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Welded Joints

WeldedJoints
VedatTemiz
Assistant Professor ofMachine Design

Introduction
Aweldedjointisapermanentjointwhichisobtainedbythe
fusionoftheedgesofthetwopartstobejoinedtogether,withor
withouttheapplicationofpressureandafillermaterial.Theheat
req ired for the f sion of the material ma be obtained b
requiredforthefusionofthematerialmaybeobtainedby
burningofgas (incaseofgaswelding)orbyanelectricarc(in
case of electric arc welding). The latter method is extensively
caseofelectricarcwelding).Thelattermethodisextensively
usedbecauseofgreater speed ofwelding.
Weldingisextensivelyusedinfabricationasanalternative
g
y
methodforcastingorforgingandasareplacementforboltedand
rivetedjoints.Itisalsousedasarepairmediume.g.toreunite
metalatacrack,tobuildupasmallpartthathasbrokenoffsuch
l
k
b ld
ll
h h b k
ff
h
asgeartoothortorepairawornsurfacesuchasabearing
surface.
surface

AdvantagesandDisadvantagesof
Welded Joints over Riveted Joints
WeldedJointsoverRivetedJoints
1) Theweldedstructuresareusuallylighter thanrivetedstructures.Thisisduetothe
reason that in welding gussets or other connecting components are not used
reason,thatinwelding,gussetsorotherconnectingcomponentsarenotused.
2) Theweldedjointsprovidemaximumefficiency(maybe100%)whichisnotpossible
incase ofriveted joints.
3) Alterationsandadditionscanbeeasilymadeintheexistingstructures.
4) Astheweldedstructureissmoothinappearance,thereforeitlookspleasing.
5)) Inweldedconnections,thetensionmembersarenotweakenedasinthecaseof
rivetedjoints.
6) Aweldedjointhasagreatstrength.Oftenaweldedjointhasthestrengthofthe
p
parentmetalitself.
7) Sometimes,themembersareofsuchashape(i.e.circularsteelpipes)thatthey
afforddifficultyforriveting.Buttheycanbeeasilywelded.
8) Theweldingprovidesveryrigid
The welding provides very rigid joints.Thisisinlinewiththemoderntrendof
joints This is in line with the modern trend of
providingrigid frames.
9) Itispossibletoweldanypartofastructureatanypoint.Butrivetingrequires
enough clearance
enoughclearance.
10) Theprocessofweldingtakeslesstime thantheriveting.

DisadvantagesandDisadvantagesof
Welded Joints over Riveted Joints
WeldedJointsoverRivetedJoints
1) Sincethereisanunevenheatingandcoolingduring
fabrication,thereforethemembersmaygetdistortedor
additional stresses may develop
additionalstressesmaydevelop.
2) Itrequiresahighlyskilledlabour andsupervision.
3) Sincenoprovisioniskeptforexpansionandcontractionin
Since no provision is kept for expansion and contraction in
theframe,thereforethereisapossibilityofcracks
developing in it.
developinginit.
4) Theinspectionofweldingworkismoredifficultthanriveting
work.

Weldingg Processes
Theweldingprocessesmaybebroadly
classified into the following two groups
classifiedintothefollowingtwogroups:
1) Weldingprocessesthatuseheatalone e.g.
fusion welding.
2) Weldingprocessesthatuseacombinationof
Welding processes that use a combination of
heatandpressuree.g.forge welding.

Fusion Weldingg
In
Incaseoffusionwelding,thepartstobejointedareheldinpositionwhile
case of fusion welding the parts to be jointed are held in position while
themoltenmetalissuppliedtothejoint.Themoltenmetalmaycome
fromthepartsthemselves(i.e.parentmetal)orfillermetalwhichnormally
have the composition of the parent metal The joint surface become
havethecompositionoftheparentmetal.Thejointsurfacebecome
plasticorevenmoltenbecauseoftheheatfromthemoltenfillermetalor
othersource.
Thus,whenthemoltenmetalsolidifiesorfuses,thejointisformed.
Thefusionwelding,accordingtothemethodofheatgenerated,maybe
classified as:
classifiedas:
1.Thermit welding,
2.Gaswelding,and
3.Electricarcwelding.

