

stitches can be taken

part of the gathers

If a

scratching sound

to be left,

and the cloth

materials, instead of placing,

on the needle

at once,

many

and before

drawing the needle through, push them close together

holding firmly, pull them into place and press them.

How is gathering done? When is it used? How is the cloth prepared ? How
long a thread should be used ? What kind of a knot is required ? How is the work
held ?
How are the stitches taken ? What is done after the seam is finished ? How
should the thread be drawn? How should the thread be wound? At which end
should stroking begin?
How is the work held in stroking? Where should the
needle be put ? What is done next ?

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

40

DOUBLE GATHERING OR GAUGING.


Double gathering

is

done by making two rows of

gathering, with the stitches of the second row directly

under those of the


Materials.

first.

No.

needle,

40 thread, and two


long and seven
and lower edge.

No.

pieces of cotton cloth, each half-a-yard

inches wide,

Fig. 31.

hemmed

at the sides

Showing double gathering on

Double gathering on single material.

single material

Gather one-

fourth of an inch from the raw edge.


2.

When

the end

is

reached, remove the needle, but do

not draw up the thread.


3.

Make

an inch

a crease one-fourth of

below the

gathering.
4.

On

the crease

make another row

eacJi stitch directly belozv the ofie


5.

Remove

6.

Take hold

above

of gathering, taking
it

(Fig. 31).

the needle.
of

both threads

near

the

cloth,

gradually draw the gathers up to the required width.

and

DOUBLE GATHERING.
Double gathering which

I.

is to

be overhanded on

Find the middle of the cloth, and

to

mark

a binding.

one and

it

a half inches from the raw edge by a cross-stitch.


2.

let

it

3.

Crease one inch from the raw edge of the cloth, and

remain folded.

Make two

or

more rows

of gathering, the first

being one-eighth of an inch from the edge of the


Suggestions.

When double gathering

no need of placing.

is

fold.

used, there

is

much

fulness.
easily

gathering thread,

is

Double gathering should be used on

woollen materials, and quite long stitches be taken,

row can be

row

if

there

Where the gathers are large, the second


made by closely drawing up the first
and inserting the needle through many

gathers at once.

How

double gathering done ? How far from the edge should the first row, in
made? In double material? How is the middle of the cloth
marked for double gathering, that is to be overhanded to a binding ?
is

single material, be

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

42

SHIRRING.
Shirring

done by making several rows of running,

is

parallel with

each other.

No.

40 thread, and a piece


and twelve inches wide.
The cloth should be folded lengthwise and basted.
Materials.

8 needle, No.

of cotton cloth half-a-yard long

^^TT^^l^ni

WW;
It

l\ llll'IP'IMi
Fig. 32.

Shirring.
2.

Make

Showing shirring,

and the

stitches.

Begin as in running.
number of rows

the required

at the desired

distances from each other (Fig. 32).


3.

Draw

the gathers up on the threads, or by cords

run between the rows.


How

is

shirring done

How

are the gathers

drawn up?

SCALLOPED EDGE.

43

SCALLOPED EDGE.

scalloped edge

Materials.

is

used as a fancy heading for fulness.

No.
and strong
Fold

8 needle, No.
silk or

woollen cloth,

Scalloped edge.

five-eighths of an inch

60 thread, a

strip of soft

thread to match

in color.

one of the lengthwise edges

from the edge, and baste close to

the raw edge.


2.

end,

On the wrong side, and beginning at the right-hand


mark the outer edge of the fold into inches with a

colored pencil.

Fig. 33.

3.

Showing a scalloped edge.

Half-an-inch below the outer edge of the fold, and

beginning half-an-inch from the right-hand end, make


another row of dots one inch apart.

These dots should

be midway between those of the upper row.


4.

Make

a good-sized knot, and inserting the needle at

the upper right-hand dot, take small running stitches,


slanting up and down, from dot to dot (Fig. 33).
Carefully draw up the thread every few inches.
5.
For what

is

a scalloped edge used

What kind

of stitches are taken

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

44

HONEY-COMBING OR SMOCKING.
Honey-combing
mental

drawing fulness together for orna-

is

effect.

Materials.

No.

8 needle, a piece of

fine

woollen cloth

eleven inches long and three and a half inches wide, silk
to match, and a red and a blue pencil.

Od

0^

<>Q<>Q<>Q<><:Q<>a

O6060606O
Fig. 34.-

Showing

how

to

mark the

cloth,

diamonds representing red

dots, and circles blue dots.

Honey-combing.

i.

On

the right side of the cloth, and

beginning at one end, mark the entire length, as in Fig.


34, placing red dots in the place of diamonds, and blue
dots in the place of circles.

Fig. 35,

Showing honey-combing begun,

needle

in

position.

HONEV-COMBING.
2.

45

Drawing the needle through from underneath


up a few threads of the cloth at b (Fig.

(Fig. 34), take

at

34),

and fasten a and b together with two or three over and


over stitches (Fig. 35, a).
Passing the needle underneath, bring
3.

next red dot (Fig. 34,

Fig. 36.

4.

Continue

c)^

and fasten

Showing diamond

to the

it

out at the

and d together.

honey-combing:

end of the row, fastening together

the red dots which are connected in Fig. 34.


Beginning the second row at the right,
5.
together,
Fig. 34)-

in

a similar

manner, the blue dots

fasten
(circles,

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

46
6.

Work

the third row as the

first,

and the fourth row

as the second, and so continue (Fig. 36).


Suggestions.

In honey-combing, exactness

is

required

marking the spaces. Instead of colored pencils, the


may be marked with thread or chalk. To keep the
honey-combing in position, the outer edges should be

in

dots

fastened to a lining, after

is

it

is

finished.

What is honey-combing ? Where is exactness required


honey-combing kept in position ;vhen finished ?

in

honey-combing ?

How

BINDINGS,

binding or band

raw edges

used to strengthen and cover the

Sewed by
No.
No. 50

Binding No.
Materials.

and a piece

Fig. 37.

is

of a seam.

stitching and

1.

8 needle.

hemming.

thread, pins, scissors,

of cotton cloth half-a-yard long

and seven

Showing the corners of the binding cut,


of the

edges

nnarl<ed

and the middle


by notches and a cross-stitch.

inches wide, notched in the middle, gathered and stroked

(page 36); for the binding, a piece of cloth eight inches

long and three inches wide.

BINDINGS.

Preparations.

47

Find the middle of the band, and

mark

the place by cutting a notch (Fig. 37) at the edge of


each side, or by taking a cross-stitch (Fig. 37) with

colored cotton.

Cut

2.

off

each corner of the band one-fourth of an

inch deep (Fig. 37), to avoid having


cloth, when the corners are turned.

many

thicknesses of

Loosen the gathering thread.

3.

Fig. 38.

Showing half of the gathers

basted and stitched.

Holding the wrong side of the gathered piece to4.


wards you, place the middle of the band at the notch in the
middle of the gathers, and put in a pin vertically, to hold

them together
5.

(Fig. 38).

Pin the ends of the gathers

one-foiirtJi

of

aii

inch

from each end of the band.


6.

Tighten or loosen the gathering thread, so that the

length of the gathered edge exactly matches that of the


band.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

48
7.

Fasten the gathering thread by winding

it

around

the pin.
8.

With the point

that the fulness

of the needle adjust the gathers, so

evenly distributed along the band.

is

Holding the gathers towards you, baste, with small


stitches, a little above the gathering thread.
9.

Stitching.

Stitch the gathers to the band, exactly

i.

over the gathering thread, taking up only one gather at a

time (Fig. 38).


2.

Take out the

3.

If,

when

short, loosen
4.

When

pins, as

you come

to them.

sewing, the gathering thread should be too

by unwinding

it

the band

it

from the

pin.

stitched on, fasten the thread

is

securely, cut off the gathering thread

and take out the

basting thread.

Turn up the band, and crease the oppoi


edge and the two ends, one-fourth of an inch deep.
off the corners of the gathers above the
2. Cut

Hemming.

site

stitching.
3.

4.

Fold the band over to the line of stitching,


Pin the middle of the folded edge to the middle of

the line of stitching.


5.

Pin the ends, being careful to have

the corners

exactly together.
6.

Baste the band down, keeping the edge of the fold

directly over the stitching.


7.

8.

Overhand each end, beginning at the gathers.


Hem the band down, taking a stitch in each gather,

little

below the stitching.

show on the

Suggestions.

the cloth,

Do

not allow the stitches to

right side.

when

binding should be cut lengthwise of

strength

is

required, or

where much wear

BINDINGS.

49

A narrow binding for


garment should be cut on the bias. The
binding and gathering should be equally divided by
notches, so that there may be no. more fulness in one
If there are but few gathers, halfpart than in another.
is

coming, as on underclothing.

finishing

Great

backstitching can be used instead of stitching.

care should be taken to have the ends of the band neat

some prefer
stitching,

to turn the ends of the

others stitch the ends of

before putting

it

on to the gathers.

Binding No.

2.

Sewed by

Materials.

Same

as for

band under before


the band together,

setting-in the gathers.

Binding No.

x^
k^^-_:JJ^^"^-^l

Fig. 39,

Preparations.
cross-stitch,

Showing gathers set into

i.

and cut

Mark

the middle of the band by a

off the corners, as in Fig. 37.

2.

Crease the four edges of the band.

3.

Baste and overhand the

ends, beginning

corners.
4.

band.

Loosen the gathering thread.

at

the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

50
5.

Hold the

6.

Pin the middle of one edge of the band to the mid-

right side of the gathers towards you.

dle of the gathers,


(Fig. 39,

^).

Pin the ends of the gathers, inside the ends of the

7.

band

(Fig. 39, a

Draw up

8.
is

and exactly over the gathering thread

and

c).

or loosen the gathering thread, so that

it

the same length as the band, and fasten around the pin.
9.

10.

Arrange the gathers with the needle.


Baste the band on, so that the gathering thread

covered.
Setting-in of gathers.

make
2.

is

Begin as for hemming, but

the stitch vertical on the side towards you.

Take

up,

close

below the gathering thread, one

gather and then a thread or two of the band (Fig. 39).


Take the next stitch by inserting the needle into
3.
the

next

gather (which

should

be directly under the

place where the thread comes out of the band) and at the

same time take up a thread of the band.


4. Take a stitch in each gather.
5.

When

this side

is

finished, fasten securely,

and cut

off the gathering thread.


6.

Baste and sew the under part of the band in the

same manner, taking care

that

the edge of the band

corresponds exactly with the edge on the opposite


in order that the
7.

Do

not

Suggestions.

let

band may not be twisted.


these stitches show on the

The

shape of the stitch

is

N, as in overhanding, but the slant here

while in overhanding

it

is

on the

top.

side,

right side.
like the letter

is

underneath,

binding

is

more easily sewed on in this manner, if there is a double


row of gathering. To strengthen a binding, where a

BINDINGS.

button is to be placed, turn in one inch at the end of the


band before folding it, and baste pieces of cloth on the
under side where other buttons are to be placed at the
button-hole end, turn in half-an-inch.
Cut a button-hole
;

in a

binding nearer the gathers than the folded edge, so

that the garment will be held in place firmly.

Binding No.
Materials.

piece of

3.

Sewed by overhanding.

Same

cloth

as for Binding No.

i,

with the larger

gathered for overhanding to a binding

(page 41).

Fig. 40.

Showing gathers overhanded,

Preparations.
cross-stitch,
2.

and cut

Mark

with needle

in

the middle of the band by a

off the corners, as in Fig.

Crease the four edges

position.

of

ij

the band.

Double each end, and beginning at the corners,


3.
overhand both ends.
4. Baste the lengthwise edges together.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

52

5.

Pin the middle of the band at the middle of the

right side of the gathers (Fig. 40).


6.

Pin the ends of the gathers and band together.

7.

Draw up

are of the

or loosen the gathering threads, until they

same length

as the band,

and fasten around the

pin.
8.

Arrange the gathers with the needle, and put

in

pins vertically every two inches.


Overhanding'.

hand the gathers

to

Holding the band towards you, overthe band placing a stitch in each

gather.
2.

Take out the

3.

Fasten the gathering threads.

pins, as

you come to them.

For what

is a binding used?
In what three ways can a binding be sewed on?
can the middle of tha band be marked ? What should be done to the corners
of the band ? Why ? Where should the gathered piece and band be pinned together ?
What should be done to the gathering thread ? How is it fastened ? How should the
gathers be adjusted ? How basted ? Where and how should the gathers be stitched ?
How is the band prepared for hemming ? Where should the band be pinned ? How is
the band basted ? What should be done at each end ? Where should the hemming
stitches be taken ? When is a binding cut lengthwise ? What should be done to the
ends of a band before setting-in the gathers ? How should the band be basted to the
gathers ? What letter should the stitch resemble ? How can a band be strengthened,
where buttons are to be placed ?

How

FACINGS OR FALSE HEMS.

facing

is

a fold applied to the edge of a

garment

for

protection and finish, and has the appearance of a hem.

No.

8 and No. 9 needles. No. 50 and No.


70 thread, pins, and two pieces of cotton cloth, one piece
six inches long and four inches wide, the other piece, for

Materials.

the facing, six inches long and two inches wide.

BUTTON-HOLES.
Facing.
of cloth,

53

Place the facing lengthwise on the piece

and pin the ends together.

Baste them together one-fourth of an inch from the

2.

edge.

Half-backstitch under the basting.

3.

Take out the basting thread.


Fold
the wrong sides together, and crease the cloth
5.
one or two threads beyond the seam, that the seam may
not show on the edge.
4.

6.

Crease the opposite edge of the facing one-fourth of

an inch deep.
Pin the ends of the cloth and facing evenly together.

7.

8.

Baste and hem.

Suggestions.

A facing which requires strength should


A

be cut lengthwise.
as the

neck

narrow facing for a rounded edge,

of a garment, should be cut

on the

bias, so

may be stretched when being hemmed. A false hem


can be used, when the material is not long enough to allow

that

it

a hem.
What

When

is a facing ?
What is
can a false hem be used ?

its

use

How should

it first

be sewed

How

next

BUTTON-HOLES.

button-hole

is

cut and

slit

worked

in a

garment to

admit a button.

Button-Hole Stitch for Beginners.


Materials.

No.

8 needle.

No. 40 colored thread, and a

folded and basted strip of cotton cloth.


Button-hole stitch.

Make

a small knot in the thread.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

54
2.

Place the folded edge of the cloth across the cushion

of the forefinger of the left hand, allowing the tip of the

show
Hold the

finger to
3.

(Fig. 41).

cloth firmly, keeping the end of the

thumb

near the folded edge.


4.
5.

Work from you, instead of towards you,


Draw the needle through from underneath,

close to

the folded edge of the cloth, which will bring the thread
into position for the stitch.
6.

Again

insert the needle one-eighth of

the edge, and exactly back of

Fig. 41

Showing the work

in

its first

position,

an inch from

position.

and button-hole stitches.

Let the needle remain half-way through the cloth,


7.
and pointing towards you.
8. Take the two threads at the eye of the needle, bring
them towards you at the right of the needle, then under
the point of the needle and from you (Fig. 44).
9.

Pull the needle out,

twist or purl

comes

drawmg

the thread so that the

at the top of the folded

edge of the

cloth (Fig. 41).


ID.
in

One-eighth of an inch beyond take another stitch

the same manner.

BUTTON-HOLES.

55

So continue, making the stitches even.


the thread becomes too short to use, turn to
the other side of the cloth, and fasten lightly at the side
After threadof the last stitch, and away from the purl.
11.

12.

When

ing the needle, insert


it

it

beside of the last stitch, drawing

Turn

towards the purl.

to the right side,

and draw the

needle up through the last purl, and proceed with the


button-hole stitch.
What
placed

is

the

What

first

thing to be done

Where should

part of the forefinger shows

the folded edge of the cloth be


should the cloth be held ? In
stitch taken?
Why? How far

How

which direction do you work? Where is the first


from the edge is the needle next inserted? How far through the cloth should the
How should it point? What is done with the two threads?
needle be brought?
When the thread is drawn out, where should the twist or purl come ? How much
should be left between the stitches ?

Button-Holes.
Materials.

No.

8 needle. No.

40 colored thread, button-

hole scissors, a medium-sized button, and a folded and

basted strip of cotton cloth.

Fig. 42.

The

Showing the work

in position.

instructions are given in the following order

Button-hole stitch.

1.

Cutting.

2.

Barring.

5.

Finishing.

3.

Overcasting.

6.

Joining the thread.

4.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

56
Cutting.

Cut

the

slit

by a thread

of the cloth, one-

fourth of an inch from the folded edge, and a

little

longer

than the diameter of the button.


Barring.
2.

With the

Make

a small knot in the thread.

folded edge from you, place the

slit

across

the cushion of the left forefinger (Fig. 42).

Hold the slit firmly between the thumb and forefinger, and slanting as in Fig. 42.
4. Work from you, beginning at the end farthest fivm
3.

the folded edge of the cloth.

A, showing the barring of a button-hole; B, showing the


overcasting of a button-hole; C, showing a finished button-hole;
Z>, showing a button-hole on heavy cloth.

Fig. 43.

5.

Draw

left of

the

the needle through from underneath, at the


and three or four threads from the raw

slit,

edge, a (Fig. 43, A).


6.

Turn the

cloth, so that the folded

edge

is

towards

you.
7.

at

c,

Insert the needle at b (Fig. 43, A), and bring

side of the

out

slit.

Again insert the needle at b, and bring


This makes a side and end barring.
8.

it

taking up three or four threads of the cloth at each

it

out at

c.

BUTTON-HOLES.

57

Turn the cloth, and bar the other side and end in
the same manner, i.e., inserting the needle at d, bring it
9.

out at

a,

and repeat.

ing point.
Overcasting.

edge of the
2.

cast

i.

This brings the needle to the

Hold the barring

tightly

start-

near the

slit.

Taking up three or four threads of the cloth, overone side, making the stitches over the barring and

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

58

manner, which

again bring the needle to the starting

will

point.

Button-hole stitch or purl.

way through

the

at

left

Draw

side,

the needle

half-

and one thread beyond,

taking up about four threads of the cloth.

With the needle pointing towards

2.

you, take the two

threads at the eye of the needle, and bring them towards

you

then under the point of


from
(Fig.
the needle and
you
44).
Draw the needle and thread out, at right angles to
3.
the slit, and so that the twist or purl comes at the top edge
of the slit (Fig. 44).
In making the purl, the thread will
at the right of the needle,

form the figure eight (8).


Continue in this manner, leaving a thread of the
4.
cloth between each stitch, and make the stitches even.
5.

Take seven

(Fig. 45),

or eight stitches across the outer end

drawing the purl towards the folded edge, and

making either a square or round end. The greatest wear


from the button comes here.
Holding the folded edge of the cloth towards you,
6.
work the second side until close to the end barring.
If,

in taking the button-hole stitch,

thread

around the

needle,

the

you

stitch

fail to

can

put the

be picked

by leaving a small loop, and, with the thread beyond it, passing the needle from underneath through

up,

the loop.
Finishing.

needle

Without turning the

down through

bringing

it

the

first

up on the opposite

cloth,

draw the

button-hole stitch taken,


side,

where the side and

end barrings meet.


2.

Draw

this

close together.

stitch so tightly as to bring

the

sides

BUTTON-HOLES.

Make

3.

which

59

a barring exactly over the one already there,

will leave

the thread at the

Holding the thread under the

4.

side.

left

left

thumb, draw the

needle under the two end barrings and over the thread,

which
5.

form the loop

will

stitch.

Take another loop

stitch in the middle of the bar-

ring and one in the right hand corner.


6.

Draw

the needle

purl of the last loop


Joining the thread.

down through

short, put the needle

the cloth close

to tJie

and fasten on the wrong

stitch,
If

side.

the thread should prove too

through the

and turn

slit,

to the

other side of the cloth.


2.

Fasten lightly beside the

3.

