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Volkswagen as one example builds up to 10 different cars from

the same basic platform, delivering completely different car
brands and brand images from Volkswagen to Audi to Porsche.
Only the parts recognizable and important to the customer are
adjusted for each brand. Modularization also works in consumer
products such as furniture.
The famous IKEA bookcase Billy is another example for
modularization. It is assembled from very standardized basic
parts or modules, but can be put together or expanded in many
different ways customized to different tastes. While the parts,
basically just boards of different wood types and a couple of
different screws, can be designed and produced in very cheap
mass production, they open possibility for broad individual product

Functional packaging
If the packaging has more than one function, ensure that it performs all of its
functions. For example the packaging for Muller's corner range of yogurts is divided
into two sections; one section contains the yogurt and the other contains the topping.
The packaging enables consumers to decide how to mix their yogurt and is therefore
Packaging for food products must preserve the product for a period of time. Whilst
packaging for fragile products should protect the product during storage and transit. If
the packaging contains product instructions, make sure the instructions are clear and
will not be accidentally torn when the consumer is removing the product.
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Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for

practical purposes, identical. They are made
to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical
that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One
such part can freely replace another, without any custom
fitting (such as filing). This interchangeability allows easy
assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing
devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of
the person doing the assembly or repair.
machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw-cutting
lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer.
Thus, for a pin that must have a sliding fit in its hole (free
but not sloppy), the dimension may be spec'd as 12.00 +0 0.01 mm for the pin, and 12.00 +.01 -0 for the hole. Pins
that came out oversize (say a pin at 12.003mm diameter)
are not necessarily scrap, but they can only be mated with
counterparts that also came out oversize (say a hole at
Accessibility involves two key issues: how users with
disabilities access electronic information and how web
content designers and developers enable web pages to
function with assistive devices used by individuals with

Malfunction Announciation

Fault Isolation
Fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is a
subfield of control engineering which concerns itself with
monitoring a system, identifying when a fault has occurred,
and pinpointing the type of fault and its location. Two
approaches can be distinguished: A direct pattern
recognition of sensor readings that indicate a fault and an
analysis of the discrepancy between the sensor readings
and expected values, derived from some model. In the latter
case, it is typical that a fault is said to be detected if the
discrepancy orresidual goes above a certain threshold. It is
then the task of fault isolation to categorize the type of fault
and its location in the machinery. Fault detection and
isolation (FDI) techniques can be broadly classified into two
categories. These include Model-based FDI and Signal
processing based FDI.

Fault Isolation
If a unit is actually faulty, many fault triggers will be
generated for that unit. The main objective of fault
isolation is to correlate the fault triggers and identify the
faulty unit. If fault triggers are fuzzy in nature, the

isolation procedure involves interrogating the health of

several units. For example, if protocol fault is the only
fault reported, all the units in the path from source to
destination are probed for health.

Standardization or standardisation is the process of
developing and implementing technical standards.
Standardization can help to
maximize compatibility, interoperability,safety, repeatability,
or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly
custom processes. In social sciences, including economics,
the idea of standardization is close to the solution for
a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can
realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent
decisions. This view includes the case of "spontaneous
standardization processes", to produce de facto standards.
The process of setting generally uniform characteristics for a particular
good or service. Product standardization among the goods provided by
different businesses operating in technology-based industries can be
useful for consumers since it permits competition among the
various suppliers.