Thermit Welding
g
In
Inthermit
thermit welding,amixtureofironoxideandaluminium
welding a mixture of iron oxide and aluminium calledthermit
called thermit is
is
ignitedandtheiron oxideisreducedtomolteniron.Themoltenironis
pouredintoamouldmadearoundthejointandfuseswiththepartstobe
welded A major advantage of the thermit weldingisthatallpartsofweld
welded.Amajoradvantageofthethermit
welding is that all parts of weld
sectionaremoltenatthesametimeandtheweldcoolsalmostuniformly.
Thisresultsinaminimumproblemwithresidualstresses.Itis
f d
fundamentallyameltingandcastingprocess.
ll
l
d
Thethermit weldingisoftenusedinjoiningironandsteelpartsthatare
toolargetobemanufacturedinonepiece,suchasrails,truckframes,
g
p
,
,
,
locomotiveframes,otherlargesectionsusedonsteamandrailroads,for
sternframes,rudderframesetc.Insteelmills,thermit electricweldingis
employed to replace broken gear teeth to weld new necks on rolls and
employedtoreplacebrokengearteeth,toweldnewnecksonrollsand
pinions,andtorepairbrokenshears.

Gas Welding
g
A
Agasweldingismadebyapplyingtheflameofanoxy
gas welding is made by applying the flame of an oxy
acetyleneorhydrogengasfromaweldingtorchuponthe
surfacesofthepreparedjoint.Theintenseheatatthewhite
p p
j
coneoftheflameheatsupthelocalsurfacestofusionpoint
whiletheoperatormanipulatesaweldingrodtosupplythe
metalfortheweld.
Afluxisbeingusedtoremovetheslag.Sincetheheatingrate
i
ingasweldingisslow,thereforeitcanbeusedonthinner
ldi i l
th f
it
b
d
thi
materials.

Electric Arc Welding


g
In
Inelectricarcwelding,theworkispreparedinthesamemannerasforgas
electric arc welding the work is prepared in the same manner as for gas
welding.Inthiscasethefillermetalissuppliedbymetalweldingelectrode.
Thebasemetalinthepathofthearcstreamismelted,formingapoolof
molten metal which seems to be forced out of the pool by the blast from
moltenmetal,whichseemstobeforcedoutofthepoolbytheblastfrom
thearc,asshowninFig.Asmalldepressionisformedinthebasemetal
andthemoltenmetalisdepositedaroundtheedgeofthisdepression,
whichiscalledthearccrater.Theslagisbrushedoffafterthejointhas
h h
ll d h
h l
b h d ff f
h
h
cooled.

Thearcweldingdoesnotrequirethe
metaltobepreheatedandsincethe
temperatureofthearcisquitehigh,
thereforethefusionofthemetal
is almost instantaneous.
isalmost

Electric Arc Welding


g

Therearetwokindsofarcweldings
There
are two kinds of arc weldings dependinguponthetypeofelectrode.
depending upon the type of electrode
1.Unshieldedarcwelding,and
2.Shielded arc welding.
Whenalargeelectrodeorfillerrodisusedforwelding,itisthensaidtobe
unshieldedarcwelding.Inthiscase,thedepositedweldmetalwhileitis
hot will absorb oxygen and nitrogen from the atmosphere This decreases
hotwillabsorboxygenandnitrogenfromtheatmosphere.Thisdecreases
thestrengthofweldmetalandloweritsductilityandresistanceto
corrosion.

Inshieldedarcwelding,theweldingrods
coatedwithsolidmaterialareused,as
shown in Fig Theresultingprojectionof
showninFig.
The resulting projection of
coatingfocusesaconcentratedarc
stream,whichprotectstheglobulesof
metalfromtheairandpreventsthe
lf
h
h
absorptionoflargeamountsofharmful
oxygenandnitrogen.

Arc Weldingg
Electric
Electriccurrentflowingthroughahighresistanceairgap
current flowing through a high resistance air gap
generatesanintensearcwithtemperaturesrangingfrom
o C.
3,000to5,500
,
,

Arc welding isthe most common


method used with structural steel
welding.