After threading the needle, insert

drawing it
Turning the right

up through the
hole stitch.
Suggestions.
allel

place
is

it

beside the last

towards the purl.

stitch,
4.

last stitch.

last

On

draw the needle


and proceed with the button-

side towards you,

purl,

materials that ravel,

make two

rows of stitching, and cut between the rows

may be dampened

or the

with glue and cut when dry.

important to remember

when making

par-

It

a button-hole, to

work from you and begin at the end farthest from the
Try to keep the slit straight and not to press it
edge.

Some hold the slit horizontally on the


The distance that the button-hole is cut from
depends upon the garment. The side of the

out of shape.
forefinger.

the edge,

garment

in

choice, but
to

it.

which the button-hole


it is

is

made,

is

a matter of

wise to decide upon one side and adhere

In woollen goods a triangle of a few threads of the

cloth can be cut out of the end nearest the edge, or the

end can be rounded.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

60

The

barring strengthens the button-hole and keeps

in place.

If

it

a great strain comes on the button-hole, put

a double barring around.

Some

prefer to overcast before barring, but the overare

stitches

casting

When

place.

helpful in keeping

the overcasting

the under edge, which

is

done

is

casting stitches on the under or

the barring in

first,

wrong

side,

take the over-

thus securing

very apt to pull away in working.

material, that does not ravel, need not be overcast.

button-hole can be finished by taking button-hole

on heavy goods by sewing closely


and over the barring. In a button-hole, where a
strain comes on the sides, as in the front of a shirt, work
both ends as in finishing an ordinary button-hole.
Always try to have the thread long enough to finish

stitches in the loop, or

over

For a very large button-hole,

working the button-hole.


take a

new

piece of thread,

On

hole stitch.

On

be used.

when beginning on

the button-

woollen cloth, button-hole twist should

heavy goods, a cord

is

used instead of

barring.
What

is

a button-hole

tions for button-hole

What

making

How should the


Where should the

Cutting.
Barring.
do you work ?

is its

use

Give the order in which the instruc-

are given.
slit

be cut

slit

be placed and

At which end do you begin

Where

how held?
is

In which direction

the needle inserted

What

taken by following the directions for the end


How is the other side and end barred ? Where will this bring the needle ?
barring ?
How should the barring be held? How is the first side overOvercasting.
How is the end overcast ? How is the needle brought to the starting point ?
cast ?
Where and how should the needle be inserted ? How
Button-hole stitch.
should be done next

What

stitch is

many threads of the cloth are taken up ? In what direction should the needle point ?
What is now done with the two threads ? How are the needle and thread drawn
out ? Where should the twist or purl come ? What figure is formed by the thread,
How many threads of the cloth should be left between the
in making the purl?
How should the outer end be worked ? Where doe? the greatest wear
stitches ?
come?

How

should the cloth be held in working the second side?

up ?
done with the needle ?

How

can a

button-hole stitch be picked

Finishing.

What

is

How

should this stitch be drawn

BUTTONS.

6l

Where is the second barring made ? How is the loop stitch formed ? Where are
the other loop stitches taken ? Where should the needle be drawn, to fasten the
thread

What is done if the thread proves too short? After


threading the needle, where should it be inserted ? Where is it next brought ?
Why is barring used ? Is a material, that does not ravel, overcast ? How long a
thread should be taken ?
Joining the thread.

BUTTONS.

button

a catch of metal or other substance,

is

by

"i^hich a garment is fastened.


No. 7 and No. 8 needles, No. 36 and No. 50
Materials.
thread, a pin, a four-holed button, and a folded and basted

piece of cotton cloth.

b,
c,

a. Showing the sewingof a two-holed button, pin in


showing the sewing of a four-holed button, pin in
showing the sewing of a boot-button.

Fig. 46.

Buttons.

Make

a pin-hole, where the button

position

position

is

to

be

placed.
2.

circle

Stitch with the fine needle and thread a very small

around the pin-hole, or a cross

keep both sides of the cloth


3.

4.

at the pin-hole, to

in place.

Having the coarse thread double, make a knot.


Draw the needle through the pin-hole from the upper

side, to

conceal the knot under the button.

5.

Bring the needle partly through, close to the knot.

6.

Place the button on the needle, and draw the needle

and thread through.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

62
7.
b),

Place the pin across the top of the button (Fig. 46,

lengthen the stitches

to

and take the

first

stitch

across the button, at right angles with the edge of the


cloth.
8.

Sew

securely through and through the holes, making

a cross on the button, and two parallel lines on the

wrong

side of the cloth.

Remove

9.

the pin, which will loosen the stitches.

Inserting the needle from underneath, bring

10.

between the button and

it

out

cloth, close to the centre of the

button.

Wind

1 1

the thread tightly around the stitches three

or four times, to form a neck for the button

thus allow-

ing room for the thickness of the button-hole.

Fasten the thread on the under side of the

12.

Suggestions.

In

cloth.

sewing on a two-holed button, the

stitches should be taken at right angles with the edge of

the cloth (Fig. 46,

button-hole.

a),

to avoid stretching the

end of the

button with a loop, as a boot-button,

should be sewed with the stitches taken parallel with the

edge (Fig. 46,

c)

this will bring the

wear on the loop

of

the button.

The

button-holes should be

made

first.

To mark

the

places for the buttons, lay the right sides of the garment
together, and put pins through the outer ends of the

button-holes

taking great care to have the pins exactly

opposite the button-holes.


What is its use ? How should the place for a button be preis a button ?
What kind of thread should be used? How should the needle be inserted?
What is placed across the top of the button ? How is the button sewed on ?

What
pared?

Why
How is
?

How should the stitches be taken in


the neck of the button formed ? Why ?
sewing on a two-holed button ? How on a button with a loop? How are the places
for the buttons marked on a garment ?

EYELET-HOLES.

63

EYELET-HOLES.

An

eyelet

is

made and worked

a hole

garment, to

in a

receive a small cord or the loop of a button.


Materials.

No.

8 needle, No.

40 thread, a

stiletto,

and

a piece of cloth folded and basted.


Eyelet-holes.

i.

the

Pierce

cloth with the stiletto, breaking


as few threads as possible.
2.

Holding

the

hole

over the cushion of the


finger,

with

work
very

it

over

fore-

and

even

close,

tightly

left

over

stitches

(Fig. 47, a).


3.

When

working on a

line

with the threads of the cloth, use


great care

4.

take

to

the

stitches

and deep enough,

close

Use the

stiletto occasionally

to keep the hole round.


Suggestions.
eyelet-hole,

twice

To

make

mark the

running

a large

by
around

circle

thread

Showing a small
showing a
large eyelet-hole, marked

Fig. 47.

a,

eyelet-hole

by

l>,

running

showing

the desired size (Fig. 47, b); then


carefully cut out the centre, turn

stitches

large

c,

eyelet-

hole finished.

the edge of the material under, and work the edge over
and over or with button-hole stitches (Fig. 47, c).

On woollen

materials, use silk or twist.

can be worked with the button-hole

eyelet-hole

What is its use ? With what do we make an eyelet-hole


is an eyelet-hole ?
Where should care be taken 1
should the eyelet-hole be held and worked

What

How

An

stitch.

.''

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

64

HOOKS AND

hook

An

ing.

is

EYES.

a hard material, bent for holding or fasten-

eye

is

a small round catch to receive the hook.

No.

No. 40 thread, a mediumsized hook and eye, and two folded and basted pieces of
Materials.

8 needle,

cotton cloth.

Fig. 48.

Eyes.

Showing

Make

I.

hook and eye sewed on.

a knot in the thread.

Place the loop of the eye a

2.

edge of one of the pieces of

Hold the loop

3.

firmly

little

beyond the folded

cloth.

between the

left

thumb and

forefinger.

Beginning

4.

two

at the further side,

overhand closely the

eye (Fig. 48), being careful not to


the stitches show on the right side.
circles of the

5.

Take three

stitches over each other at each side of

the eye, near the edge of the cloth (Fig. 48,


6.

let

a).

Fasten very securely.

Taking the other piece of cloth, lap the


I
Hooks.
two pieces as desired.
2. Put the hook into the eye already sewed on, and
place

it

in position.

LOOPS.

65

Holding the hook firmly between the left thumb


3.
and forefinger, unfasten it,
4. Begin at the further side, and overhand closely the
two

circles (Fig. 48),

being careful not to

show on the right side.


Overhand the under
5.

let

the stitches

part of the hook, as far as the

bend.
Fasten, by taking three or four stitches in the same

6.

one side of the hook

place, at

then run

opposite side, and again fasten.

and

here,

it is

Suggestions.
liable to

When

the.

needle to the

great strain comes

necessary to fasten securely.

the eye

If

show, cover

it

on a garment, where

is

it is

with button-hole or loop stitches.

sewing on hooks and eyes, use a strong thread or

and as

twist,

fine a needle as possible.

a hook ? What is an eye ? Where is the eye placed ? How is it sewed


should the thread be fastened? What is done to the two pieces of cloth
before sewing on the hook ?
Where is the hook placed before it is put in position ?
How is it sewed on ? How is the thread fastened ?

\Vhat

is

How

on?

LOOPS.

A
of

loop

is

an eye.
Materials.

No.

and basted piece


Loops.

made

a catch

I.

in a

garment, to take the place

8 needle, No.

of cotton cloth.

Make

a knot in the thread.

Holding the folded edge


work from left to right.
2.

3.

40 thread, and a folded

of the cloth towards you,

Half-an-inch from the folded edge take three

or

four stitches one-fourth of an inch in length, and over each

other (Fig. 49,

a).

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

66

Holding the thread down with the

4.

left

thumb, insert

the needle under the backstitches, and over the thread

being careful not to

(Fig. 49, a)]

take up any threads of the cloth.

Draw

5.

the needle and thread

towards you, so that the purl

come

may

at the side of the loop to-

wards you.

Fig. 49.

a,

needle

Showing the

in

position

the loop

Fill

6.

full of stitches

drawn closely together.

At

7.

b,

the right-hand end, draw

showing a finished loop;


showing a finished
c,

the

loop, enlarged.

cloth, close to the purl of the last

needle

down

through

the

stitch.

With

8.

few

stitches,

overhand the underneath

and fasten securely.

ing,

Suggestions.

stitch

In making

a loop on a garment, the back-

stitches should be taken one-sixteenth of an inch

where the loop comes, when the garment

is

beyond

fastened.

Button-hole stitches can be used instead of loop-stitches.


What is its use
In which direction do you work in making a
is a loop ?
Where and how are the first stitches taken? How is the needle inserted?
the needle drawn through ? How many stitches should be taken in the loop ?

What
loop?

How

is

What

is

.?

done to the underneath

stitches

gusset

is

an angular piece of

cloth, inserted in a gar-

ment, to strengthen and enlarge an opening.


Materials.

No.

8 needle, No.

and a piece of cotton cloth

GUSSETS.

five

60 thread,

pins, scissors,

inches square,

hemmed

GUSSETS.

on three sides

67

for the gusset a quarter of a four-inch

circle of cloth.

Gussets.

Find the

middle of the side of the

hemmed, and

not

cloth

cut two inches and a half,

by a thread.

Make a hem on each

2.

Fig. 50.

side,

having

it

Showing the

one-eighth

gusset

folded over.

inch wide at the

of an

and turned to a point at the bottom.


Find the middle of the rounded side
3.

top,

and crease

of the gusset,

to the opposite corner.

4.

Baste with even stitches along the crease.

5.

On

all

the sides, fold and crease one-fourth of an

inch.
6.

folds,
7.

Cut

off all unnecessary thicknesses


and baste the folds down.

On

each

make

(Fig. 50),

side, five-eighths of

a pin-hole

thread,

an inch from point a

then fold and crease from pin-

hole to pin-hole (Fig. 50, b to


Setting -in the gusset.

of cloth in the

i.

b).

With

a small knot

in

draw the needle through from the wrong

the

side of

the gusset, at point a (Fig. 50).


2.

Holding the

sert the needle

'wro7ig side of the cloth

from the right

side,

towards you,

in-

two or three threads

from the end of the opening.


3.

Holding the right sides

gusset

4.

ning

the

to

(Fig. 50)

cloth,

far

as

as

together,

overhand the

the crease

or

point

fasten securely.

Overhand the other


at point a.

side in the

same manner, begin-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

6S

5.

Fold the gusset over on the crease.

6.

Pin the end of the middle line of basting to the cloth,

little

below the opening (Fig.

Showing the middle of the


gusset pinned, and the finished
gusset on the wrong side.

Fig. 51.

7.

Baste and

8.

Make

strengthen

Suggestions.

An

Fig.

52.

Showing

the

gusset

on

finished

the right side.

the gusset to the cloth.

a row of stitching at the fold of the gusset, to


it

(Fig. 51).

Fig. 53.

as desired

hem

51).

it

Showing other ways of cutting a gusset.

The gusset can be made

as large or small

can -also be cut in different shapes (Fig.

easy method of inserting a gusset

square of cloth

fold

is

53).

to cut a small

and crease the edges

placing a

corner at the end of the opening, overhand two sides

fold

69

GUSSETS.

on the bias and hem the remaining sides over the overhanding stitches.
i. Make a paper pattern the desired
Gusset and facing.

size,
2.

having the gusset in the proportions of Fig. 54.


Fold the pattern at the dotted lines (Fig. 54), and

place this edge on an exact bias fold of the cloth, which


thread
will bring the edge of the gusset on a line with a
of the cloth.

Pig. 54.

_ Showing the shape of a gusset and facing connbined,

Cut the cloth by the pattern, and then cut in onefourth of an inch to a (Fig. 54).
on the inner edges of the facing,
4. Make a narrow fold
3.

and on the sides


point at

of the gusset

make

a fold turned to a

a.

5.

Fold the edges of the opening

6.

With

the

wrong

in the

garment.

sides together, overhand the gusset,

and then the inner edges

of the facing, to the

opening in

the garment.
7.

Hem

the opposite edges.

What is its use ? How should the hem in the opening be


is a gusset ?
opening ? What kind
In setting-in a gusset, how is the point brought to the
What kind of stitches are used after folding the gusset ?
of stitches are then taken ?
What

made ?

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK,

70

PLACKET.

placket

Materials.
of

an opening made in a garment.

is

No.

cotton cloth

sides.

Placket.

60 thread, and a piece


hemmed on three

8 needle, No.

inches square,

five

At

the middle of the side not

hemmed,

cut three inches by a thread.


2.

Hold the wrong

3.

At the

side of the cloth towards you.

make

the opening,

left of

hem

turned to a

bottom, and one-eighth of an inch wide at the

point at the
top.
4.

At the

right,

make

hem

three-fourths of an inch

wide the entire length.


5.

6.

Turn to the right side of the cloth.


At the bottom of the wide hem make

a horizontal

crease by a thread.
7.

On

the right side of the opening,

make

a vertical

crease by a thread, three-fourths of an inch from the


edge.
8.

Place the edge of the wide

9.

Holding

stitches,

What

hem

little

is

tacking the

this crease.

baste

with

small

of stitching,

one a

little

below, and

above the basting.

a placket

at the left?

hem on

carefully,

on the horizontal crease.

Make two rows

10.

one a

the

How
hem ?

When

the

wrong

wide at the right?

side

is

towards you, how wide a hem is made


rows of stitching are taken in

How many

TUCKING.

71

TUCKING.

tuck

is

a fold

made and sewed

ornament, or that the garment


necessary.

in a

garment

for

may be lengthened when

No.

8 and No. 9 needles, No. 50 and


No. 90 thread, a sharp-pointed lead-pencil, and a piece of
cotton cloth six inches square, having at one side an inch

Materials.

hem sewed

exactly on a thread
for a measure, a stiff,
smooth piece of paper or cardboard three inches long
and half-an-inch wide.
;

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

72
8.

you,

Turn

to the right side, and, holding the

crease by a thread

at

the

hem towards

horizontal line of

first

dots.

Holding the crease to the light of the window, see


it is exactly by a thread.
10. Make a crease, by a thread, at the second, third

9.
if

and fourth
1 1

lines of dots.

Fold the cloth down

at the

second crease.

90^fi&fifia0aooafffifioa9ffOff

Fig. 56.

12.

Baste

Showing the tucks

exactly

000900004

basted.

by a thread on the

first

crease

(Fig. 56).
13.

Fold the cloth

at the fourth crease,

and baste on

the third crease.


14.

With the

fine needle

close to the basting, taking

and thread, run each tuck

up as

little of

the cloth as

and passing over twice as much.


Tucks are sometimes made lengthwise
The width
of the cloth, and sometimes across the cloth.
apart
are
matter
choice.
distance
a
of
and

possible,

Suggestions.

PLAITING.

73

The chief difficulty is in measuring and folding them


when it is decided at what distance apart and what width
the tucks are to be made, a paper measure can be made
Make a mark as far from the end of the
as follows.
paper, as the sum of the distance apart and the width of
make a second mark beyond the first mark,
the tucks
make a third mark as far from
the width of the tucks
the second mark, as the sum of the distance apart and
make a fourth mark
twice the width of the tucks
;

beyond the third mark, the width of the tucks continue


When two tucks have
as for the third and fourth marks.
been made, the next can be easily marked by folding the
wrong side together at the second tuck, and making pinThe edge of one
holes at the folds of the first tuck.
the next, though
for
measuring
guide
form
the
tuck may
;

mark and baste all the tucks for a short


Narrow tucks, one-eighth of an inch apart, are
neat and pretty, but must be made very carefully, as the
is

it

better to

distance.

difference of a thread
What
way

is

a tuck

What

is its

of the cloth can they be

quickly noticed.

is

made

use
?

How

What

is

should the tucks be sewed


the chief difficulty in

Which

making tucks ?

^i:::^^
PLAITING.

plait

is

trmimmg.
Materials.

made

a fold

No.

in a

garment, for fulness or

needle, No. 50 thread, pins, and a

piece of cloth nine and a half inches long and four inches
wide, with a narrow
Plaiting.

On

hem

at the

ends and lower edge.

the raw edge of the cloth, with the

right side towards you,

measure one inch from the

right-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

74

hand end, and mark

it

by cutting a small notch or

insert-

ing a pin vertically.


2.

Mark every

3.

Fold the cloth

to the
4.

inch and a half to the


at the first notch,

left of this.

and bring the fold

edge of the hem.


Insert a pin in the middle of the three thicknesses of

cloth.
5.

Fold

next notch, and bring

at the

underfold of the

Fig, 57.

exactly to the

it

first plait.

Showing basted

plaits, half-an-inch

wide.

6.

Place a pin in the middle of the

7.

Fold and pin the other

8.

Baste with even stitches, one-fourth of an inch from

plait.

plaits in the

same way.

the edge (Fig. 57).


Suggestions.
to the left.

Plaits

can be laid either to the right or

There can be spaces between the

plaits,

or

If the plaits meet, the


they can meet, as in Fig. 57.
length that is desired,
the
times
three
material must be

when

finished.

Box-plaiting

is

made by beginning

at the

FELLING.

75

middle, and laying a plait to the right, and another to


the

left

double box-plaiting

is

made by adding more

side-plaits.

What

is

a plait

What

is its

use

/
A fell

is

What

different kinds of plaiting are there

FELLING.

Materials.

seam hemmed down to protect the edges.


8 and No. 9 needles, No. 50 and No. 80

No.

thread, and two pieces of cotton cloth, each five inches

long and two inches wide.

Fig

Straight-way

58.

fell.

Showing the seam

basted.

Place the pieces of cloth together,

with one edge one-eighth of an inch below the other, and


baste a narrow seam (Fig. 58).

Sew the seam with a running and a backstitch.


Take out the basting thread, unfold the pieces of
cloth, and lay the seam over, so that the wider edge will
2.

3.

be uppermost.
4.

at the

Turn

to the right side,

and press

carefully,

exactly

sewing of the seam.

a narrow hem (Fig. 59), tucking the ravellings


under with the point of the needle.
5.

Make

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

76
Suggestions.

Hem

cut on the bias, with the

fell

grain of the cloth, or from the wider part to the narrow,

as drawers from the top down.

Showing the

Fig. 59,

sewing

it

fell

can be made by

fell

partly

hemmed.

with the edges even, then pare one edge, being

careful to have the right side of the sewing

upper side of the

fell.