Forge
g Weldingg
In
Inforgewelding,thepartstobejointedarefirstheatedtoa
forge welding the parts to be jointed are first heated to a
propertemperatureinafurnaceorforgeandthen
hammered.Thismethodofweldingisrarelyusednowadays.
g
y
y
Anelectricresistanceweldingisanexampleofforgewelding.
Inthiscase,thepartstobejoinedarepressedtogetherandan
,
p
j
p
g
electriccurrentispassedfromoneparttotheotheruntilthe
metalisheatedtothefusiontemperatureofthejoint.
Theprincipleofapplyingheatandpressure,either
sequentiallyorsimultaneously,iswidelyusedintheprocesses
k
knownasspot,seam,projection,upsetandflashwelding.
j i
d fl h ldi

Types
yp ofWelded Joints
LapJoint
Thelapjointorthefilletjointisobtainedbyoverlappingtheplatesand
thenweldingtheedgesoftheplates.Thecrosssectionofthefilletis
approximately triangular. The fillet joints may be
approximatelytriangular.Thefilletjointsmaybe
1.Single transverse fillet,
2.Double transverse fillet,and
3.Parallel fillet joints.

Types
yp ofWelded Joints
Butt Joint
Thebuttjointisobtainedbyplacingtheplatesedgetoedge.Inbuttwelds,
j
yp
g
p
g
g
,
theplateedgesdonotrequirebevelling ifthethicknessofplateisless
than5mm.Ontheotherhand,iftheplatethicknessis5mmto12.5mm,
the edges should be bevelled toVorUgrooveonbothsides
theedgesshouldbebevelled
to V or Ugroove on both sides. Thebutt
The butt
jointsmaybe
1.Squarebuttjoint,
2.SingleVbuttjoint
3.SingleUbuttjoint,
4.Double
4 D bl Vbutt
V b tt joint,and
j i t
d
5.Double Ubutt joint

Types
yp ofWelded Joints
Other Joints
Theothertypeofweldedjointsarecornerjoint,edgejointandTjointas
showninFig.below.

Themainconsiderationsinvolvedintheselectionof
weldtypeare:
ld
1.Theshapeoftheweldedcomponentrequired,
2.Thethicknessoftheplatestobewelded,and
3.Thedirectionoftheforcesapplied.

Basic Weld Symbols


y

Supplementary
pp
y Weld Symbols
y

ElementsofaWeldingSymbol
g y
Aweldingsymbolconsistsofthefollowingeightelements:
A welding symbol consists of the following eight elements:

1.Referenceline,
1
Reference line
2 Arrow
2.Arrow,
3.Basicweldsymbols, 4.Dimensionsandotherdata,
5 Supplementary symbols 6 Finish symbols
5.Supplementarysymbols,6.Finishsymbols,
7.Tail,and8.Specification,processorotherreferences.

StandardLocationofElements
ofaWeldingSymbol
f W ldi S b l
Thearrowpointstothelocationofweld,thebasicsymbolswith
The
arrow points to the location of weld the basic symbols with
dimensionsarelocatedononeorbothsidesofreferenceline.The
specificationifanyisplacedinthetailofarrow.Fig.belowshowsthe
standard locations of welding symbols represented on drawing
standardlocationsofweldingsymbolsrepresentedondrawing.

Representation
ofweldingg symbols
p
y

StrengthofTransverseFillet
W ld d J i t
WeldedJoints
Thetransversefilletweldsaredesignedfortensilestrength.
Letusconsiderasingleanddoubletransversefilletweldsas
showninFig.(a)and(b)respectively.

StrengthofTransverseFillet
W ld d J i t
WeldedJoints
Inordertodeterminethestrengthofthefilletjoint,itisassumedthatthe
g
j
,
sectionoffilletisarightangledtriangleABCwithhypotenuseACmaking
equalangleswithothertwosidesABandBC.
TheenlargedviewofthefilletisshowninFig.belowThelengthofeach
The enlarged view of the fillet is shown in Fig below The length of each
sideisknownaslegorsizeoftheweldandtheperpendiculardistanceof
thehypotenusefromtheintersectionoflegs(i.e.BD)isknownasthroat
thickness.TheminimumareaoftheweldisobtainedatthethroatBD,
hi k
Th
i i
f h
ld i b i d
h h
BD
whichisgivenbytheproductofthethroatthicknessandlengthofweld.

t =Throat thickness (BD),


s =Legorsizeofweld,
=Thickness ofplate,and
g ofweld,
f
,
l =Length

StrengthofTransverseFillet
W ld d J i t
WeldedJoints
F
FromFig.below,wefindthatthethroatthickness,
Fi b l
fi d th t th th t thi k

Minimumareaoftheweldorthroatarea,
A=Throat thickness Length ofweld =t l=0.707s l
Ift istheallowabletensilestressfortheweldmetal,thenthetensilestrengthof
thejointforsinglefilletweld,
F Th t
All
bl t il t
F=Throatarea
Allowabletensilestress=
0.707s l t
andtensilestrengthofthejointfordouble
and
tensile strength of the joint for double
filletweld,

F =2
= 2 0.707s
0 707 s l
l t =1.414s
= 1 414 s l
l t

StrengthofParallelFillet
W ld d J i t
WeldedJoints
Theparallelfilletweldedjointsaredesignedforshearstrength.Considera
d bl
doubleparallelfilletweldedjointasshowninFig.(a).Theminimumareaof
ll l fill t ld d j i t
h
i Fi ( ) Th
i i
f
weldorthethroatarea,A=0.707s l
If istheallowableshearstressfortheweldmetal,thentheshearstrength
g
ofthejointforsingleparallel fillet weld,
F=Throatarea Allowableshearstress=0.707s l
andshearstrengthofthejointfordoubleparallelfilletweld,
d h
t
th f th j i t f d bl
ll l fill t ld

F =2 0.707 s l =1.414s l

Notes
1. Ifthereisacombinationofsingletransverseanddoubleparallelfillet
weldsasshowninFig.,thenthestrengthofthejointisgivenbythesumof
strengthsofsingletransverseanddoubleparallelfilletwelds.
Mathematically,
F =0.707s l1 t +1.414s l2
2. Inordertoallowforstartingandstoppingofthebead,12.5mmshould
g
pp g
,
beaddedtothelengthofeachweldobtainedbytheaboveexpression.

3. Forreinforcedfilletwelds,thethroat
dimensionmaybetakenas0.85t.

SpecialCasesofFilletWeldedJoints
p
Circularfilletweldsubjectedtotorsion.
Circular fillet weld subjected to torsion
Weknowthatshearstressforthematerial,

Thisshearstressoccursinahorizontalplanealongalegofthefillet
Thi
h
t
i h i t l l
l
l
f th fill t
weld.Themaximumshearoccursonthethroatofweldwhichis
inclinedat45 tothehorizontalplane.
Lengthofthroat,t=ssin45 =0.707s
Maximum shear stress

d =Diameter ofrod,
r =Radius ofrod,
T =Torqueactingontherod,
s=Size(orleg)ofweld,
t =Throat thickness,
J=Polarmomentofinertiaofthe
weldsection

SpecialCasesofFilletWeldedJoints
p
Circularfilletweldsubjectedtobendingmoment..
Weknowthatthebendingstress,

Thisbendingstressoccursinahorizontalplanealongalegofthe
Thi
b di
t
i h i t l l
l
l
f th
filletweld.Themaximumbendingstressoccursonthethroatofthe
weldwhichisinclinedat45 tothehorizontalplane.
Lengthofthroat,t=ssin45 =0.707s
Maximum bendingg stress

d=Diameter ofrod,
M =Bendingmomentactingon
therod,
s =Size(orleg)ofweld,
t =Throat thickness,
Z =Sectionmodulusoftheweld
S i
d l
f h
ld
section

Strength
g ofButt Joints
The
Thebuttjointsaredesignedfortensionorcompression.Considerasingle
butt joints are designed for tension or compression Consider a single
VbuttjointasshowninFig.(a).
Incaseofbuttjoint,thelengthoflegorsizeofweldisequaltothethroat
thicknesswhichisequaltothicknessofplates.
h k
h h
l
h k
f l
Tensilestrengthofthebuttjoint(singleVorsquarebuttjoint),

F =t l t
andtensilestrengthfordoubleV
butt joint as shown in Fig (b)
buttjointasshowninFig.(b)

P=(t1 +t2)l t
t1 = Throatthicknessatthetop,and
t2 = Throatthicknessatthebottom.
l = Lengthofweld.Itisgenerallyequal
l=
Length of weld It is generally equal
tothewidthofplate.