What is
What is a fell
What should be the width of
?

done, after the basting


bias,

is

come on the

its

use

How

are the pieces of cloth placed together

seam? How should the seam be sewed ? What is


removed ? What is done next ? How is a fell, cut on the
the

hemmed ?

FRENCH SEAM.

French seam

that fray.
Materials.

two pieces

is

No.

a neat

manner

French seam.

6o thread, scissors, and


inches long and two inches

8 needle. No.

of calico, each five

wade.

of joining materials

Place the

wrong

sides of the calico

together.
2.

Baste one-eighth of an inch from the edge.

3.

Run

directly

under the basting.

SLIP OR BLIND-STITCH.

JJ

Cut the ravellings from the edges of the seam.


Turning
the wrong side of the calico towards you,
5.
fold the right sides together, and crease at the sewing of
4.

the seam.
6.

Baste, so that the

7.

Half-backstitch

raw edges are enclosed.


seam,

the

being

careful

that

no

ravellings can be seen on the right side.


Sug-gestion.

Trimming

can be put on in this manner,

having the seam very narrow.


What

How

is a French seam ?
Which sides of the cloth should be placed together ?
wide a seam should be made? With what kind of stitches should the seam be

finished

FRENCH HEM ON DAMASK.


French hemming

is

used

No. 9
cotton
Crease
French hem.

in

hemming

table-linen.

needle. No. 70 thread, and a strip of

Materials.

cloth or table-linen.

i
a narrow hem.
Holding the wrong side towards you, fold and crease
the cloth, so as to make it even with the first fold of the
hem.
.

2.

3.

Proceed as

in

overhanding.

SLIP OR

BLIND-STITCH.

slip or blind-stitch is

Materials.

No. 9

used to fasten a

hem

needle. No. 70 thread,

lightly.

and a

strip of

hem

half-an-

cotton cloth.
Slip or blind-stitch.

inch wide.

Fold and crease a

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

yS
2.

Baste about a fourth of an inch from the edge.

3.

Make

4.

Conceal the knot by drawing the needle through

a small knot in the thread.

the under part of the fold, one-eighth of an inch from


the end.

Take up one or two threads of the cloth, and before


5.
drawing the needle through, take up one-fourth of an
inch of the edge of the

Continue

6.

in this

fold.

manner, being careful not

to

draw

the thread tightly.

Fasten securely.

7.

This

Suggestions.

woollen cloth, where

Trimmings

stitch
it

is

is

used for sewing hems on

desired to conceal the stitches.

and velvet are often put on with

of silk

this

stitch.
For what

is

a slip or blind-stitch used?

How

are the stitches taken

EDGINGS AND RUFFLES.

An

edging

is

a trimming on the border of a garment.

Lace Edging.
Lace edging
Materials.

a-yard

of

six inches

at the

made

of fine threads

lace,

and a piece

into a net.

of

cotton

long and four inches wide, with a narrow

ends and upper edge, and an inch

Lace edging.

make

woven

9 needle, No. 70 thread, pins,

inch-wide

edge.

you,

is

No.

hem

half-

cloth

hem

at the lower

Holding the scalloped edge towards


at the right-hand end of the lace.

a narrow hem

EDGINGS AND RUFFLES.

79

Holding the right sides of the lace and cloth


hemmed end of the lace at the top
edge of the upper left-hand corner of the cloth.
Holding the lace loosely, lightly overhand the edges
3.
to within a fourth of an inch of the corner.
2.

together, place the

4.

Run

the needle in and out of the cloth, to keep

it

temporarily secure.
5.

Pin the lace at the corner.

Fig. 60.

6.

Showing lace sewed on,

Measure the width

and corners turned,

of the lace,

and leaving twice the

width, pin again at the corner.


7.

One-fourth of an inch beyond the corner, pin the

lace to the cloth.


8.

Run

a gathering thread in the

from the overhanding to the


9.

much
10.

finish

edge of the

lace,

last pin.

Overhand around the corner, bringing the fulness as


as possible at the corner (Fig. 60).

Turn the other corner


by hemming the end

in the

of the lace.

same manner, and

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

8o

Lace can be sewed on full by dividing


the lace and the edge to which it is to be sewed, into
halves, quarters, etc.; and running a gathering thread
In
through the edge of the lace, before basting it on.
turning corners, it is better to leave a little more than
twice the width of the lace, as there must be enough on
With
the outer edge, to prevent the lace from hooping.
wide lace, leave more than one-fourth of an inch on each
Sug^gestions

side of the corner, for the fulness of the lace.

When

measuring for the quantity of edging needed,

allow enough for the corners.

meet, join by a

When

the ends of the lace

fell.

Hamburg Edging.
Hamburg edging
machinery.

It

is

an embroidered edge, made by

can be sewed on, when no fulness

is

(page 75), a French seam (page 'jG)^ a


when fulness is
facing (page 52), or by overhanding
required,

by a

required,

by

fell

by whipping (page 82).


come on the edging, it is ad-

a facing (page 52), or

When much

wear

visable to overhand

will

it,

the raw edge of the

with N^xy fine thread.

as

it

can then be easily removed

Hamburg should first be overcast


The corners should be turned, and

the ends sewed, as with lace.

Ruffles.
Ruffles are

made

of various materials,

and are

plaited,

gathered, or whipped.

No.

and No. 9 needles, No. 40, No. 70,


and No. 80 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of cotton
cloth six inches long and three inches wide, hemmed at
for the facing, a piece of cloth
the ends and upper side
Materials.

EDGINGS AND RUFFLES.


six inches long

and one and a half inches wide

for the

a piece of cambric nine inches long and two inches

ruffle,

wide, with a very narrow

hem

at the

ends and lower edge.

i
Mark the raw edges of the ruffle
by notches, into halves and quarters. Also
mark the middle of the facing by a notch.
Gather the ruffle.
2.

ruffle faced on.

and the

3.

Place the right sides of the cloth and ruffle together,

and pin
4.

cloth,

corresponding notches.

at the

Draw up

the gathering thread, and fasten around the

pin.
5.

Adjust the gathers, and run exactly on the gathering

thread.
6.

Pin the middle and ends of the facing to the

ruffle,

and baste.
7.

Turn the other

side towards you,

and half -backstitch

close below the running stitches.


8.

9.

Take out the basting threads.


Turn the facing over and crease

carefully at the

it

seam.
10.

Baste and

Suggestions.

hem

the opposite edge of the facing.

A heading on

a ruffle can be

made by

folding the required width for the heading, and gathering

making one or more rows as desired. The fulness of


the ruffle depends upon the material
a narrow cambric
ruffle should be about one and a half times the length of
the part to which it is to be sewed.
In making a ruffle of
more than one breadth, the ends should be joined neatly

it,

before

hemming

or gathering.

Of what is lace edging made ? How should the lace be held


allowance for fulness should be made in turning a corner ?
How should lace be sewed on, when fulness is required? What is Hamburg edging?
In what ways can it be sewed on, when there is no fulness ? When fulness is required ?

What

is

an edging

in overhanding

From what

What

are ruffles

made ?

What

is first

done to the

ruffle,

the cloth,

and the facing ?

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

82

WHIPPING.
Whipping
edge of

Materials.

thread,

is

forming gathers by overcasting a rolled


and drawing up the thread.

fine material,

No. 6 and No.

pins,

scissors, a

8 needles, No.

strip

of paper,

40 and No. 60
and a piece of

cotton cloth six inches long and four inches wide, with a

narrow hem on the ends and upper edge, and an inch hem
on the lower edge for the ruffle, a piece of plain cambric,
;

twelve inches long and two inches wide, with a narrow

hem on

the ends and one side.

Fig. 61

Showing the rolling and overcasting of the

"Whipping.

piece of paper.

ruffle.

Practise rolling tightly the edge of the

It

must be

rolled,

not folded.

Divide the edge of the inch hem, and the raw edge
of the cambric, into halves and quarters, and mark, one
2.

inch from the edge, by cross-stitches.

4.

Trim the ravellings from the raw edge.


Hold the wrong side of the cambric towards you.

5.

Beginning

3.

at

the right-hand corner,

half-inch of the cambric towards you,

and the forefinger

of the left hand.

roll

the

first

between the thumb

WHIPPING.
6.

Take the coarse needle and

83
thread, and

make

a small

knot.
7.

Inserting the needle at the corner, under the

roll,

take one or two stitches, to fasten the end.

Hold the end of the roll between the right thumb


8.
and forefinger, and, placing the cambric between the third
and little finger of the left hand, draw tigJitly.
9.

Pressing the

left

thumb

against the forefinger, rub

an inch of the edge upwards and downwards, until a


small, firm roll

is

made.

Overcast, as far as the cloth

10.

ing the needle under the

is

rolled tightly, insert-

roll (Fig. 61).

1 1.
Draw up the thread, holding it on a line with the
raw edge. If the roll is small, and the stitches are taken
loosely and at regular intervals, the ruffle will draw easily
on the thread.

Continue, rolling and whipping an inch or two at a

12.

time.

Placing the right sides of the ruffle and

13.

hem

to-

gether, pin the divisions of the ruffle to the divisions of the

hem.
14. Draw up the ruffle to the length of the hem, and
wind the thread around the pin.
15. Holding the ruffle towards you, overhand, inserting

the needle in each fold of the whipping, so that the thread


will lie

between the folds

(Fig. 62).

Fasten both the whipping and the overhanding

16.

thread.
Suggestions.

The

fingers should be perfectly clean, to

prevent soiling the work.


take

hemming

A ruffle,

stitches

In whipping, some prefer to

instead of

overcasting stitches.

for whipping, should be twice the length of the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

84

which it is to be sewed it is sometimes advisable


A ruffle cut across the
it more than twice as full.
A fine macloth whips easier than one cut lengthwise.
one.
Ruffles
coarse
than
a
readily
whips
more
terial
should be cut by a thread, which can be done by tearing,

part to
to

make

and then trimming the edges.

Fig. 62.

It is

Showing the overhanding of the

ruffle to the cloth.

best to use short lengths of thread, as a great strain

when the ruffle is drawn. In making a long ruffle,


have a thread for each division, and measure as you draw
comes,

the thread.
is

used.

The thread

When

will

draw

ness, so that the ruffle will lie

handing a
if

ruffle,

easier,

if

a large needle

corners are to be turned, allow extra fulflat

(page 79).

In over-

the garment can be held towards you, but,

the whipping thread should prove too short, there

way to lengthen

it

while,

if

the ruffle

is

is no,

held towards you,

the thread can be drawn up or lengthened.


whipping ? In whipping, which side of the ruffle should be held towards
do you begin ? What kind of a needle and thread should be used ? How
How rolled.? What is done next.? How is the thread drawn?
is the roll held.?
How continue ? How is the ruffle sewed on to the hem ?

What

you ?

is

How

STOCKINET DARNING.

85

STOCKINET DARNING.
darning

Stockinet

is

used in

filling

in a hole

with

thread, so as to supply the part that has been destroyed

or in strengthening a place which shows signs of

weak-

ness.

Practice in Weaving.
Materials.

A long-eyed

needle, a knot of split zephyr,

a sharp-pointed lead-pencil, and a two and an eighth inch

square of cardboard.
Lattice-work.

Turn

to

the measure (page 13).


2.

board

On

one side of the card-

half-an-inch

from the

end, and one-fourth of an inch

from the upper edge, make a


dot with the pencil.
3.

On

a line with this dot,

make nine more

dots exactly

one-eighth of an inch apart.


4.

Mark

the opposite side

Fig. 63.

with dots exactly parallel to

or

Showing
lattice-work

the weaving
of

threads

over cardboard.

the other dots.


5.

Make

a knot in the zephyr and

work across the

cardboard from dot to dot (Fig. 63), having the stitches


on the under side one-eighth of an inch long.
6.

Weave

across these threads by taking up and pass-

ing over a thread alternately (Fig. 63).


of threads

on the needle

Take a number

at once.

Make the second row by taking up those threads,


7.
which were passed over before.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

S6
8.

When

zephyr

at

the row

the zephyr until


9.

is

finished, leave a short loop of the

the opposite end, and holding

Continue

is

it

firmly,

draw

manner, always taking up the

this

in

it

straight.

threads passed over in the previous row.


Suggestion.

Coarse

canvas

can be used instead of

cardboard, and in the place of zephyr, a small cord or


coarse thread can be used.

Stockinet Darning.
Materials.

long-eyed needle. No. 7 needle. No. 50


silk, a piece

thread, scissors, a small spool of embroidery

of cardboard or heavy paper three inches long

and two

and a half inches wide, and a piece of woollen stockinet,


cut four inches lengthwise by a rib of the stockinet, and
three inches and a half across.
Stockinet darning.

wrong

Place

the

cardboard

on

the

side of the stockinet, leaving half-an-inch at each

side to be folded over the cardboard.


2.

Baste one of the lengthwise edges of the stockinet,

having
3.

it

folded exactly by a

rib.

Drawing the stockinet smoothly

opposite side by a

rib,

across, fold

the

and baste.

4.

Fold and baste the ends.

5.

In the centre of the stockinet, cut a

circle, three-

fourths of an inch in diameter.

Holding the stockinet lengthwise, begin at the right


from the edge of the circle (Fig. 64, a).
large needle from you, take two
Pointing
the
7.
stitches, leaving half-an-inch of the end of the silk to be
6.

side, half-an-inch

cut off afterwards.

STOCKINET DARNING.
8.

With the needle pointing towards

8/
you,

make

the

next row of three stitches, taking up the threads of the

were passed over in the preceding row.


continue,
making each row a little longer at both
So
9.
top and bottom, as in Fig. 64, till the centre of the circle
then decrease in the same proportion
reached
is
stockinet, that

(Fig. 64).

Ir

9
ilfliMfl
flflSfiiiiii i L

Fig. 64.

Be

10.

Showing a hole cut,

%U

00s

and partly darned.

careful to put the needle through the loops of

the stockinet, at the edge of the

Cross the darn

11.

in

circle.

the same manner, making per-

fect lattice-work, (Fig. 64).

Suggestions.

keep

it

in place while

the stitches

may be

The stockinet

may be

interesting.

is

put on the cardboard to

being worked, and


easily seen,

In

silk is

used that

and also that the lesson

mending

a stocking, hold

the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

8S

work across three


ball

fingers of the left hand.

darning

can be used, which prevents the fingers from being

pricked, but

it is

apt to stretch the stocking and the darn.

The darning can be done on


and should be worked as
should
of weakness
it
;

either side of the stocking,

far as the stocking


first

shows signs

be worked vertically and

Loops

parallel to the ribs of the stocking.

of about one-

sixteenth of an inch can be left at each end, to provide


for shrinkage

stretching the darn slightly,

finished, will take

The edge

up these

of a darn

as a single thread

is

it

is

must never be made on one thread,

not strong enough to bear the strain;

a diamond or oval shape


thin

when

loops.

is

better.

It is

wise to darn a

In mending a large

place before a hole appears.

draw out the rough ends, and, using a fine needle


and thread, bring the loops or threads as near as poshole,

sible

their

to

proper position.

To

instead of the end.


in color

and quality

Fig. 64a.

the

proper

at the

middle

retain

shape of a large darn, begin the crossing

The darning yarn should correspond


to the stocking.

Showing darning on

scrinn,

where the needle

over two threads, then under two, over two, etc.

is

passed

GRAFTING.

89

GRAFTING.
Grafting

manner, as

is

to render the joining invisible.

Materials.

stockinet,
stockinet.
Grafting.

joining two pieces of stockinet in such a

long-eyed needle, two pieces of coarse

and

yarn

Ravel the two edges that are to be joined,

i.

the

until the loops are perfectly

Fig. 65.

2.

and

quality

even and

Showing grafting stitches,

color

of

the

clear.

and needle

in

position.

Place the edges together, so that the loops of one

are exactly opposite the corresponding openings of the

other (Fig. 65).


3.

Holding the right side towards you, work from right

to left.
4.

Fasten the end of the yarn, by darning

on the wrong

it

in

and out

side of the stockinet.

Inserting the needle in an upper loop (Fig. 65,


bring it out in the next loop (Fig. 65, b).
5.

6.

Inserting the needle in the under loop (Fig. 65,

a),

c)

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

90

opposite the last upper loop, bring

out in the next loop

it

(Fig. 65, d).

Continue, taking two upper loops, then two under

7.

loops, using

one new loop each time, which

will

cause the

needle to be inserted twice in each loop.

Fasten the yarn, by darning

8.

wrong

Swiss-darning.
in a

in

it

and out on the

side.

manner

The

stitches in Swiss-darning are taken

similar to grafting,

and are worked over the

stitches in the stockinet, to strengthen a thin place.

A patch

Suggestions.

invisibly as follows

in stockinet

can be put in almost

cut a square or oblong hole in the

by a thread, and ravel the sides until


cut the patch, by a thread, the exact
graft in the top and
size of the hole, and clear the loops
lower edges, and Swiss-darn the side edges together,
working over four or five stitches at each side of the
stockinet, carefully,

the loops are even

joining.

What

is

grafting

What

are the stitches taken

is first

How

done

How are the edges placed together

are the stitches taken in Swiss darning

How

STOCKING-WEB STITCH.
Stocking-web stitches are used for
stockinet, so as to present the

woven

stockinet,

Materials.

filling in a

hole in

same appearance

as the

and are made on a foundation

A long-eyed

of strands.

needle, No. 7 needle. No.

40

thread, a piece of coarse stockinet three inches square,

yarn to match

in color

and

board two inches square.

quality,

and a piece of card-

STOCKING-WEB STITCH.
Stocking-web stitches.
net, cut carefully,

In the centre of the stocki-

by a thread, an inch square.

2.

Ravel the edges until the loops are clear and even.

3.

With the wrong

side of the stockinet to the card-

board, fold over the edges and baste carefully.

Fig. 66.

4.

Showing the foundation of strands for stocking-web

With the

and lower

fine needle

stitches.

and thread, connect the upper

loops, as in Fig. 66.

Hold the ribs of the stockinet vertically.


Having the coarse needle threaded with the yarn,
insert it one or two loops to the right of the lower row,
and one row above (Fig. 6^, a).
Swiss-darn (page 90) over these stitches, and work
7.
5.

6.

across the strands with a stitch similar to grafting, insert-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

92

ing the needle between the strands in beginning and finishing the loop (Fig. 6j).
8.

Finish the row by Swiss-darning over two or three

loops beyond.

Fig. 67.

9.

back
10.

Showing stocking-web stitches, and needle

in

position.

Turn the work around, and one row above, work


in a similar

manner.

Continue working up the strands, and

grafting the last row of loops made,


stockinet.
For what are stocking-web

stitches

used

On what

finish

by

to the loops of the

are they

made \

CLOTH DARNING.

93

CLOTH DARNING.
Cloth darning

is

used to strengthen worn places, or to

draw together the edges

of a tear or cut.

Straightway-Darn.
Materials.

No.

9 needle, No. 80

red, blue

and pink

thread, and two pieces of cotton cloth, each three inches

and a

half square.

____.

68.

Showing the cloth

darning a straightway-tear

Straightway-tear.

Pink thread.

prepared by running
;

thread.

Blue thread.

________
F'\g.

pj^|<

lines, for practice

in

the blue thread representing the tear.

Darned

with vertical

stitches.

blue thread represents the tear.


1.

Crease across the middle of one of the squares of

cloth.
2.

Leaving an inch and a fourth

at

each end,

make

running on the crease, with the blue thread (Fig. 68).


Make two creases, one, one-fourth of an inch above;
3.

and one, one-fourth of an inch below the running.


4. Leaving an inch at both ends, make a running on
each crease, with pink thread (Fig. 6S). (The pink threads
are boundary lines for the stitches).
Hold the tear over the cushion of the left fore5.
finger.
6.

Threading the needle with red thread, insert

the right of the lower pink line (Fig. 69,


7.

Take

six

it

at

a).

running stitches upwards, bringing the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

94

needle out a little below the upper pink line (Fig. 69,
and leaving an end of the thread to be cut off later.
Finish the row, by

8.

line

the

Fig.