Stresses for Welded Joints


The
Thestressesinweldedjointsaredifficulttodeterminebecauseofthe
stresses in welded joints are difficult to determine because of the
variableandunpredictableparameterslikehomogenuity oftheweldmetal,
thermalstressesinthewelds,changesofphysicalpropertiesduetohighrate
of cooling etc The stresses are obtained on the following assumptions:
ofcoolingetc.Thestressesareobtained,onthefollowingassumptions:
1. Theloadisdistributeduniformlyalongtheentirelengthoftheweld,and
2. Thestressisspreaduniformlyoveritseffectivesection.
p
y
Thefollowingtableshowsthestressesforweldedjointsforjoiningferrous
metalswithmildsteelelectrodeundersteadyandfatigueorreversedload.

StressConcentrationFactorfor
W ld d J i t
WeldedJoints
Th
Thereinforcementprovidedtotheweldproducesstress
i f
t
id d t th
ld
d
t
concentrationatthejunctionoftheweldandtheparentmetal.
Whenthepartsaresubjectedtofatigueloading,thestress
When the parts are subjected to fatigue loading the stress
concentrationfactorasgiveninthefollowingtableshouldbe
takenintoaccount.

Note:Forstaticloadingandanytypeofjoint,stress
concentrationfactoris1.0.

Axially Loaded Unsymmetrical


W ld d Sections
Welded
S ti
Sometimesunsymmetricalsectionssuchasangles,channels,Tsections
etc welded on the flange edges are loaded axially as shown in below In
etc.,weldedontheflangeedgesareloadedaxiallyasshowninbelow.In
suchcases,thelengthsofweldshouldbeproportionedinsuchawaythat
thesumofresistingmomentsoftheweldsaboutthegravityaxisiszero.
C id
ConsiderananglesectionasshowninFig.
l
ti
h
i Fi
Momentofthetopweldaboutgravityaxis
momentofthebottomweldaboutgravityaxis
g
y
Sincethesumofthemomentsoftheweldabout
thegravityaxismustbezero,therefore
Weknowthatl=la +lb

f=Resistanceofferedbytheweld
perunitlength.

Eccentricallyy Loaded Welded Joints


Aneccentricloadmaybeimposedonweldedjointsinmanyways.Thestresses
A
ti l d
b i
d
ld d j i t i
Th t
inducedonthejointmaybeofdifferentnatureorofthesamenature.The
inducedstressesarecombineddependinguponthenatureofstresses.Whenthe
shearandbendingstressesaresimultaneouslypresentinajoint(seecase1),
thenmaximumstressesareasfollows:
Maximum normalstress,

Maximum shear stress

Whenthestressesareofthesamenature,thesemaybecombined
vectorially (see case 2).

Eccentricallyy Loaded Welded Joints


ConsideraTjointfixedatoneendand
subjectedtoaneccentricloadPata
bj t d t
t i l dP t
distanceeasshowninFig.
Thejointwillbesubjectedtothefollowingtwotypesofstresses:
j
j
g
yp
1.DirectshearstressduetotheshearforcePactingatthewelds,
2.BendingstressduetothebendingmomentP e.
Weknowthatareaatthethroat,A=t
We
know that area at the throat A= t l
l 2=2t
2=2tl
=2 0.707s l=1.414s l
Shearstressintheweld(assuminguniformlydistributed),

Sectionmodulusoftheweldmetalthroughthethroat
Bending moment,M=F e
Bendingg stress

Weknowthatthemaximumnormalstress,,

Eccentricallyy Loaded Welded Joints


Whenaweldedjointis
loaded eccentrically as
loadedeccentricallyas
showninFig.
thefollowingtwotypesof
thestressesareinduced:
1. Directorprimaryshear
stress,
2. 2.Shearstressdueto
turningmoment.
LettwoloadsF1 andF2 (eachequaltoF)areintroducedatthecentreofgravityG'oftheweld
system.TheeffectofloadF
t
Th ff t f l d F1 =Fistoproducedirectshearstresswhichisassumedtobe
Fi t
d
di t h
t
hi h i
dt b
uniformovertheentireweldlength.TheeffectofloadF2 =Fistoproduceaturningmomentof
magnitudeF ewhichtendsofrotatethejointaboutthecentreofgravityG'oftheweld
system Due to the turning moment secondary shear stress is induced
system.Duetotheturningmoment,secondaryshearstressisinduced.
Weknowthatthedirectorprimaryshearstress