69.- Showing the

darned with

in-

serting the needle above the

>

H^

H-h-^-^

b)

draw

through below

it

beginning the

for

line

n&xt row.
9-

tear partly

Taking up the threads


cloth, which were

the

of

vertical stitches.

passed over in the preceding


row, bring the needle out a
10.

Insert

little

above the lower pink

below the

needle

the

line.

and draw

line,

it

through above the line for beginning the next row.


11.

Make two

rows, between this row and the end of

the tear.
12.

Beginning the

row above the lower

fifth

the needle, at the third stitch,


or tear (Fig. 69,
13.

Take two more


Finish the row

stitches, bringing the needle out

line.
;

and continue

always putting the needle at the


through the
15.

put

line,

the blue line

c).

below the upper pink


14.

down through

tear, to

in the

third

same manner,

down

stitch,

secure the edges.

In finishing the

darn,

make

four rows beyond

the tear.
Straightway-tear.

Darned

~/\ K K K

(III

with slanting stitches.


1

rVr^i

Crease, and run a square

1'

2.

Threading

the

needle

with red thread, insert

it

at

of cloth as before (Fig. 68).


Fig.

70. Showing

the tear partly

^^^'^"^ ^'^^ slanting stitches.

the right of the lower pink line (Fig. 70,

a).

CLOTH DARNING.

On

3.

a line, slanting so as to cut off a sixteenth of an

inch on the opposite

ing the
70,

b),

4.

needle

line,

out a

take six running stitches, bring-

below the upper

little

and leaving an end of the thread

line

(Fig.

to be cutoff later.

Insert the needle above the line, and pointing

towards you, take six stitches on a

same

95

slant.

it

having the

line, all

Bring the needle out above the lower

line at

the sixth stitch.


Insert the needle below the lower line and take six

5.

having the same slant as before at the fourth


draw the needle down through the tear (Fig. 70, c).

stitches,
stitch,
6.

Continue

down through
7.

in this

manner, always drawing the needle

the tear, at the fourth stitch.

In finishing the darn,

make

several rows

beyond the

tear.

Bias-Darn.
Materials.

Same

as for a straightway-darn (page 93).

warp and the woof.

Bias-darn, or across both the

blue thread represents the tear.


1.

Crease the square of cloth diago-

from corner to corner.


Leaving two inches at each end,
run on the crease with blue
nally
2.

thread.
3.

Make two

creases, one,

one-fourth of an inch above

and one,

one-fourth

of

/
;

an

make

Leaving an inch and a

fourth at both ends,

inch below the running.


4.

'

^
^

running on each crease with pink thread

Fig.

Showinj

bias-darn.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

96

Thread the needle with red thread.


At the right, and beyond the blue

5.

6.

make

line or tear,

four rows of eight stitches each, (as for a straight-

way-darn, page 94) on a line with the vertical threads of


the cloth (Fig. 71).

Beginning the

7.

(Fig.

71,

draw

line,

at the fourth

the tear

stitch

^).

Take three more

8.

row above the lower

fifth

down through

the needle

below the upper

stitches, bringing the needle out

line.

Insert the needle above the line, to finish the

9.

drawing

it

Continue

ID.

needle

in

manner,

this

down through the

drawing

always

the

tear, at the fourth stitch.

In finishing the darn,

II.

row

out below the line for the next row.

make

several rows

beyond

the tear.

Corner-Darn.

Same
straightway-darn (page

represents the
blue
thread
A
Corner-darn.
as for a

Materials.

93).

tear.

\\

\|^Ml

the

IT
I

At

2.

^^^\!

\
"

sides of the
(Fig. 72).

Crease one side of the

I.

from the edge.

cloth one inch

^.
f^'g-

ing

Show^,

72.

the

cloth

prepared

for

dir'ning'a cor-

ner-tear,andthe
corner darned.

angle, one

right

crease,

one

crease

angles

make
inch

with

another

from

the

edge.
3,

Call the vertex of the

^^^1^ ^ (^ig- 7^)4. With the pink

^^^ ^^

and a

^j^^

On both
from point a

Crease,

half inches

thread

CLOTH DARNING.
5.

an

Crease

9/

half -an -inch

angle

the

inside

first

angle.
6.

With

the pink thread, run on the crease, on both

sides of the angle, one inch (Fig. 72).


7.

Crease half-way between the two angles, and run with

blue thread.
8.

Using red thread, make a large knot

(cut

it

off after-

wards), and insert the needle from the right side, at the

corner (Fig. 72,

b).

The knot

made

is

drawing

to aid in

up the corner.
9.

Run

to point a, putting the needle

down through

the tear, at the fourth stitch.


10.

Slightly curving to the right, return to point

1 1

Make

row very

close

and to the

b.

the

left of

first

row, taking the stitches alternately.


12.

Slightly curving to the

13.

At the

left,

make

left,

return to point

thread of the cloth, to the outer pink


14.

Make

15.

On

b.

a row directly on a line with a


line.

a curved line at the right to point

the opposite side of the corner,

b.

make

a row on

a line with a thread of the cloth, as far as the outer pink


line.

16.

point
17.

Making a

line,

curving

to

the

left,

return

to

b.

Beginning

tical stitches

at the corner,

darn both sides with ver-

(page 94), or slanting stitches (page 94).

Darning with a Piece Underneath.


In darning a tear, where the garment

is

worn

thin, or is

badly torn and ravelled; a piece of cloth should be placed

underneath.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

98
1

match
2.

Cut the piece larger than the tear, being careful


the grain of the cloth, also the figures and stripes.
Draw the tear into place, and baste the right side

the piece to the wrong side of the garment, matching

to

of
it

exactly.
3.

Baste around the edge of the tear.

4.

Take

either vertical stitches (page 94), or slanting

stitches (page 94), through both thicknesses of cloth.

the hole

If

5.

is

come

needle, as you

to them.

After the darn

6.

darn the sides of the tear sepa-

large,

tucking the ravellings under with the point of the

rately,

on the wrong

is

finished, lightly secure the piece

side, or cut

it

off

near the darning.

Fine Drawing on Heavy Woollen Material.

Use very

tear

flat

2.

sewing

silk,

and hold the edges

of the

left forefinger.

Inserting the needle half-an-inch below the edge of

the tear, run


cealing the
3.

fine

upon the
it

through half the thickness of

cloth, con-

silk.

Inserting the

through the cloth


4.

Draw

5.

Continue

needle

in the

in

the

opposite

edge,

run

same manner.

the edges closely together.


in this

manner, being careful not to lap the

edges.
6.

Brush up the nap on the right

7o

Dampen, and

press on the

side.

wrong

side with a hot

iron.
It is

better to do the darning on the

the garment

is

lined,

it

wrong

may be done on

side; but,

if

the right side,

CLOTH DARNING.

99

being careful to insert the needle in the cloth exactly

where it came out.


Another way to darn a tear on heavy material is to
overcast the raw edges closely together, on the wrong side,
then rub the seam open and darn lightly.

Lay a wet cloth over the darn, and press.


To make a perfectly flat seam on selvedges or heavy woollen cloth, the edges

may be

joined, as in Fig. 73.

Suggestions.
is

The aim

terial,

nately,
73^

darning a tear
it

can

In darning twilled ma-

not be perceived.

Pig

in

to repair the rent so nicely that

instead of taking the stitches alter-

make them

respond with the

in slanting

twill.

repaired with fine thread or

the material in quality and color

if

rows to cor-

rent should be
silk,

matching

the same color can

not be obtained, use lengthwise ravellings of the material.

On

fine

woollen goods, hair can be used, and the needle


When darning with

should be threaded with the root.

very fine thread or ravellings, use short needlefuls.


fine a needle as possible

As

should be used.

Darning can be done on the right or wrong side, accordFor a tear in coarse material, the
ing to the material.
stitches should be taken more than one-fourth of an inch
from the edge. The closeness of the rows of stitches
depends upon the material and the tear. Edges should
always be worked in a?id out alteimately to secure them.
Always protect the ends of a tear by darning beyond them.

To keep

the edges of a long tear even,

to darn in the middle.

When

a darn

is

it is

best to begin

finished,

it

should

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

lOO

be dampened and pressed on the wrong

damp
mend

a rip in the

side,

or a thin,

on the right side and pressed.

cloth can be laid

seam

of a kid-glove,

To

overhand the edges

together on the right side, using fine thread or sewing silk

matching the color of the glove. If there is a strain


coming on the seam, button-hole stitch the edges, and
then overhand the purls of the stitches together.
For what

is

cloth darning used

the needle be inserted

What kind

How

should the tear be held

of stitches should be taken

Where should

What

threads are

second row ? Where should the needle be put at the third stitch in
How should the stitches on a bias-darn be taken ?
the fifth and succeeding rows ?
Where should the needle be inserted in a corner-darn ? Why is a knot made ?
How many rows of stitches are made at the corner ? What is the aim in darning ?
What can be used instead of thread ? What should be done after a darn is finished ?

taken up

How

in the

should a kid-glove be mended?

PATCHING.

patch

repair

is

a piece of cloth, sewed on to a garment to

it.

Hemming on a Patch.
Materials.

No. 9

needle. No. 80 thread, scissors, pins,

and a piece of cotton cloth, five inches square

for the

patch, a piece of cloth four inches square.

Hemming

on a patch.

Crease the garment, repre-

sented by the large piece of cloth, through, and across the


centre (Fig. 74).
Mark the centre by a pin-hole, and half-an-inch from
2.
the centre on each crease,
3.

make

a pin-hole.

Crease a square on a line with the holes, and by a

thread (Fig. 74, a, by c, and d).


Cut out the square on the creasing, being careful
4.

about the corners.

PATCHING.
5.

lOI

Cut diagonally one-fourth of an inch at each corner


and^).
Fold and crease each edge of the hole, by a thread,

(Fig. 74, /, 2, J,
6.

and
7.

baste.

Cut

off

each corner of the patch one-fourth of an

inch deep.

Fig. 74,

Showing

representing where

it

the large piece of cloth with the clotted


is

creased, and the plain lines where

it

lines

should be

cut.

8.

Holding the right side

of the patch

towards you, fold

towards you, and crease, by a thread, one-fourth of an inch


deep, on
9.

all

four sides.

Crease through, and across the centre of the patch.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

I02
ID.

Place the garment on the desk, with the

wrong side

upwards.
1 1

Place the folded edges of the patch upon the gar-

ment, with the warp of the two pieces parallel.


12. Match the creases, and put in pins.

Pig. 75.

13.

Showing the

right side of a figured-calico patch,

With each edge

the garment, baste

hemmed.

of the patch even with a thread of

turning the corners neatly, by tucking

the extra fold underneath with the point of the needle.

of

14.

you, and pin the edges

15.

Baste, keeping each edge on a thread of the patch.

Turn the other side towards


the hole down at each corner.

PATCHING.
16.

firmly
17.

103

Hem the garment to the patch, being careful


sew the corners, keeping them at right angles.
On

the other side,

hem

to

the patch to the garment,

allowing the stitches to appear as

little

as possible

on the

right side.

Fig. 76.

18.

wrong

Showing Iha

right side of a figured-calico patch, overhanded.

threads, and press on the

Take out the basting


side.

OVERHANDING ON A PaTCH.
Materials.

Same

as before, with the cloth for the patch

three inches square.

Overhanding on a patch.

Crease the garment, repre-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

I04

sented by the large piece of cloth, through, and across the


centre (Fig. 74).
Cut a small piece out of the centre, to aid later in
2.
cutting the hole.
3.

Cut across each corner

of the patch one-fourth of

an

inch deep.

Fig. 77.

4.

make

Showingthe wrong side of a figured-calico patch, overhanded.


Holding the wrong side of the patch towards you,
a crease, by a thread, one-fourth of an inch deep, on

the four sides.


5.

Crease through, and across the centre of the patch.

6.

Place the garment on the desk, with the right side

upwards.

PATCHING.

105

Place the folded edges of the patch upon the gar-

7.

ment, with the warp of the two pieces pa7'allel.


Match the creases, and put in pins.
8.

With the edges

9.

the garment, baste

of the patch even with the threads of

turning the corners neatly, by tuck-

ing in the extra fold underneath.


10. Holding the patch towards you, fold and crease the
garment even with one edge of the patch.
1 1
Holding the two edges securely, overhand them,
sewing the corners firmly.

Fold and overhand the next side in the same manand so continue, till all the sides are overhanded

12.

ner,
(Fig.

13.
14.

J6).

Take out the basting threads.


Turn the wrong side towards you, and

carefully cut

a hole in the garment, one-fourth of an inch inside the

overhanding stitches.
15.

At each

corner, cut diagonally to the overhanding

stitches.
16.

Open

or work
17.

the seam and overcast

them with the

Dampen

all

the edges (Fig. yy),

blanket-stitch.

the seams, and press on the

wrong

side.

Catch-Stitching on a Flannel Patch.

No. 9 needle,
and a piece of flannel

Materials.
pins,

fine silk to
five

match the

inches square

flannel,

for the

patch, a piece of flannel three inches and a half square.


Catch-stitching

on a patch.

i.

Crease the garment,

represented by the large piece of flannel, through, and


across the centre (Fig. 74).
Mark the centre by inserting a pin
2.

from the middle of each crease, insert a

pin.

and one inch

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

io6
3.

4.

Crease a square, by a thread, on a line with the pins.


Cut the square out on the creasing, being careful in

cutting the corners.


5.

6.

Crease through, and across the centre of the patch.


Place the garment on the desk, with the wrong side

upwards.

Fig. 78.

Showing the right side of the patch; the straight hnes represent the edges of the hole.

7.

Place the right side of the patch upon the garment,

with the nap of the two pieces running the same way.
Match the creases, and put in pins.
8.
9. With each edge of the patch even with a thread of
the garment, baste one-fourth of an inch from the edge.

PATCHING.

107

Holding the garment towards you, baste one-fourth


an inch from the edge of the hole.
Draw the needle through the garment from under1 1.
10.

of

neath, one-eighth of an inch from the raw edge.


12.

Catch-stitch (see page

the inner stitches

7)

around the square, taking

through the patch, close to the edge of

vVVVVVVvVVVVVW-a

<;
<;

<:
<:

.AA<^^

Fig. 79.

Showing the wrong side of the patch

the straight lines

represent the edges of the patch.

the garment

and the outside stitches one-eighth of an

inch from the edge, and through both thicknesses of cloth


(Fig. 78).

Turning the wrong side towards you, catch-stitch in


the same manner, the edges of the patch to the garment
13.

(Fig. 79)-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

I08

wrong

threads, and press on the

Take out the basting

14.

side.

Suggestions.

In

practical mending,

judgment and con-

sideration are necessary, and the material should be treated


as

common

worn part with

torn or

sense suggests
as

the object

little

to replace the

is

display as possible.

patch can be put on in various ways

as,

hemming

on the right side and overcasting the raw edges together


on the wrong side it can also be put on by stitching.
;

patch can be overhanded on the wrong

stitches

may show

turned.

Catch-stitching should be used,

less,

does not easily ravel, as on flannel.

When

can be hemmed.

hem

the patch on,

on one thread

at

when the

material

Thin, woollen materials

a material

for, if it is

each

side, so that the

but the corners are not easily

is

worn,

it is

better to

overhanded, the strain comes

side.

and figures should always match, as


Care must be taken to
have the warp and the woof of the patch run the same way
Stripes, checks

otherwise they attract attention.

as those of the garment, the straightest threads of the

The nap must

cloth generally represent the warp.

also

run in the same direction, which can be ascertained by


patch can be either
passing the hand lightly over it.

damaged
cover the worn place.

square or oblong, according to the shape of the


part, but should

Fine thread or
silk
it

be large enough to

silk,

matching the material, should be used

should be chosen a shade darker than the material, as

will

work

What

is

lighter.

What

hemming on

use

In

the garment should the patch be placed

On which

How should

a patch
the

wrong

in patching flannel

the object of patching

a patch, on which side of


overhanding on a patch ?

side, in

side of an overhanded patch be finished

What

stitch is

used

upon ? What is
What care should be taken concerning the warp and the woof ?

Which
?

is its

side of the

garment

is

the patch placed

BIAS PIECING.

109

BIAS PIECING.
Bias piecing

the joining of two diagonal

is

edges of

cloth.

Materials.

and a piece

Fig. 80.

No.

8 needle, No.

60 thread,

of calico five inches square, cut

Showing the strips placed

Bias piecing.

Fold the

in

pins, scissors,

by a thread.

a line before joining.

square

from

diagonally,

corner to corner.
2.

Crease the

3.

From each

and cut on the crease.


piece of calico, cut two bias

fold,

strips,

each

being one inch wide.


4.

With the

desk in a

right sides upwards, place the strips

Fig. 81

5.

on the

line for joining, as in Fig. 80.

Place

the

Showing the two edges sewed.

right

sides of

together, with the edges of

the

two middle pieces

the ends that are to meet

even
6

Move

inch to the

the edge of the upper piece, one-fourth of an


left (Fig. 81).

no

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.
Holding the edges securely, insert the needle at a
81) and sew across to b (Fig. 81), with a running

7.

(Fig.

and a backstitch.
Press open the seam, and cut
8.

off the corners that

protrude.

other

the

Join

9.

two pieces

in a

moved

except that the upper edge must be


Suggestions.

be begun

To

similar

to the right.

join the ends evenly, the

at the vertex of

manner,

seam must

one of the angles, formed

at

the side by the two pieces of cloth, and finished at the

When many

other.
easily

and accurately

and then cutting


What
Where

is

bias piecing

finish

bias strips are required, they can be


cut,

by measuring for four widths,


and quarters.

into halves

Where should you

begin so as to join the ends evenly ?

PIPING.
Piping

and

is

is

a cord covered with material cut on the bias,

used

garment.
Materials.

to

and

strengthen

No.

8 needle,

finish

the

edge of a

No. 60 thread, a small cord

eleven and a half inches long, a bias strip of cotton cloth

twelve inches

long and one inch wide and

piece of

cotton cloth eleven and a half inches long, four inches


wide,

hemmed

Piping.

I.

at the

ends and one

side.

Place the cord on the

bias strip, one-fourth of

an

inch

wrong

side of the

from the lengthwise

edge, and one-fourth of an inch from the end.


2.

Fold the end of the bias

strip,

edge over, baste close to the cord.

and then folding the

CORNERS MITRED.

Ill

Holding the cord downwards, place the wrong side of

3.

the strip to the right side of the piece of cloth, with the

raw edge

of the fold even with the

Sew

4.

raw edge

of the cloth.

the piping to the edge, with a running and a

backstitch, keeping close to the cord.

Turn

5.

to the

wrong

side,

and hem the opposite edge

down.
What

is

piping ?

For what

used

is it

CORNERS MITRED.
To

mitre a corner

is

to join

two edges

of cloth, so that

they form a right angle.

To MITRE Two Strips of Cloth.

No.

60 thread, scissors, and


a piece of calico five inches square, cut by a thread.
Fold and
i
To mitre two strips of cloth.
crease the square diagonally from corner to
Materials.

8 needle. No.

corner.

Cut

2.

on

the

crease.

From one

3.

of

the pieces cut two


bias
strip

strips,

each

being one inch

4.

Fig. 82.

Show-

"'^ *^^ ^^
ends- basted.

wide,

Place

the

right sides of the strips of calico


Fig.

83.- Showingthe

right

side of a mitred corner.

together, SO that the two ends are

exactly even (Fig. 82).

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

112

Holding the ends even, half-backstitch, by a thread,


one-fourth of an inch from the edge (Fig. 82).
Press the seam open, and trim the corners (Fig. 83).
6.
5.

To MITRE THE CORNER OF A HeM.


Materials.

and a piece

No.

8 needle. No.

60 thread,

pins, scissors,

of cotton cloth five inches square, cut

thread.

!\

by a

LOOPS OF TAPE.

113

Cut on the crease.


the bias edge of the cloth, at the upper
Holding
7.
left-hand side, fold and baste, by a thread, the upper hem.
Fold and crease the bias edge one-fourth of an inch.
8.
6.

9.

Fold the

two hems meet

hem

at the side,

making the edges

of the

at a right angle (Fig. 85).

10.

Baste the corner fold and side hem.

11.

Hem

the folds, down, taking the stitches at

the

corner fold through only one thickness of cloth.


What is mitreing a corner?
the edges of the two hems meet ?

How

are the strips placed together?

How

should

LOOPS OF TAPE.
Fold the middle of the tape so as to
form a point, as in Fig. S6. Overhand
the inner edges for three-fourths of an

Fold the

inch, beginning at the ends.

ends under, one-fourth of an inch, and


place

them on the wrong

cloth, one-half

Baste and
sides.

side of the

an inch from the edge.

hem them down on

Turn

to the right side,

and

the edge of the cloth to the loop.

three
stitch

Fig. 86.

Showing a

loop of tape.

PART

III

ORNAMENTAL

STITCHES.

HEM-STITCH.
Hem-stitching

is

method

of

hemming,

in

which the

threads of the cloth are drawn and separated.


Materials.

No.

8 needle, No. 50 thread,

wise strip of linen crash.


Hem-stitch, from right to

left.

One

and a lengthinch

from a

lengthwise edge of the

draw

cloth,

out

from

four to six threads (see

suggestions)

according

to the coarseness of the


cloth.
2.

hem

Carefully baste the


to

the

line

thus

Fig. 87.

Showing

from right to

left,

hem-stitchins: done

needle

in

position.

drawn.

hemming.

3.

Begin

4.

Pointing the needle towards you, take up three or

at the right-hand side, as for

four cross-threads, and draw the thread through.


5.

Put the needle back, take up the same threads, and

insert the needle exactly above in the fold of the


(Fig. 87).

hem

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

ii6

Continue

6.

same manner, drawing the thread

in the

tight, to separate the cross-threads.

Hem-stitch, from

left to right.

Draw

the threads,

and baste the hem as


before.

Fasten the thread

2.

in the

hand

from

towards

Showing

left

hem-stitching done
to right, needle in position.

at the left-

Pointing the needle

3.

Fig. 88.

hem,

side.

three

take

you,

four

or

up

cross-

threads.
4.

the

Draw the needle through, and insert it in the fold of


hem exactly above where it was inserted under the

cross-threads (Fig. 88).


5.

Continue

tight.

Suggestions.

same manner, drawing the thread

in the

To

draw the threads, choose a coarse

thread, one-fourth of an inch from the edge, and pick

out with the point of the needle.

the right hand, draw

it

Holding

this

out carefully, continually pushing

the gathers towards the opposite end with the

Should the thread break, hold the cloth to the

The

again pick out the end of the thread.


is

in

drawing the

first

it

end with

thread.

left

hand.

light,

and

chief difficulty

Threads can be drawn any

width desired.

Hem-stitching can be done either lengthwise or crosswise of the cloth.


threads, as

it

is

On

fine materials,

do not count the

too great a strain on the eyes, and for

this reason, school-girls should not

do

much drawn-work.

CATCH-STITCH.

117

CATCH OR HERRINGBONE-STITCH.
Catch-stitch

is

a kind of cross-stitch, used to secure the

edges of flannel.
Materials.

and a piece

89.

Fig.

A long-eyed needle, a knot of

hJ

catch-

and the needle

in

position; the straight lines

represent the
the canvas.

Catch-stitch.

over the
2.

zephyr,

of canvas.

Showing

stitches,

split

I LJ

Fig.

90.

Showing

and the needle

in

corner

turned,
position for turning
a

a corner.

threads of

Work from

you, holding the canvas

left forefinger.

Insert the needle from underneath,

at

the lower

left-hand corner.
3.

to

From

the

the place where the zephyr comes out, count

right four

threads, then forward four

threads

I I

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

insert the needle,

and pointing

towards you

it

take up

two threads.
4.

From

the place where the zephyr comes out, count

to the left four threads, then forward four threads,

and

take up two threads as before.


5.

Continue

in the

same manner, making the

to the right, then to the left

stitches

the zephyr crossing diago-

nally (Fig. 89).


6.

Notice that

the

little

cross

at

one

side,

comes

between the crosses on the opposite side, and that the


needle comes out on a line with its insertion for the previous stitch.

Turn the

by taking a stitch at the left,


insert the needle at the right, and pointing it towards the
Turn the canvas, and
left, take up two threads (Fig. 90).
7.

corner,

holding the next side across the

left

forefinger,

continue

as before (Fig. 90).

Suggestions.

may be made

In
if

catch-stitching on flannel, small knots

they can be concealed.

When

ending,

and out under the last


in beginning and
fastened
be
The thread can
stitch.
finishing, by leaving an end to be sewed over and over
with fine cotton on the wrong side.
The raw edge of a hem on woollen material may be

fasten the thread by running

it

in

fastened by catch-stitches, to avoid the ridge formed by


folding the edge.

The edges

fastened in several ways

of a

seam

the seam

in flannel

may be

may be

folded to one

and the edges fastened by a row of catch-stitches


the seam may be opened and each edge fastened sepaor, with the seam opened, a row of catch-stitches
rately
side,

may be

put in the middle.

FEATHER-STITCH.

119

FEATHER-STITCH.
Feather-stitching
Materials.

and a piece

is

used for ornamenting garments,

etc.

long-eyed needle, a knot of split zephyr,

of canvas.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

I20
4.

Draw

the needle out over the zephyr, which

is

held

down by the thumb.


From the place where
5.
two threads
6.

From

two threads

to the right,

the zephyr comes out, count


and take a stitch as before.

the place where the zephyr comes out, count


to the left,

hold the zephyr

and take a stitch, being careful


the thumb.

to

down with

From the place where the zephyr comes out, count


7.
two threads to the left, and take another stitch.
8.
Continue taking the stitches in this way (Fig. 91, b).
Suggestions.

For

fastening

This stitch

stitching (page 118).

various designs, as in Fig. 91.

thread

the

see catch-

may be changed
Whatever the

into

pattern,

the stitches should be compact and uniform.

CHAIN-STITCH.
Chain-stitching

broidering,

by

is

method

which

the

of

em-

stitches

resemble a chain.
Materials.

embroidery

An embroidery
and a
Work towards you,

needle,

strip of cloth.

silk,

Chain-stitch.

holding the cloth over the

left

fore-

finger.
2.

Draw

underneath

the needle
at the

through from

upper end, a short

distance from the edge.


Fig.

Showing

92.

chain stitches,
needle n position.
i

3.

Holding the thread

to

the left

with the thumb, insert the needle where


the thread

comes

out,

and

bring

it

KENSINGTON OUTLINE-STITCH.
through one-eighth

an inch

of

below,

121

and over the

thread to form the loop.


4.

Continue

in

this

manner, always inserting

the

needle inside the loop of the last stitch, and being careful

same number

to take the

each

stitch.

Suggestion.

of threads

Chain-stitching

is

on the needle for

often used for outlining

a pattern.

KENSINGTON OUTLINE-STITCH.
Kensington outline-stitching is done by taking a long
on the upper side, and a short stitch backward on the under-side of the cloth, and is used to form a
stitch forward

line for

ornament.

Materials.

embroidery

An embroidery
and

silk,

needle,

strip

of

cloth.

Kensington outline-stitch.

Work

from you, holding the cloth over the


left forefinger.
2.

Draw

the needle through from

underneath, at the lower end.


3.

Insert the needle one-eighth of

an inch above,

and

two or three

threads to the right, bringing


at the left one-sixteenth of

above the

place where the

comes through the


4.

Continue

of the needle,
tight.

it

out

an inch
thread

Fig. 93.
Showing Kensington outline-stitches,
needle in position.

cloth (Fig. 93).

way, keeping the thread to the right


and being careful not to draw the stitches
in this

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

122
Suggestions.
left

Some

prefer keeping the thread to the

Stem-stitching

of the needle.

stitching, except that the needle

is

similar to outline-

is

put farther back.

BLANKET-STITCH.
Blanket-stitching

is

used to secure and ornament the

edges of woollen material.


Materials.

and a

An embroidery
Work from

needle,

embroidery

silk,

strip of flannel.

Blanket-stitch.

left

to

right,

holding

the edge of the flannel towards


you.
2.

Beginning

at the corner,

insert the needle one-fourth of

an inch from each edge, and


Fig.

94.

Showing

blanket

needle

stitclies,

in

position.

take two running stitches to


the edge,

leaving an end

of

the thread to be cut off after-

This brings the thread in position for working.


Holding the thread under the left thumb, put the

wards.
3.

needle in where
4.

Draw

the

it

was

first

needle

inserted.

through and over the

thread

(Fig. 94)5.

Holding the thread down with the thumb, insert the

needle one-fourth of an inch to the right, and parallel with


the previous stitch.
6.

Draw

the

needle

through, and

being careful that the thread


the flannel.

over, the

lies loosely

thread,

on the edge of

BLANKET-STITCH.

7.

Continue

8.

To

in this

manner.

thread through, and cut

Pig, 95.

To

in

Suggestions.

take a

Draw

the

different forms.

beginning the work, and draw


lies

side,

it off.

join the thread, put the needle in

stitch, as in

is

last blanket-stitch.

Showing blanket-stitches tal<en

thread that

thread

wrong

fasten the thread, turn to the

running stitch under the

9.

123

under the
it

last

out over the

along the edge.

If

the

not fastened

and joined

carefully,

the symmetry of the


stitches will be broken.

order of the
stitches may be varied

The

by taking them
ferent

at dif-

depths, and

Fig. 96.

der

Showing

of

needle

a bor-

blanket-stitches,
in

position.

leaving spaces between, as in Fig. 95.


pretty border can be made with this stitch (Fig. 96),
by making the first row the desired width from the edge,

and taking the stitches for the second row through those
of the first row, and so on.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

124

EMBROIDERY KNOTS.
Embroidery knots are used for ornamentation.
An embroidery needle, embroidery
Materials.

and a piece

of flannel.

Embroidery knot No.


the

flannel

over the

1.

silk,

Holding

forefinger,

left

draw the needle through from underneath,

at

the place desired

for

the

knot.

Take a small backstitch leaving

2.

the needle half-way through the flannel.


3.

silk,

Take the
where it

comes through the


flannel, and wind
Fig. 97. Showing emit twice around the
broidery

and

the

knot No.
needle

in

position.

needle (Fig. 97).


4. Holding the

thumb, draw the


needle through and insert it where
it came through the flannel, bringing
it out where the next knot is to be

coil

under the

left

Fig. 98.

made.
Embroidery knot No.
the flannel over the

2.

left

i.

Holding

forefinger,

Showing enn-

broidery knot No.


needle
and the

2,
in

P^^'^'^"-

draw the needle through from underneath,

at the place

desired for the knot.


2.

Draw

the silk towards you to the

under the thumb, bring the


below where the

silk

left

silk to the right,

came out

holding

it

and cross

of the flannel (Fig. 98, a).

Hold the loop thus formed under the thumb.

MARKING.
3.

bring
4.
5.

needle one or two threads back of

the

Insert

125
a,

and pass it through the loop (Fig. 98).


Draw the needle and silk out straight upwards.
Insert the needle again at a, and bring it out where
it

out at

the next knot

a,

is

to be

made.

MARKING.
Page 126 consists of capital letters
and upright numerals

of small letters

page 127 consists

page 128 consists

of small letters, suitable for fine material,

and slanting

numerals.

The material, thread and needle should correspond.


The marking stitch consists of a cross-stitch taken over
two threads of the canvas. To make the stitch, draw the
needle through from underneath at the lower r/V///-hand
corner of the square for the stitch

the tipper left-h^nd corner, bringing


A_//-hand corner

corner, and bring

the next

insert the needle at


it

out at the /ower

insert the needle at the ?ipper nV/zZ-hand


it

out at the lower

ri^-Zi t-h.3.nd

corner of

stitch.

Make no

knots, but leave an end of the thread to be

worked over with the first stitches, or it can afterwards


Fasten the thread in
be run in and out under the letter.
The stitches should all be crossed the
the same manner.
same way the thread should be fastened after finishing"
Have the back
a letter, not carried from one to another.
of the work look neat.
When marking on canvas is understood, fine material
can be easily marked, by basting a piece of scrim over the
;

place to be worked, and, after taking the stitches, draw

ing out the threads of the scrim.

!r;?iK::::::i::sssssssssi:::si
s::l

.J.J.J.

T+-i:-TTTi:"^s"it

sgc^-;.:.:.!jL...

ii

l::l:::::::i:E^St^::^::::::^^:i:m^^^

'#

127

^'

I
n

p^^^

i^
TvSSSillSB^vSi
ttttaw

PART

IV.

DRAFTING, CUTTING, AND MAKING

GARMENTS.

few general directions for the cutting of garments

are here given.

table or lap-board, large

upon,

pattern

is

required

enough

to lay the entire

sharp

paper,

also

shears,-

weights, pins, tape-measure, needles, and thread.

The

first

thing to be observed in cutting

cloth has a right and a

wrong

If

side.

it

consider the heavier part as the bottom

run upwards

is

whether the

has a design,
a vine should

the cloth should run down-

the nap on

wards.

Before cutting, ascertain

if

there

is

sufficient cloth

by

laying the different parts of the pattern upon the cloth in

such positions, that the cloth will not be unnecessarily

wasted

being careful in regard to the up and down of

the cloth.

When

there

is

a scarcity of material, the

underneath parts of the sleeves may be pieced, hems may


be faced, and the small pieces may often be used for the
trimmings.

The length

of the

main parts

of a

garment

(as

back,

and sleeves) should be cut parallel to the selvedge


warp of the cloth. Fig. 102 represents a wrapper
placed on cloth, which is folded lengthwise through the

front,

or

129

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

I30

middle; the edge of the front

is

placed on the selvedge, and

the back on the fold of the


cloth, to avoid a

back of the

seam

at the

The

skirt.

tical perforations in

ver-

the side-

back and both portions of the


sleeve are placed lengthwise
of

The

the cloth.

perfora-

tions near the edges of the

patterns

show

the

seams,

where alterations should be


made. The perforations near
the centre of the front indicate

where the darts should

be taken up.
In cutting plain goods, two
similar parts can be cut at

once by folding either the


right or the

wrong

sides to-

gether the selvedges or edges


;

of the material should first be

pinned together to prevent


slipping.

not be

When the cloth can


doubled, great

must be taken not

to

care

cut

similar parts (as sleeves) for


this can althe same side
ways be avoided by laying
one part upon the material,
;

with

Fig. 102.

Wrapper.

either

the

right

or

wrong sides together.


Having the cloth spread

DRAFTING, ETC., GARMENTS.

I3I

out evenly, place a weight or insert a pin at the middle

Smoothing out each part

of each part of the pattern.

from the middle, pin

to the cloth, being careful to place

it

pins closely at the middle of the darts, at the curves, and

one

at

Cut evenly and

each corner of the pattern.

close to

the edge of the pattern, and be very particular at the curves.

Linings should be cut and basted carefully on to the

wrong

The

side of the cloth, before cutting the cloth.

notches on the edges of the pattern should only be cut in


the lining.
In cutting linings or unlined garments, the marks for

the seams

may be made by

a tracing-wheel, or they

be pricked with a large needle.


tions, a pencil or chalk

may be

Where
used.

may

there are perfora-

When

two parts

of

a garment are cut at once, especially on woollen materials,


the following tailor's method of marking the perforations

may be

pin

used,

the pattern securely through both

With

thicknesses of cloth.
the

both thicknesses of cloth


place, and, in

take another stitch in the same

drawing the thread through, leave a loop the

At the next

size of a pencil.
stitch, leaving the

and so continue,

Then

a coafse, doubled thread take

the centre of the perforation and through

first stitch in

perforation

a similar

until all

the perforations are marked.

two edges of cloth,


and carefully cut the

cut out the parts, separate the

as far as the thread will permit,

threads
stitch

make

thread loose between the perforations,

midway between the two

on the upper

paper pattern.

side, in

The threads

edges.

Cut the long

the middle, and remove the


left

in the cloth serve as a

guide for basting.


Matching.

A plaided,

great care in cutting.

striped, or figured cloth requires

If

the breadths of a skirt

made

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

132

from a checked or evenly plaided material are cut off in


the middle of a check, the breadths will readily match.
In other plaids or designs, cut the lower edge of each

breadth on the same line of the plaid or design.

In cut-

ting a garment, similar to a dress-waist, which opens in

what part of the

front, first decide

will look best for the

plaid, stripe, or

design

middle of the front and back.

Then

lay the pattern for the front on the cloth, so that the

hem

outer fold of the

is

one-eighth of an inch (or one-half

the width to be lapped) beyond the middle desired.

of

Cut

and cut the other half

this side out,

of the front,

by

laying the part already cut on the cloth, with the right

and plaids or designs exactly matching.

sides together,

Lay the pattern

for the

back edge of the pattern


the middle desired

back on the
is

cloth, so that the

one-fourth of an inch beyond

this allows for the seam.

Cut the

other half of the back as in cutting the second half of the


front.

In order to cut twilled material on the bias, with the


perpendicular,

twill

angles to the

on the

table,

the cloth must be folded at right

To do

twill.

this, lay

the cloth lengthwise

with the right side downward, fold over the

lower right-hand corner, and cut on the

broad hems or a curved edge


the bias (see page

Cotton

when
first

cloth,

is

may be

torn (page

9),

linen should be cut

by

or flannel

required

drawing a thread (page

The

Linings for

ii).

calico,

a straight edge

Drafting.

fold.

a hat) should be cut on

(as

16).

following rules for drafting are given

as suitable in ordinary cases, but the drafter should use

discretion
styles.

in

regard

to personal

taste

and prevailing

TWO-BREADTH APRON.

33

In the illustrations, each square represents an inch.

Dots are marked by

Remember

letters, lines are

that the dot

is

marked by numbers.

the important mark, the letter

being but a name to the dot, and

may be

placed in any

convenient position near the dot.

TWO-BREADTH APRON.

two-breadth apron, one yard long, having a four inch

hem, requires two and one-fourth yards of material.


1.

Find half of the length of the material, tear across,

or fold and cut on the fold.


2.

Fold the lengthwise edges of one of the pieces

together.
3.

One and

one-half inches each side of the fold, tear

the entire length, or fold again one and one-half inches

from the edge of the fold and cut both thicknesses of


material on the last fold.

This gives a strip for the bind-

ing and the, two side-breadths.

Making.

Sew the

raw edges

of the side-breadths

the front-breadth, thus avoiding a seam in the middle.


desired,

hem

the sides.

Make

lower edge, overhanding the

hemming.

a four inch

ends of the

Gather the upper edge and put

hem
hem
it

to
If

at the

before

into the

band, being very careful to sew securely at the ends of

where a strain comes. The fulness


upon the width of the material
and the form of the person. Overhand the edges of the
band together on each side of the gathers. If strings
are desired, they should be cut before sewing the breadths
together.
Make a narrow hem at the sides of the
the gathers, as this

is

of the gathers depends

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

34
strings,

and a broader hem

lay small plaits, at the other


in the

at the

lower end.

end of the strings

ends of the band, and

hem

Gather, or
;

insert

them

the band over them.

CHILD'S BIB.

Take

a piece of paper fifteen inches long

and eleven

inches wide.
1

With

the long side of the paper horizontally in front

of you, write

your name and school

at the

upper left-hand

corner of the paper.


2.

Fold the lengthwise edges together, so that the

name shows.

POCKETS.

135

Cut on the curve.

8.

Make a narrow hem on the

sides and on the


and an inch hem at the lower
edge.
Bind the curve with narrow linen tape, leaving
enough at each end for strings.

Making.

straight edges at the top,

POCKETS.
Take a piece

of paper fifteen inches long

and

six inches

wide.

Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in

front of you.

Write your name and school

2.

at the

lower part of the

paper.
3.

Make

corner; mark
4.

Make

hand corner

inches from

a dot six
it

(Fig. 104).

mark

it

B.

7.

8.

Cut on the outer

6.

Making.

make

When

inches exactly below

mark

it

C.

lines.

the skirt

made

is

is

of

wash

material,

for woollen material, use

Place the longest side of the

pattern on a lengthwise fold of

the pocket

C.

the pocket of the same

When

C.

strong silesia or cambric.

cut.

lower left-hand

a dot one inch to the left of the upper right-

Make a dot four


Draw from A to
Draw from B to

5.

the

made

the material, and then

of material different

from

the skirt, each bias edge should have a facing, two inches
wide, like the material of the skirt.

the outside

edges,

and hem them

Baste the facings at


at the inner

edges.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

136

Fold the edges of the pocket together, with the facings on


Beginning one-fourth of an inch below A

the outside.
(Fig.

104),

make

a French

seam

the lower edge of the pocket.


six inches

On

from the seam, and from

(Fig. 104).

Turn the pocket

and across
the bias edge measure

at the side

this point, stitch to

inside out.

In a seam of

the skirt, beginning four and a half inches from the bind-

ing (this distance depends upon the length of the arm),

make

slit

six inches long,

and fasten each end securely.

CHILD

DRAWERS.

37

a small plait at the upper end of the pocket, and tack

it

securely to the binding.

shows another way of cutting a pocket, which


be inserted in the opening of the skirt between A

Fig. 105
is

to

and^.

CHILD'S DRAWERS.
(Age, 8 Years.)

Take

a piece of paper twenty-two inches long

and four-

teen inches, wide.


1

Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in

front of you.
2.

Write your name and school two inches from the

left-hand side of the paper, and eight inches above the

lower edge.

Under the name

of the school, put in a

column the words, waist measure, twenty-two inches leg


knee measure, thirteen inches.
Mark the upper left-hand corner A, the upper right3.
hand corner B, the lower left-hand corner C, and the lower
;

measure, seventeen inches

right-hand corner

(Fig. io6).

a dot two inches above

a dot two inches above

6.

Make
Make
Draw

7.

Fold the paper under on the line

4.
5

a dash-line from

E to

mark it E.
mark it F.

F.
;

this

is

for the

hem.
8.

mark
9.

10.
1 1

Make
it

a dot seven and one-half

inches

above

G.

Make a dot three inches below A mark it H.


Make a dot four inches to the left of B mark
Draw a line from
to /.
;

it /.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

38
1

2.

13.

of

E
14.

Draw
Make

a line from

mark

\tj.

Draw

a light dash-line from

to

/.

a dot eight and one-half inches to the right

X.o

J.

NIGHT-DRESS YOKE.

Making.

For

drawers this

size,

39

one and one-fourth

Fold the cloth lengthwise

yards of material are required.

fourteen inches from one of the edges, and pin the thicknesses of cloth together at the selvedge edge.

Unfold

the hem, and lay the longest edge of the pattern on the

with the lower edge at the raw edge of the cloth.


Carefully pin the pattern on, and then cut.
Remove the

fold,

pattern, lay

it

on the other end of the cloth in the same


leg.
For an opening at the

manner, and cut the other


side,

cut a

deep.

slit

on each fold seven and one-half inches

Cut two lengthwise bindings, each three inches


The lower edge is cut by a
begin there to baste, and, if one side proves a

wide and twelve inches long.


thread
little

longer than the other, pare

far as

(Fig. io6).

Sew each

leg as

Place the right sides of the legs

with the seams exactly meeting.

together,

seam

it off.

Turn one
and the other to the left, and pin.
G, sew the upper portions together.
Fold

to the right,

Beginning

at

and sew the hem of each


make narrow hems and set
openings

may be

leg.

faced or bound.

each end, gather each

At

the side openings,

in gussets.

side,

If preferred,

the

Leaving two inches

at

and put on the bindings,

allowing more fulness at the middle.

NIGHT-DRESS YOKE.
(Bust Measure, 32 Inches.)

Take

a piece of paper seventeen inches long and nine

inches wide.
Place the long side of the paper horizontally in front of

you.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

40

Write your name and school three inches from the lefthand side of the paper, and three inches above the lower
edge.
Front.

Draw

a vertical dash-line one and one-half

inches from the left-hand side of the paper.


2.

Fold the paper under on the

line, this

is

for

the

hem.
3.

Mark the upper

left-hand corner of the paper A,

the upper right-hand corner B, the lower left-hand corner


C, the

lower right-hand corner

(Fig. 107).

NIGHT-DRESS YOKE.
9.

Draw an

I4I

inward-curving line from

F to G

allowing

seven-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.

Continue the curved

10.

line to

E.

Erase the dash-

line.

Make

1 1

a dot one-half of an inch from line

and one-fourth inches from the upper edge

mark

H.

it

Draw
Make

12.

and one

/,

of the paper

a line from

E to

H.

a dot one-fourth of an inch from line

/, and
13.
one and three-fourths inches above the lower edge of the

paper

shape

mark

it /.

Draw an

14.

inward-curving

line,

from

to

/,

(see

in Fig. 107).

Draw a light dash-line from 6" to /.


Draw an outward-curving line, from C

15.

16.

to

three-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.

/,

allowing

Erase the

dash-line.

Mark
Mark

17.

18.

a notch on the curved line, one inch from E.

a notch on the curved line, one inch from

The notches show where


taken.

H.

the shoulder-seam should be

two inches below B mark it J.


Make a dot one inch below the upper edge of the
2.
paper, and two and one-fourth inches from the righthand edge mark it K.
Draw a light dash-line from ^ to K.
3.
4. Draw an inward-curving line from J to K, allowing
three-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.
Erase the
Back.

Make

a dot

dash-line.

Make

a dot one-fourth of an inch from line

7, and
below
three and one-half inches
the upper edge of the
5.

paper

mark

it

L.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

142
6.
7.

Draw
Make

a line from

a dot, on line

9.

/,

one-half of an inch above the

mark it M.
Draw a light dash-line from L to M.
Draw an inward-curving line from L

lower edge of the paper


8.

K to L.
;

seven-eighths of an inch curve

to

at the middle.

M,

allowing

Erase the

dash-line.

Draw a line from D to M.


Mark a notch on the curved line, one inch from L.
Mark a notch on the curved line, one inch from K.
Without unfolding the hem at the front, cut the

ID.
1 1

12.

13.

patterns on the outside lines,

making the notches

small.

CHILD'S SACK TIER


(Age, 2 Years.)

Take

a piece of paper one yard long and twelve inches

wide.

Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in front

Mark

of you.

the upper left-hand corner A, the upper

corner B, the lower left-hand corner

right-hand

lower right-hand corner


Front.

above
2.

C',

Make

mark

Make

it

and one-half inches

E.

a dot two inches above

3.

4.

one and one-half

mark

it

it,

make

F.

Draw a light dash-line from E to F.


Draw an inward-curving line from E

to F, allowing

three-fourths of an inch curve at the middle.


dash-line.

the

(Fig. 108).

a dot twenty-one

inches to the right of this dot and parallel with

another dot

C,

Erase the

CHILD

SACK TIER.

143

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

144

Make

F a.nd

a dot three and one-half inches to the right of

F; one inch
mark it G.
from Fto G.

parallel with

make another dot


6. Draw a line
Make a dot three
/.
;

of an

mark

inch to the
it

exactly below this dot

inches exactly below

left

of this

one-half

dot

H.

Draw a light dash-line from G to H.


Draw an inward-curving line from G

8.

make another

dot

to

H, allowing

three-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

9.

dash-line.
10.

Make

with

allel
1 1

a dot two inches to the right of

mark

Draw an

H, and

par-

it /.

inward-curving line from

to

(see

shape in Fig. 108).


12.
13.
14.
1

Make a dot two inches above D mark ity.


Draw a line from I to J.
Draw a light dash-line from C to J.
Draw an outward-curving line from C to J, allowing
;

one-half of an inch curve at the middle.


line.

Sleeve.

Make

a dot ten

Erase the dash-

and one-half inches below

one inch to the right of this dot and parallel with

it,

make another dot mark the last dot K.


Make a dot three inches below A mark it Z.
2.
Draw a line from
to L.
3.
Make
a
dot
one
inch
above L four inches to the
4.
right of this dot and parallel with it, make another dot
mark it M.
Draw a light dash-line from L to M.
5.
Draw an inward-curving line from L to M, allowing
6.
;

three-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.


dash-line.

Erase the

CHILD

Make

7.

allel

I45

a dot five inches to the right of

with

SACK TIER.

mark

it

9.

par-

N.

Draw a light dash-line from ^to N.


Draw an outward-curving line from

8.

J/ and

one and one-fourth inch curve

at

the

to TV, allowing

Erase

middle.

the dash-line.

Mark
Make

10.
1.

and

a notch at the middle of this curve.


a dot

parallel

two and one-half inches to the right of


N\ one and one-fourth inches

with

exactly below this dot

Draw
Make

12.
13.

of

K^ and
15.

Take

dot

mark

it

O.

a slightly inward-curving line from TV to O.


a dot nine and one-half inches to the right

parallel with

Draw
Draw

14.

make another

mark

a line from

a line from

K to P.

it

P.

to P.

a piece of paper one yard long and eleven inches

wide.

Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in front

Mark

of you.

the lower left-hand corner

mark the

lower right-hand corner B.

2.
3.

Make a dot one inch above A mark it C.


I
Draw a light dash-line from B to C.
Draw an outward-curving line from B to C, allowing

Back.

one-fourth of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.
4.

Make

a dot eighteen inches exactly above

and one-half inches to the right


with
5.

6.

of this dot,

make another dot mark it D.


Draw a line from C to D.
Make a dot one inch to the right

it,

and

three

parallel

of

D and parallel

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

146

with

two and one-half inches exactly above

make another dot mark it E.


Draw an inward-curving line from
7.

this dot

D to E (see shape

in Fig. 108).

Make

8.

a dot

parallel with

three- inches to the right of E, and


one and one-half inches exactly above

make another dot mark it F,


Draw a line from E to F.
Make a dot one inch exactly below

this dot,
9.
I

o.

to the right of this dot,

dot

mark

it

and

parallel with

two inches

make another

it,

G.

Draw a light dash-line from Fto G.


Draw an inward-curving line from Fto

1 1

12.

G, allowing

Erase the

three-eighths of an inch curve at the middle.


dash-line.

Make

13.

dot

a dot one and one-half inches to the right of

make another

one-fourth of an inch above this dot

mark

Cuff.

and
3.

H.

G to

H.

a dot four inches above

Continue the curved line from

14.

2.

it

Make

Make

parallel with

Draw
Make
Draw
Make
Draw

mark

it /.

a dot six and one-half inches to the left of /

mark it y.
from / to y.

a line

/ mark it K.
K.
6.
a dot four inches above /; mark it L.
to L.
a line from
7.
Write your name and school at the lower part of each

4.

5.

a dot four inches exactly above

a line from

y to

pattern.

Cut each pattern

out,

on the heavy

Making. Lay the longest

lines.

side of the front pattern on

a lengthwise fold of the cloth, and cut.

Fold the

sel-

CHILD

SACK TIER.

47

vedges of the cloth together, lay the longest side of the

back pattern on the selvedge edge, and cut the two backs
at

once.

With the

right

sides

of

the

cloth

folded

together, lay the lower edge of the sleeve pattern on a

woof thread of the cloth, and cut two sleeves at once.


Lay the narrow edge of the cuff pattern on a woof thread
of the cloth, and cut one cuff
cut the other cuff in a
similar manner.
Baste an inch and a half hem at each
side of the opening in the back
baste the side and
shoulder-seams together, allowing half-an-inch seam. Try
the tier on, make any alterations necessary, and then
sew the seams. Make an inch hem at the lower edge.
Sew each sleeve together, making a narrow seam. Gather
the upper edge of each sleeve, leaving a space of two
inches each side of the seam.
Gather the lower edge of
sleeve,
leaving
space
of
each
a
an inch and a half each
side of the seam.
Sew the narrow edges of each cuff
Holding the right sides together stitch the
together.
cuffs to the sleeves.
Fold the cuffs over, and hem on the
wrong side at the stitching. Holding the sleeve- towards
you, with the upper part of the sleeve marked
(Fig.
1 08) towards the front, and with the notch at the shoulderBind or face the neck. Make
seam, sew the sleeve in.
the button-holes, and put on the buttons.
If strings are
desired make them each three inches wide and three;

fourths of a yard long

laying a

into the side-seams five inches

plait, insert

the strings

below the arm-size.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

148

GORED
To make

SKIRT.

a gored skirt one yard long, having a four

inch hem, three and one-third yards of material, one yard

Tear

wide are required.^


inches long.

Front-breadth.

off three breadths,

each forty

Fold the lengthwise edges of one

of the breadths together.


2.

Hold the folded edge towards you.

3.

Make

a dot at the right-hand side, ten and one-half

inches above the folded edge;


4.

with
5.

Make
;

B.

it

a dot at

This

is

for the

Make

and

parallel

hem.

the left-hand side, eight and one-

half inches above the folded edge;


6.

A.

it

a dot four inches to the left of

A mark
Make

mark

mark

it

C.

a dot on the folded edge, one-half of an inch

from the left-hand end; mark it D.


Cut straight from A to B.
7.
Fold the cloth from B to C, and cut on the fold.
8.
Cut from C to D, slightly curving inward.
9.
lengthwise edges of ani. Fold the
Side-breadths.

other breadth together.


2.

Hold the

3.

Make

half inches
4.

with
5.

Make

from the selvedges; mark

A.

it

B.

a dot at the left-hand side, thirteen and one-

from the selvedges; mark


Cut straight from A to B.

half inches
6.

it

a dot four inches to the left of A, and parallel

mark

Make

sel\*edges towards you.

a dot at the right-hand side, sixteen and orre-

This

may be

cut from paper

if

it

C.

desired.

DRAWERS.
7.

Fold the cloth from

Back-breadth.

Cut

to C,

149

and cut on the

this breadth thirty (or

fold.

more) inches

wide.

Cut the band three and one-half inches wide, and one
inch longer (to allow for lapping and making) than the
waist measure.

In a gored skirt, the bias edges should be


Making.
Place the straight edges of the sidetowards the back.
breadths to the front-breadth, and pin them together at
the ends and in the middle.

In sewing the seams, hold

the bias edge towards you, fulling

it

necessary

little if

or the bias edge can be held smoothly, afterwards cutting


off the extra

Sew

length at the lower edge.

the back-

Make

breadth to the side-breadths in a similar manner.


a four inch
at

hem

at the

lower edge, laying a small plait

each seam for the fulness.

In the middle of the back-

breadth make a placket ten inches in length.

Put the

upper edge into the band, allowing more fullness at the

back than

in the front.

DRAWERS.
(Age, 12 Years
1.

and Upward.)

Place the narrow side of a sheet of drafting-paper

horizontally in front of you.


2.

Write your name and school

five

inches from the

left-hand side of the paper and five inches above the lower

edge.

Under the name

of the school, put in a

column the

words, waist measure, leg measure and knee measure.


3.

Take the waist measure

tightly,

and record

it.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

150

Take the

4.

leg measure from the side of the waist to

the side of the knee, and record

it.

5.

Take the measure around the knee, and record

6.

Make

it.

a dot one inch from the left-hand side of the

paper, and two inches above the lower edge;

mark

it

(Fig. 109).

From

7.

vertical)

draw an oblong (having the longest side


four inches longer than the leg measure, and four
dot

inches wider than half the waist measure.

Mark

8.

the perpendicular line at

/; the

left

upper

horizontal line 2\ the perpendicular line at right j; the

lower horizontal line

Make

/q.

^.

a dot on line

/,

four inches below the junction

/ and 2) mark it B.
Find half the waist measure, and make a dot on

/of lines

10.

line

mark
1

1.

12.
13.
14.
15.

this distance

it

18.

and 2\

mark it D.
D\ mark it E.

a dot one inch to the left of C\


a dot two inches exactly below

B to
B to

mark 1^5.
a line from
E] mark it 6.
Find half the leg measure, and make a

Make

a line from

C\

a dot on line

^,

dot on line J

J and ^; mark it 'F.


from A, two inches more

from the junction of

lines

than half the knee measure; mark


17.

of lines /

C.

Make
Make
Draw
Draw

this distance
16.

from the junction

it

G.

Draw a light dash-line from C to F.


Draw an outward-curving line from C

ing one inch curve at the middle;

mark

it

7.

to F, allow-

Erase the

dash-line.
19.

20.

Draw a light dash-line from E to F.


Draw an inward-curving line from E

half-an-inch curve at the middle;


dash-line.

mark

it

to F, allowing
<?.

Erase the

DRAWERS.

151

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

152
21.
22.

Draw a light dash-line from Fto G.


Draw an inward-curving line from Fto

a two inch curve at the middle;

mark

it

G, allowing

Erase the

p.

dash-line.

the hem.

23.

Fold the paper under on line

24.

Without unfolding the hem, cut the pattern on the


Trace lines 6 and 8.

4, for

outside lines.

Making.

Fold the

cloth lengthwise, the width of the

pattern from one of the edges, and pin the thicknesses

Unfold the hem, and lay the longest


side of the pattern on the fold, with the lower edge at
Pin the pattern on, and trace
the raw edge of the cloth.
of cloth at the edges
thicknesses
Cut
both
and
lines 6
8.
of cloth together.

of the pattern,
fold of cloth

and remove the pattern then cut the upper


Cut
lines, this is for the front.
;

on the traced

the other leg' by laying the leg already cut on the cloth,
right sides together,
of

the cloth.

having

it

and the lower edge on a woof thread

Cut a binding lengthwise

of

the cloth,

three inches wide and the length of the waist

measure, allowing one inch for lapping at each opening.

They may be made

When
for

to

open

in the

back or

at the side.

tucks are to be made, allowance must be

them before cutting the

desired, face the

cloth.

If

made

open drawers are

upper portions of the legs; otherwise

make them according

to the directions

on page

39.

To

avoid fulness at the waist, the gathers can be put into


a yoke.

CHILD

WAIST.

CHILD'S WAIST (opening

in

53

the back).

(Age, 3 to io Years.)

Take a piece

of paper sixteen inches long

and twenty-

inches wide.
1.

Place the long side of

the paper horizontally in

front of you.
2.

Write your name and school three inches from the

left-hand side of the paper, and eight inches above the

Under the name of the school, put in a


column the words, waist measure, bust measure, length
from tape to back of neck, length from tape to waist,
lower edge.

length of shoulder.

Take the waist measure, and record it.


Take
the bust measure by putting the tape-measure
4.
around the body close under the arms; pin the ends together at the middle of the chest. Record this measure,
3.

leaving the tape

still

in position.

Measure from tape to the bone in the back of the


5.
neck, and record it.
Measure from tape to waist, and record it,
6.
Measure the length of shoulder, and record it.
7.
8.

Draw

a horizontal dash-line nine inches above the

lower edge of the paper; mark


9.

Draw

Draw

of line 2\

/ (Fig, no).

a vertical line two inches from the left-hand

edge of the paper


10.

it

mark

it

2.

a vertical dash-line one inch to

mark

it

j.

the right

This allows for the hem.

Find one-half of the bust measure, and


distance from line J draw a vertical line; mark it
1 1

12.

Bisect the distance between lines

at

this

4.

and^, and

half-

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

54

an-inch to the left of the middle draw a vertical dash-line;

mark

it

5.

as

Draw a horizontal
many inches above line

to

neck"; mark

13.

14.

Draw

it

it

7.

as

is

to line 4,

the measure '^from tape

6.

a horizontal dash-line from line

as far below line /, as the

mark

dash-line from line


/,

to line ^,

measure ''from tape to waist";

CHILD
2.
it

WAIST.

Make

a dot at the junction of lines

Draw

a slightly curved line from

J and

6\

55

mark

^.
3.

10).

Shoulder.

Draw

to

(see Fig.

a horizontal dash-line from line

one and one-half inches below

to line 5,

line 6;

mark

it 9.

Place the end of the ruler on A, and, bringing the

2.

shoulder measurement to meet line


it

make

p,

a dot;

mark

C.

Draw

3.

a straight line from

Arm-size.

on

mark

line 5;

Draw

2.

Make

i.
it

to C.

a dot half-an-inch below line

/,

D.

a curved line from

C to

(see Fig.

no).

Front.
Neck.
the

left of

On

2.

line 6;

a dot two and one-fourth inches to

and one inch above line 6; mark it .


^ make a dot one and one-half inches below

line 4,

line

mark

Draw

3.

Make

Shoulder.

it

F.

a curved line from

E to F (see

Fig.

10).

Place the end of the ruler on F, and,

bringing the shoulder measurement to meet line

mark

a dot;

Draw

2.

Arm-size.
line

from

"Waist.

it

a straight line from

To

to
I

6,

make

G.

E to

G.

complete the arm-size,


(see shape in Fig.

If the

waist measure

draw a curved

10).
is less

than the bust

measure, divide their difference by two, and make a dot


this

them
2.

Dto

distance on line 7

H and
Draw
/.

at

each side of line

mark

/.

a straight line from Z> to //, and another from

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

156

Make

3.

a dot at the junction of lines

5 and 8

mark

it/.

Draw
/to/.

a straight line from

4.

If

the waist measure

these

slant

is

H to J, and another from

greater than the bust measure,

outward instead of inward,

lines

this

will

necessitate a seam.

Fold the paper under on line J, and cut the pattern on


the heavy outside

lines.

MISSES' WAIST.
(Bust Measure, 32 Inches.)

Take a piece

of paper twenty-four inches long

and ten

inches wide.
Place the longest side of the paper horizontally in front
of you.

Make

a dot three-fourths of an inch from the left-hand

side of the paper,

mark
From dot

edge

it

and one-half of an inch above the lower


(Fig.

1 1

1).

draw an oblong twenty-two and one-half


inches long, and nine inches wide.
Mark the upper left-hand corner of the oblong B the
upper right-hand corner C the^ lower right-hand corner
;

i^(Fig. III).
Back.

mark
2.

it

Make

a dot one-half of an inch above

Make

a dot seven inches to the

exactly above this dot

dot F.

E.

make another

left of

dot

one inch

mark the

last

MISSES
3.

4.

Make
Draw

WAIST.

a dot one inch to the right of

a line from

to F.

157

mark

it

G,

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

158

Make

14.

mark

a dot one and three-fourths inches above

F\

K.

it

the curve fromy to Ky hold a tape-measure


and three-fourths inches between the left

To make

15.

at fourteen

thumb and

Place a pencil at the end of the

forefinger.

tape-measure, holding them both between the right thumb


and forefinger. Place the point of the pencil on
and
extend your left hand above it until the tape is drawn
Holding the tape firmly, swing, without making
tightly.

a mark, the right hand with pencil and tape from

When
from J

K.

swings easily and accurately, draw the curve

to

K.

Make

16.

J to

it

a dot three and one-half inches above

three-fourths of an inch to the left of this dot and parallel

with

it

17.

18.

19.

make another dot mark the last dot L.


Draw a line from K to L.
Draw a light dash-line from L to E.
Draw an outward-curving line from L to E,
;

one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

allowing

Erase the

dash-line.

Draw

20.

Side-back.

mark

M.

mark

it

4.
;

Make

FtoK for the

waist-line.

a dot one-half of an inch above

a dot one and three-fourths inches above

N.

Draw
Make

3.

it

Make

2.

of

a dash-line from

a line from

N to M.

and three-fourths inches to the right


two inches below this dot make another dot mark
a dot five

the last dot O.


5.

To make

measure

the curve

forefinger.

Place a

from

N to

O, hold the tape-

between the left thumb and


pencil at the end of the tape-measure,

at sixteen inches

WAIST.

MISSES

holding them both between the right

159

thumb and

forefinger.

Place the point of the pencil on Nj and extend your

hand above

the tape firmly,

left

drawn tightly. Holding


swing, without making a mark, the right

until the tape

it

is

hand with pencil and tape from TV to O. When it swings


easily and accurately, draw the curve from TV to O.
6. Make a dot seven and one-half inches to the right
three-fourths of an inch below this dot make
oi B
]

another dot
7.
8.

mark the

last

dot P.

Draw a light dash-line from O to P.


Draw an inward-curving line from O

to P, allowing

one-fourth of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.
9.

Make

a dot two and one-half inches above TV;

mark

its.
10.
1 1

Draw a light dash-line from P to Q.


Draw an inward-curving line from P

to Q, allowing

an inch curve at the middle.

one-fourth of

Erase the

dash-line.
12.

Make

two inches

a dot one and one- fourth inches below

to the left of this dot

make another

dot

C\
mark

the last dot R.


13.

14.
15.

Draw a line from Q to R.


Draw a light dash-line from R to M.
Draw an outward-curving line from R

to

M,

ing one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

allow-

Erase

the dash-line.

16. Draw a dash-line from


to Q for the waist-line.
Write your name and school near the middle of each
pattern
also back on lower pattern, and side-back on
upper pattern.
;

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

i6o

Take

a piece of paper twenty-four inches long and nine-

teen inches wide.


Place the longest side of the paper horizontally in front
of you.

Make

a dot three-fourths of an inch from the left-hand

side of the paper

the lower edge


B^

and one and one-fourth inches above

mark

it

i\g. 112).

misses' waist.

Make

2.

i6i

a dot three inches above

inch to the left of this dot

one-half of an

make another

dot

mark the

last dot F.

Draw a light dash-line from E to F.


Draw an inward-curving line from E

3.

4.

to F, allowing

three-fourths of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.

Make

5.

a dot seven and three-fourths inches above

make another

three inches to the left of this dot

mark the

Draw
Make

6.
7.

dot

last dot G.

a line from

to F.

a dot nine inches above

half inches to the left of this dot

eight and one-

make another dot

mark

the last dot H.

Draw
Make

8.

9.

a light dash-line from

draw an inward-curving

10.

a dot eight and three-fourths inches above

and three-fourths inches

make another
1 1

12.

allowing

shape in

from

Erase the dash-line.

Make

six

H to G,

at this dot (see

line

one and one-half inches curve


Fig. 112).

H to G.

a dot on the light dash-line two inches from

dot

mark the

last

to the right of this dot

dot

/.

Draw a light dash-line from / to H.


Draw an inward-curving line from /to H,

one-fourth of

an inch curve at the middle.

allowing

Erase the

dash-line.

two
13. Make a dot ten and one-half inches above A
and one-half inches to the right of this dot make another
;

dot

14.
1

5.

16.

mark the

Draw
Make
Draw

last

doty.

a line from,/ to

/.

a dot one inch to the right of


a light dash-line from

/to K.

mark

it

K.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

62

Draw an outward-curving

17.

line

from y to K^ allow-

ing one-half of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.

Make

18.

a dot on the curved line two and one-half

inches from

Make

19.

inches from

Make

20.

mark

it

L.

a dot on the curved line three and one-half


;

mark

it

M.

a dot six inches to the right of

one-fourth inches above this dot

make another

two and

dot

mark

the last dot N.

Make

21.

mark
22.

it

Make

right of

dot

a dot one

and one-half inches above

O.

a dot eleven and one-fourth inches to the


three inches above this dot

mark the

last dot

make another

P,

23.

Draw

24.

Draw outward-curving

from

light dash-lines

to

and from

to

N.
lines

from

P to O and

from

P to Ny allowing one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.


Erase the dash-lines.
25.
26.

27.
28.

Draw a line from Mto O.


Draw a line from 7V^ to Z.
Draw a light dash-line from 7 to O.
Draw an upward-curving dash-line from /

allowing one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.


the light dash-line.

Under-arm.

i.

This

Make

two inches to the


mark the last dot Q.
;

2.

Make

for the waist-line.

a dot one-half of an inch below

make another

right of this dot

a dot seven inches to the right of

inch below this dot

R.

is

to O,

Erase

make another

dot

mark the

dot

one

last dot

misses' waist.

Draw
Make

3.

4.

a line from

to

R.

a dot seven and one-half inches to the left of

one and three-fourths inches below

another dot

163

mark the

Draw a light 'dash-line from R to S.


Draw an inward-curving line from R

5.

6.

dot

this

make

last dot 5.

to 5, allowing

one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.

Make

7.

of

a dot eight

and one-eighth inches to the

three and three-fourths inches below this dot

another dot

mark the

last

dot T,

Draw a light dash-line from S to T.


Draw an inward-curving line from 5

8.

9.

left

make

to T, allowing

one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.
10.

Make

a dot seven inches to the right of

three

and three-eighths inches below this dot make another dot

mark the
1

1.

12.

last

dot U.

Draw a light dash-line from T to U.


Draw an inward-curving line from 7^ to

U, allowing

one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

Erase the

dash-line.
13.

Make

a dot four and one-half inches below

and one-half inches


dot

14.
15.
16.

mark the

to the right of this dot

two

make another

last dot V.

Draw a line from ^ to V.


Draw a light dash-line from Q to V.
Draw an outward-curving line from Q

ing one-eighth of an inch curve at the middle.

to

V, allow-

Erase the

dash-line.
17. Draw a dash-line from R to ^for the waist-line.
Write your name and school near the middle of each

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

64

pattern

also front

on lower pattern, and under-arm on

upper pattern.
Cutting.

Cut the back

inch seam from

to

out, allowing one-fourth of

F and FtoG]

inch seam at the shoulder, or from

seam from y to

of an inch

an

three-fourths of an

Hto I

K and K

and one-fourth
to L.
Cut on the
;

curves at the neck, arm-size, and lower edge, as seams of


one-fourth of an inch are already allowed.

Cut the side-back out, allowing one-fourth of an inch


seam from
to TV^and
to O
and one-half of an inch
seam from P to Q and Q to R. Cut on the curved lines
from O to P and R to M.

Before cutting the front, fold the paper under on the

from

hem and

should not be
Cut the front out, allowing one-inch seam from J to I and I to ti\ three-fourths
of an inch seam from G to F.
Cut on the curved lines
to G
to J.
from
to F\ and
Cut the under-arm out, allowing one-half of an inch
seam from Q to R and R to S one-inch seam from V to
/and ^to T. Cut on the curved lines from 5 to T^and
line

to

this is for the

unfolded until the pattern

is cut.

Qto K
Cutting of the lining.

Lay the

wise smoothly upon the table.


of the front pattern

lining doubled length-

Pin the edge of the

hem

upon the selvedge edges, and, smooth-

ing from here, pin the pattern to the lining, placing the
pins closely at the curves, at the middle of the dart, and

one

at

each corner of the pattern.

Pin the three remaining patterns lengthwise on the


lining so that

no unnecessary waste

is

made, and being

careful that the waist-lines are placed exactly crossways


of the lining.

misses' waist.

165

Before cutting, trace the dart in front pattern and all


seams shown by lines, also the waist-lines.
Fold the dart lengthwise in the
Basting of the lining.
and baste with small, even
waist-line,
middle, pin at the
Fold and baste the hem
basting stitches on the tracing.

in front.

Pin the under-arm to the front at the waist-line, and at

both ends of the seam also between the waist-line and


Baste on the tracing with small, even stitches,

upper end.

beginning at the waist-line and basting to the top, and


then on the other side of the seam baste from the waistline to the lower edge.

Baste the other half of front in the same way.


Pin and baste the seam in the middle of the back
according to the tracing, beginning at the waist-line.
Pin the back to the side-back at the waist-line and

lower edge

then, beginning at the waist-line, pin the

edges evenly together until within three inches of the


top

from here the back

will

have to be fulled a

onto the side-back to allow for the shoulder blade.

little

Baste

according to the tracing beginning at the waist-line.

Baste the other side-back to the back.


Join the fronts to the back at the under-arm seams,

pinning and basting, as in the other seams.


Pin the shoulder seams together, stretching the front
slightly before basting.

HINTS FOR A PLAIN BASQUE.


There are over four hundred different systems
drafting used in the United States, and any one
to be of use requires constant practice.

of dressof these

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

66
Patterns are

now

easily obtained,

ment and following the given


found of great assistance.

and by using judg-

directions carefully, will be

Patterns allowing for seams

are easier to cut from, than those which do not.

The trimmings needed


sewing

for a plain basque are linings,

button-hole twist, basting cotton, buttons or

silk,

hooks and eyes, and whale-bones.

The main

parts of a plain basque pattern are front,

back, side-back, under-arm, collar, upper-sleeve, and undersleeve.

The

front pattern can be distinguished from the back

pattern by the shape of the neck and arm-size,


of the front being cut lower,

more

larger and having

portion

of

and the arm-size


a curve.

The

upper-sleeve

wider than the under-sleeve portion,

is

the neck

being cut
in order to

bring the seams more under the arms.

The edge

of the

hem

of the

opening should be

laid

on

the selvedge, to avoid making two folds in the hem.

must be taken to baste the seams of a


few beginners realize
basque according to the marks
Great

care

that the difference of an eighth of an inch in the width


of the seven seams,

around the waist,

will

amount

to one

and three-fourths inches. Even basting stitches should


AlteraAfter the basque is basted, try it on.
be used.
tions for tightening or loosening the basque, around the
waist, should be made at the under-arm seams.
After the seams are sewed, take out the bastings
the

seams,

making notches

at

pare

the waist-line, and two

inches above the waist-line, to allow for the curving of

the dress.
the others,

The under-arm seams may be left wider than


that the basque may be let out.

Press the seams open.

Overcast the seams closely, or

HINTS FOR A PLAIN BASQUE.

16/

bind them with a narrow silk binding obtainable for this


purpose.

Whale-bone casings can be bought, or a bias strip of


can be sewed on to the seams, fulling it a little.
Soak the whale-bones in hot water for an hour, before
using, which will render them soft and pliable enough to
sew through. They should be firmly fastened an inch
above and an inch below the waist-line.
To finish the lower edge of the basque, baste a bias
strip of plain lining muslin, two inches wide, on the edge
of the basque
then fold the edges- over half-an-inch, and
catch them to the lining, fastening securely at the seams.
Put on a facing of a thin material cut on the bias.
silesia

doll's patterns.

169

DOLL'S PATTERNS.

On
By

page 168, patterns are given for

doll's

garments.

using inch squared paper, and drawing the patterns in

the same proportion, as they are given in the one-fourth

inch squares, patterns will be obtained for a doll ten


inches long.

PART

V.

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED


IN SEWING.
COTTON.
The
tries.

cotton plant grows on plantations in

warm

Most

is

of the cotton used in the world

coun-

raised in

the United States, where the two principal varieties are


short-staple cotton or cotton having short fibres,

cotton having long fibres.

staple

upland cotton, which

from two

is

chiefly raised,

to three feet in height.

island cotton

grows

The

fifteen to

and long-

short-staple or

grows on a plant

Long-staple or sea-

twenty feet high, and

is

found on the islands near the coast of the Southern


Sea-island cotton is much more valuable than
States.
upland cotton.

The seed

is

sown

the plant begins to

March and April, and early in June


The blossom resembles that
bloom.
in

and changes

of the hollyhock,

its

color,

being a pale

straw-color in the morning, pure white at noon, pale pink

and a clear pink the next morning. After the


flowers fall, the pods or bolls grow rapidly, and when ripe
burst open, showing the fleecy cotton ready for picking,

at night,

which
It

is

is

done by hand or by a machine.


separated from the seeds by being run through

the cotton-gin, then baled, and shipped to the manufacturers.

The

bale

is

opened, and the cotton

is

put through

a beater and picker-machine, which loosens the matted

and separates a portion of the sand and leaves.


subjected to a second, and sometimes a third process

fibres,

It

is

of

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.


picking, which forms

it

/I

into laps, or rolls of cotton similar

to cotton batting.

These

where

laps are taken to the carding-machines,

they are carded, and sometimes combed, until the fibres

become

sufficiently clean

The

slivers.

and even

slivers pass to the

they are then called

drawing-machine, where

they are drawn even and parallel, and several of them are

Then they

are twisted on the rovingwhich are wound upon bobbins.


They are next spun into yarn, by passing the rovings
through the spinning-machines.

united into one.

frames into

When

rovings,

tJn-ead

to

is

more than

twisted

strength

is

be made, the yarn

for

required.

weaving into
It

is

is

doubled and

cloth,

then reeled

off

greater

as

into loose

hanks for washing, bleaching and dyeing, after which


comes the reeling on to bobbins, and the spooling. In
spooling, after the machine-tender has set the spool on

the spindle and attached the end of the thread from the

bobbin, the machine does the

rest.

It

runs the thread

on evenly, without overlapping, or leaving a hair's breadth


between, and even adjusts its work with the same precision

the

to

of thread.

It

widening of the spool with every layer


runs on exactly two hundred yards, and

the right time and place, cuts the

at

fine

slit

in

the

edge of the spool, draws the end of thread tightly into


the
a

slit,

tray.

cuts

The

off,

it

and drops the finished spool into

spools are labelled and

packed

in

boxes

containing a dozen each.


If

the yarn

is

to

be woven into

prepared on one machine, and

cloth, the warp is


woof on another

made stronger than the woof, as a greater


comes on it. Then they are woven on the loom.

the warp being


strain

the

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

172

great care being taken that every thread

is

kept in

In weaving, the warp threads are

proper position.

its

first

passed from the warp beam at the back of the loom, to

beam

the cloth

Plain weaving

on which the cloth is


done by passing the woof,

in front,
is

over and

alternately

may be

to

be wound.

in a shuttle,

under each thread of the warp

by unravelling a piece
woven by varying the
number of threads passed over or taken up by the woof.

this

discerned

readily

Twilled cloth

of cotton cloth.

is

In piled cloth, like velvet, other threads are woven in

with the woof, making loops, which are afterwards cut

Mixed cloth

and sheared evenly.

is

woven with the warp

one color and the woof of another.

of

the warp

is

In striped cloth

two or more different colors

of

and

checked cloth the warp and woof are both of two

one

set of stripes crossing another.

White

cloth

is

bleached after weaving.

made, the cloth

is

in

colors,

is

singed, then

When

calico

bleached, and

the

coloring applied by a printing machine.

WOOL.
Wool

is

obtained chiefly from the sheep, also from the

alpaca, angora,

from
the

and cashmere

goat.

It is

brought mainly

Australia, South Africa, and South America, but

highest

Saxony and

Wool

grade

consists

twelve inches
fibre is

lying

in"

of

other,

from the merinoes

of

Germany.

wavy

fibres

length, and

covered with

each

obtained

is

Silesia in

little

varying from

differing in

grade.

six

to

Each

sawlike teeth or scales over-

and sticking out wherever a

bend

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.

1/3

The points of the scales are exceedingly small,


but when spun, fit into each other and keep the thread
occurs.

from untwisting.
After the wool has been sheared from the sheep,
which

is

done yearly,

it is

separated according to fineness

and length of fibre into sorts, by experienced


Then, as

sorters.

it

full

is

of

men

grease and

called

dirt,

is

it

scoured by being immersed in successive vats of hot,


alkaline

lye,

impurities
dried,
this

and

it

strength,

in

After

removed.
is

until

most of

the

scouring, the wool

is

At

then ready for further processes.

must be decided whether the


be manufactured is to be a woollen or a
question

the

point

fabric

varying

are

to

worsted.

Formerly, woollen goods were made from short-fibred

wool with high felting properties, while worsted goods

were made from long-fibred wool with poor felting properties, but now, from many kinds of wool both woollens and
worsteds can be made, the distinction between them
being caused by the different processes to which the wool
is

subjected.

We

will

woollens.

first

describe the

After the wool

method

scoured,

is

of

manufacturing

it is

passed through

a willowing-machine in order to remove any


that

may

still

adhere to

Then

matted pieces.

it

is

it,

and also

to

dirt or

dust

break up the

carded, by which the wool

is

thoroughly cleaned from sticks and lumps, and the fibres

and then interlaced with each other,


coming out in the form of a loose rope called sliver,
in which the separate fibres stand in an infinite variety
are

torn

apart

of positions with reference to each other.


is

to be wool-dyed, the next process

is

If

the fabric

the dyeings after

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

174

which

drawn down by drawing, roving and spinning

it is

frames into a woollen yarn.


If

greater strength

are twisted together,

the loom.

the fabric

If

required, two or

is

making
is

to be yarn-dyed, the dyeing

process occurs at this stage.


into cloth.

It

is

fulled

water, and subjected to


fibres to felt together,

The

fabric

more strands

a woollen thread ready for

The yarn

is

now woven

by being soaked in hot, soapy


heavy pressure, thus causing the

and the cloth to shrink

in width.

now compact and firm, and is ready for the


The fibres are loosened and raised

is

finishing processes.

form a nap, by passing the surface of the cloth over


the sharp little hooks of the teasel, which are set in
to

rollers.

Teasels are the flower

thistle.

Then
and

surface,
to

receive

the cloth
is

it

the

is

heads of a variety of

sheared to give a uniform

passed between steam rollers in order

smooth,

glossy

finish

that

renders

it

attractive.

The

processes used in making a zvorsted fabric are

from those just described in several respects.


The object is to make a yarn in which the fibres shall
be drawn out parallel to each other, and then twisted to
different

the required degree.

The wool

is

put through various machines to straighten

out the fibres, and to take out those that are too short
for use.

Long wools

are put through preparers; shorter

wools are passed through carding-machines, both of which


bring the wool into a loose

sliver,

which, after being back-

washed and slightly oiled, is passed through a combingmachine, where the short fibres, called noils, are combed
out, and there is formed a firm, smooth, clean rope made
up of long, parallel fibres loosely adhering to each other.

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.

This rope

is

wound into balls


Then follow

1/5

or wool tops, about one

the processes of drawing,

foot in diameter.

roving, spinning and twisting, care being taken to pre-

serve the substantial parallel relation of the fibres to each


other, until a smooth, level yarn

formed ready for weav-

is

ing into cloth.

After the cloth

been done
ing,

woven

is

in the yarn,

which

differs

making woollens.
slightly fulled,

and

that has not

if

then ready for the

is

cloth

sometimes not

not teazled, and

is

at

all.

It is

between

in proper

shape for

rollers,

is

in

only

singed by being

passed at a high rate of speed over a hot roller


stretched, and pressed

finish-

from the method pursued

slightly

The

it

dyed,

is

it

and

is

steamed,

then put up

is

sale.

LINEN.
Linen thread and cloth are made from the fibres of
The coverings in which the Egyptian
mummies have been found enveloped, prove that flax has
the flax plant.

been used from the remotest times


of linen cloth.

In the British

manufacture

in the

Museum

pieces of linen

may be seen. The best


come from France and The Netherlands.

four thousand years old


of flax

The

qualities

plant grows to a height of two or three feet, and

The stalks
woody portion

bears delicate blue flowers.

of the plant are

hollow, and consist of a

called the boon,

and a fibrous portion from which the thread


seeds furnish linseed-oil, used for mixing
roots,

of

when

the

the

stalks

are

the leaves begin to

fall

fine fibre is desired,

stalks

become

yellow.

is

made.

paints.

The
If

up by the
and the bottom

pulled
off

By waiting

until

the

176

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

seeds are ripe, a coarser fibre and seeds for

oil

are ob-

tained.

After being dried in the sun, the seeds are removed,


and the stalks soaked or retted in water to loosen the
fibres from the boon.
The fibres are dried and run
through rollers, which break the boon. Then they are

combed out
is

wood removed by

or disentangled, and the

the scutching-machine.

The

flax,

now ready

put through the hackling-machine, where the short fibres

The long

are separated from the long.


line

fibres are called

and go through the spread-board, while the short


tow, pass through the carding-machine

fibres, called

passes through a

number

of

being doubled and drawn out,

where

both

sliver

then

drawing-frames, and after


it

goes to the roving-frame,

again drawn out, then twisted and

is

it

The

varieties entering cans called sliver-cans.

to

for the mill,

The

bobbins.

rovings

are

spun on the spinning-

frames and reduced to yarn, which


cloth or twisted into thread.

wound on

The

is

either

linen

is

woven

into

bleached for

white goods, or dyed for colored.

During
with

all

warm

the operations the fibres must be kept wet

water, to render

them

pliable.

Various kinds of heavy cloth, such as canvas, coarse


toweling, tent-cloth and bagging, are

which

is

prepared and wove similar to

made from hempy


flax.

SILK.

There

is

no more interesting subject than the source

and manufacture

of silk.

less originated in China.

The manufacture

of silk doubt-

Although some silkworms are

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.

1/7

raised in this country, the greater part of the raw silk


is

imported from China and Europe.

The silkworm moth lays the eggs from which the silkworms are hatched, and they in turn become moths. The
moth is about an inch long, having white wings marked
with broad pale-brown bars.
One moth lays from three
hundred to seven hundred eggs, so small that it takes
three or four hundred eggs to cover a space as large as
In a warm, dry temperature the eggs
a silver dollar.
The young silkworm or caterwill hatch in a few days.
pillar is dark-colored,

and not more than a quarter of an

When

inch in length.

and

it

has sixteen legs.

month, and during


mulberry

this

It

is

reaches maturity in about a

time feeds upon the leaves of the

tree, requiring

skin four times.

its

grown the worm is about


made up of twelve joints,

full

three inches long; the body

constant feeding;

When

some convenient branch or

it

about to spin
roll

of

paper,

also changes

its

cocoon on

it

ceases to

eat.

The
liquid

silk is

gum.

produced from two small bags filled with a


From each bag comes a slender tube, and

the two unite into one near the mouth, through which the

gum

is

drawn and spun

into silk; thus each fibre of silk,

when examined under a microscope, is seen to consist of two


strands, one from each bag.
The silkworm first makes an
outer covering of coarse fibres called
ing

itself like

a horseshoe, and

point to another,

it

floss-silk, then,

moving

its

entirely surrounds the

bend-

head from one

body with

silk,

not spun regularly around the cocoon, but back and forth,
so that sometimes yards

over the cocoon.


is

completed

in a

The

may be unwound

inner silk

is

few days, and

without turning

the finest.
is

The cocoon

about the size of a

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

17^
pigeon's egg.

If left

the moth will eat

its

undisturbed, in two or three weeks


wa}^ through the cocoon,

doing break and injure the


stifled or killed

by

silk

and

to prevent this,

in so
it

is

heat.

Each cocoon contains about one-fourth


thread, as fine as a cobweb, and

it

of a mile of

takes three thousand

make a pound of silk. The cocoons are


and the outside threads removed. They are
next placed in tepid water, where they are stirred until
the ends of four or five threads are found and brought
together into a single thread, which is wound on to a

cocoons to
first

sorted,

reel.

Then

it

goes to the spinning-frames, where

doubled and twisted into the various

it

is

sizes required for

sewing-silk or for weaving.

The

silk after

being cleaned

(all

the knots or obstruc-

and dried, is ready to be colored and


Silk is the strongest of
into
fabric
on the loom.
woven
tions removed)

all fibres

The

used for weaving.

reeling or spinning of the silk

is

very

difficult, as

The

the cocoons differ in color, quality and length.

silk

on the outside of the cocoon, and that near the chrysalis


so this, with that from cocoons
is inferior and broken
which have been injured, is made into what is called spunRaw silk is made from the perfect cocoons.
silk.
;

SCISSORS AND SHEARS.


Scissors and shears are

made

in various sizes

and styles

strictly speaking,

every pair over six inches in length

should be

shears.

called

Those made from

manufactured almost entirely

in

Germany

steel

in this

are

country

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.


malleable iron with steel for the inside edges
the work

is

/Q

used.

done by hand, but the process of


making depends somewhat upon the size.
Each pair
passes through the hands of fifty or sixty workmen before
Nearly

all

is

completion.

The
moulds

iron

is first

melted

at the

foundry and run into

of the different shapes desired.

The

steel is

run

which are cut into strips, and these are


punched, and riveted to the iron by one blow of a hammer.
These pieces are then dipped in water and again in
into thin sheets,

powdered borax, to cleanse the surfaces of the iron and


steel, which would not unite without this process.
After
being heated red hot in a furnace, the two metals are
welded together, and shaped by a die or stamp.

large pair of shears

through the hands of


his part towards

used to trim the

is

steel, that

which the blades pass


a number of workmen, each doing

protrudes over the blades

after

shaping the shears.

They

are hardened

by being plunged while red hot into a tank of cold water,


which renders them very brittle. To remedy the brittleness they are put on a plate and again heated, until the
workman knows by the color that they are properly tempered or toughened.

After various processes, in one of which the hole for


the screw

is drilled,

a temporary screw

is

put

and handles adjusted.

in,

and the

This screw is taken out


and the blades are numbered, in order that they may be
kept in pairs.
They are ground on a round stone, making
a slight hollow on the surface of the blades
this forms
an edge to cut on. A small elevation is also made close
behind the screw, which causes the blades to cant more
and more towards each other as they are closed. Then
points

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

l80

the handles are japanned or nickel-plated, and the blades

emery wheels. After this they are taken


a stamping-machine, where the maker's name is put on

are polished on
to

them.
fine

Then the edges

of the blades are sharpened

emery wheels, the screw

is

put

in,

on
and the blades

adjusted.

Lastly they are carefully inspected, packed in boxes,

and are ready

for market.

NEEDLES.
by

Needles have been used


in

the

women

of

every

Bronze needles have been found

country, in every age.

Egyptian tombs, and we have mention of them

in

the early history of the Greeks and Romans.

The common sewing needle is made from steel wire,


and is manufactured almost exclusively in England.
Although simple in form, a needle passes through the
hands of a hundred workmen before completion. The
wire is cut from coils into pieces or blanks of twice the
required length of the needle.

the

blanks are

ground

flattened in the middle

groove for the thread


to

mark the

machinery.

is

to
;

After being straightened,


point

at

both ends, and

on this flattened surface the

made, also two small indentations

places for the eyes, which are drilled

The

lengths

are

now

separated, and

by
are

hardened by being heated and dipped in oil then they


After
are tempered by again slowly heating and cooling.
;

being scoured, rounded and polished, they are sorted, and


folded in papers, which, when labelled, are put up in
packages.

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.

Machine needles are manufactured

in

16

country by

this

machines invented for the purpose. The work is similar


to that done on the common needle, machines being
substituted for part of the hand labor.

PINS.

now

Pins similar to those


ancient times,
silver

when

in use

were not known

skewers were used to fasten the clothing.

when

sixteenth century,

first

first

made

in

In the

manufactured, they were

so expensive that only the rich could afford to

when

in

thorns, and bone, wooden, gold or

buy them

the United States, a paper of pins

cost one dollar.

Pins

made

in

now manufactured by machines and are


many sizes. The wire, after being reduced to

are

the proper size and condition,

which cuts
and

it

is

run through a machine,

into the required length, forms the head,

also sharpens the

point and tempers

it.

The

pins

by
machine rolls them until they
Another machine sticks them
are bright and smooth.
into the paper, and, after being inspected under a
magnifying glass, they are ready for market. A machine
are next cleaned, and the imperfect ones thrown out

machinery.

The

third

has been invented which does the entire work.


pins are prepared by japanning the

common

pins.

Black

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

82

THIMBLES.
Thimbles have been
years.

They

are

use only about two hundred

in

made

of metal, celluloid, or

with either an open or closed top.


the surface are

made

to

The

aluminum,

indentations on

hold the head of the

needle

firmly.

In manufacturing metal thimbles, a thin disk or blank,

about the size of a silver half-dollar,


sheet metal, and

is

first

then drawn into a cap.

is

cut from

This cap

is

the top and


heated and tapered, and the edges rolled
then the sides are indented, and it is completed by being
;

polished and plated.

BUTTONS.
many materials, and in many
The cheapest are made of porcelain,

Buttons are made from


sizes and shapes.

which

is

pressed into moulds and baked.

made from

Vegetable ivory buttons are


the ivory plant.

The

Panama, and resembles a palm.


eight

to

The

fruit

is

seeds of

Isthmus of
round, from

twelve inches in diameter, and weighs about

twenty-five

pounds.

It

composed
from

is

portions, each portion containing

These
or any

the

plant grows on the

seeds,

when

ripe, are

of

six

six to

or

seven

nine seeds.

pure white, free from veins

and are about two inches in diameter. The


substance is so hard that it can be readily turned in
dots,

the lathe.

The

seeds or nuts are sawed into slabs, from which

the buttons are turned.

The next

operation

is

that

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.


of drilling the holes;
holes, others with

but have what

is

some buttons are

two

83

with four

drilled

holes, while others are not drilled,

called a self-shank.

After being dyed or colored they are finished by polishHorn and bone buttons are made in a

ing and mottling.


similar manner.

Cloth-covered button.

In

the

manufacture of

cloth-

covered buttons, two round pieces of cloth, one for the


covering and one for the shank, two collets of tin and a

The

thick paper filling are used.

placed in the under

and presses the tuft


shank by which the button
ering

is

tuft of strong linen is

and a die or stamp comes down,


through the collet, making the flexible

collet,

is

sewed

on.

The

cloth cov-

then placed on the upper collet or

pressed up into a

shell,

and

Just before the die holding the


upper part of the button is pressed into the one holdinodie.

the under part, the paper

filling

come together they turn the edge


collet,

is

put

As

in.

the dies

of the shell over the

and the different parts are thus held strongly

together.

The

Flat metal button.

manufactured from

four-holed

metal

button

is

from sheet metal.


The under collet of the button is cut from tin, the upper
collet from brass.
Then the collets are shaped and the
four holes punched by a machine.
A piece of strawboard of the same form is prepared, and the three pieces
are

collets or disks cut

bound together by

solidly lapping the

edge of the

brass or larger collet over the other two.

Hollow

gilt button

with shank.

of three pieces of brass,

the

This

front,

button

consists

back and the wire

eye.
The manufacture is described in the following steps,
which may be readily understood if samples are shown.

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

1^4

Front.

Blanking, or cutting out the round disk

I.

from the sheet.

Stamping, or raising the

2.

Annealing, or softening after the stamping.


or removing the oxide produced

Drawing
ling.

or shaping the front.

6.

figure.

3.

Pickling,

4.

by the annealing.
Annealing.

5.

Pick-

7.

Cleaning, or removing by acids the scales pro-

8.

duced upon the surface during the manufacture of the


10.
Drying the
Lacquering the inside.
metal.
9.
lacquer, which has been applied to the inside of the front,
in order that in the process of fire-gilding

wasted by

no gold may be

attaching itself to the inside.

the

or preparing for

gold.

12.

Cleaning,

11.

showing the

Gilding,

been applied. The application


by what is known as the *'fire gilding
which the gold is first dissolved in mercury,

result after the gold has


of this gold is

process," in

and applied to the surface of the metal. After this the


mercury is volatilized in an oven and passes up the chim-

ney from the oven, leaving the gold


with the surface of the metal.

13.

in

chemical contact

Scratching, or bright-

ening by rubbing with a bunch of fine wire.


ing, or bringing out the color of the gold.
or

ing,

brightening the

surface

of the

14.

15.

Color-

Burnish-

letters with

burnishing-stone.

Back.

I.

Cutting and bending the wire for the eye.

Blanking, or cutting out the round disk from the


Heading, or attaching the eye to the back.
sheet.
3.

2.

4.

Charging, or placing of the soldering paste about the

wire.

5.

Soldering.

acids.

7.

Stamping

of the letters.
Ujiiting.

8.
I

6.

Cleaning,

by

immersion

into shape, including the

Silvering.

Closing, or

9.

in

embossing

Burnishing.

uniting of

the

front

and

the back, both of which have been separately finished.

DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES USED IN SEWING.


2.

Edging, or burnishing of the extreme edge.

4.

burnishing of the edge and the front

ing, or

85

Bottom-

3.

edge and the back.

ing, or burnishing of the

Bevel-

side.

5.

Finished button.

HOOKS AND
Hooks and eyes

EYES.

are manufactured from wire

by mahooks and the same number of


eyes, each being made by its own machine, can be manu-

Two hundred

chinery.

The

factured in a minute.

reel, is

wire,

on being unwound from

cut into the required length, and

machine, where

is

it

drawn

into the

bent into shape and comes out com-

They are silvered or blackened with japan varnish.


The machines run automatically, all that the machine

pleted.

tender has to do

The hooks and

is

to see that they are supplied with wire.

eyes have to be sewed and stuck on to

cardboard by hand.

EMERY.

Emery

is

a variety of corundum, and

the hardest of minerals.

Emeri on the island


where the best variety

number
It is

and

It

Naxos,

of
is

of places in the

derives

obtained.

powder

ranked among
name from Cape

is

Grecian Archipelago,
It is also

found

in a

United States.

used for polishing metals.

sifted into

its

The

stone

of different fineness.

is

crushed

86

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK.

WAX.
Bees-wax is an animal secretion, formed by the bees,
and constitutes the material of which the cells of the

honey-comb are composed. After the honey is removed,


the wax is dirty, tough and yellow.
To make it pure and
white, the wax is melted and stirred in boiling water

when

cooled the pure

wax

rises to the top.

melted, and then bleached in the open


white.

It

is

finally melted, strained

It

air, until it

again

is

becomes

through sieves and

cast in molds.

WHALEBONE.
The baleen whales, from which whalebone is
inhabit all known seas.
The whalebonu grows in several hundred parallel

taken,

plates

or blades along each side of the upper jaw of the whale,

taking the place of teeth.

The

plates,

having a hairy fringe

at the edge,

vary in

length from a few inches up to ten or twelve feet, and


form a barrier to the escape of the small animals which
the whale scoops in from the sea.

The

enough to be
required, which is easily

plates are boiled in water until soft

cut into the thin, narrow strips

done, as the fibres run parallel to each other without intertwisting.

Flexible steel often takes the place of whalebone.

INDEX

Darning

Alphabets, 126, 127, 128.


Articles used,

i,

Cloth darning, 93.

170.

Basting, 21.

Straightway-darn, 93.

Bias piecing, 109.

Bias-darn, 95.

Bindings, 46.

Corner-darn, 96.

Stitching and

hemming,

46.

Darning with a piece

Setting-in, 49.

Overhanding,

Fine drawing on heavy woollen

51.

Blanket-stitch, 122.
Blind-stitch,

material, 98.

Stockinet darning, 85.


Practice in weaving, 85.
Stockinet darning, 86.

']'].

Button-holes, 53.

Buttons, 61.

Canvas work,
Catch-stitch,

18.
1

Grafting, 89.

Swiss-darning, 90.

17.

Chain-stitch, 120.

Cloth,

Stocking-web

stitch, 90.

Directions for sewing,

8.

Corners mitred, iii.

Drafting, 132.

Creasing, 19.

Drills, 14.

Cutting, 10, 129.

Edgings, 78.

Two-breadth apron, 133.


Child's bib, 134.

Pockets, 135.
Child's drawers, 137.

Hamburg, 80.
Embroidery knots,
Facings, 52.
Feather-stitch,

142.

skirt, 148.

124.

Eyelet-holes, 63.

Night-dress yoke, 139.


tier,

2.

Lace, 78,

Child's sack

Gored

under-

neath, 97.

19.

Felling, 75.

Drawers, 149.

Fractions of a yard,

Child's waist, 153.


Misses' waist, 1 56.

French

French seam,

Hints for a plain basque, 165.

Gathering, 36.

13.

hem on damask,
76.

"]].

INDEX,

[88

Gathering

Overhanding,

Double gathering,

Placing or stroking of gathers, 38.

Hemming,

100.

Overhanding, 103.

Grafting, 89.

Gussets, 66.

Catch-stitching, 105.

Gusset and facing combined, 69.

Piping,

Half-backstitching, 25.

Placket, 70.

Hemming,

33.

Patching, 100.

40.

no.

Plaiting, 73.

25.

Hem-stitch, 115.

Putting away the work,

Herringbone-stitch, 117.

Ruffles, 8o.'

Honey-combing,

Running,

44.

2.

28.

Hooks and

eyes, 64.

Running and a backstitch, 3c

Kensington

outline-stitch, 121.

Scalloped edge, 43.

Knots,

Scissors, 10.

7.

Loops, 65.

Shirring, 42.

Loops of

Slip-stitch,

tape, 113.

Marking, 125.
Measure, 13.

']'].

Smocking, 44.
Stitching, 23.

Mitreing the corner of a hem, 112.

Stocking-web

Mitrefng two strips of cloth, in.

Thread,

Needles,

Numbers

Threading the needle,

4.

of needles and thread,

Overcasting, 31.

stitch, 90.

5.

8.

Tucking, 71.

Whipping,

82.

6.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

014 145 118 2

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