You are on page 1of 81

A test normally refers to a series of

questions, problems or physical


responses designed to determine
knowledge, intelligence, or ability.

1. driving test
2. personality tests
3. intelligence tests
4. aptitude tests
5. school-based tests
Tests are a fact of life- you cannot escape them.

By the end of Unit 4, you should be able to:1. Describe what is test anxiety.(TA)
2. Determine your level of test anxiety.(TA)
3. List the effects and causes of test anxiety.(TA)
4. Elaborate the various strategies for reducing your test anxiety.(TA)
5. Describe the types of Objectives and Subjectives test questions and
strategies needed for answering.
6. Identify the strategies for reducing test anxiety before, during and after
an examination.
7. Explain test-taking at WOU.
8. Explain what is Academic Integrity.
9. List the various forms of Academic Dishonest and its consequences.

Read the story on page 2.


A lot of students are afraid of exams because exam results
determine whether you :a. pass or fail.
b. earn a scholarship.
c. earn entry into your desired university.
d. graduate programme or career.
e. afraid of the people who grade their exam scripts-the examiners.
#Examiners would really like to pass candidates!

1. really deserve it.


2. show them how much you know about the subjects.
3. show them you did study hard.
4. show them you deserve the distinction.
5. answer grammatically correct, coherent,
comprehensive and informative.

1. Test anxiety is related directly to testing situations.


2. It involves experiencing headaches, nausea or
feelings of panic, nervousness, tense, distress or
worry.
3. Test anxiety = anticipatory anxiety =if you feel
distress while studying and when thinking about
what might happen if you take an exam.
4. As situational anxiety if it occurs while taking a
test.
5. Test anxiety can both be beneficial and harmful.

1. really deserve it.


2. show them how much you know about the subjects.
3. show them you did study hard.
4. show them you deserve the distinction.
5. answer grammatically correct, coherent,
comprehensive and informative.

1. Two general types: - a. physical

b. emotional

2. Symptoms = signs you are suffering from a


disease.
3. If you suffer from TA you will experience certain
PS and ES.

1. Nausea
2. Dizziness
3. Faintness
4. Diarrhoea
5. Tiredness
6. Dry mouth
7. Headaches
8. Stomach aches
9. Rapid heartbeat
10. Breathing difficulties
11. Perspiration/Sweating
12. Others-

1. Fear

15. Feeling frustrated

2. Anger

16. Feeling you are not

3. Irritability
4. Confusion
5. Depression
6. Disappointment
7. Crying or laughing
8. Memory problems
9. Difficult concentrating
10. Feeling tense
11. Feeling helpness
12. Feeling panicky
13. Insomnia
14. Negative thoughts

fully prepared
17. Others

Now go back to Mei Lings experience at the


beginning of the unit.
Can you list the P and E symptoms she
experienced ?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Here is a list of negative effects of test anxiety commonly experienced by


sudents.
Tick (/) on the ones that you have experienced

Cannot organise your thoughts.


Cannot remember/recall the facts.
Remembering the facts after the test.
Mind going blank on and off during a test.
Difficulty in understanding the questions.
Worry about failing during a test.
Feeling pressured or trapped.
Difficulty sleeping the night before the test.

1. A little anxiety and stress can motivate us to perform better.


2. There is an inverted U shaped curve between anxiety and
performance.
3. Look at the graph.
4. The higher the anxiety (x-axis), the higher the performance (y-axis)
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

Anxiety
Figure 4.1 Relationship between performance and anxiety

1. Would you study hard if you were not worried at all for your
future ?
2. Would you bother to study if you knew you could succeed
easily?
3. By experiencing some anxiety and facing the challenges that
come with it, you learn to cope better with other areas of life.
4. Therefore, if you still experience a little bit of anxiety before
or during an exam, look at it +vely.
5. It can actually be good for you!

Nist and Diehl (1990) developed a short questionnaire to determine whether a student
experiences a mild or severe case of test anxiety.
Never
1

Rarely
2

Sometimes
3

Often

Always

_______ I have visible signs of nervousness such as sweaty palms, shaky hands, and so on
right before a test.
_______ I have butterflies in my stomach before a test.
_______ I feel nauseous before a test.
_______ I read through the test and feel that I do not know any of the answers.
_______ I panic before and during a test.
_______ My mind goes blank during a test.
_______ I remember the info that I blanked on once I get out of the testing situation.
_______ I have trouble sleeping the night before a test.
_______ I made mistakes on easy questions or put answers in the wrong places.
_______ I have difficulty choosing answers.
Now add up your score.

10 19 = YOU DO NOT SUFFER FROM TEST ANXIETY


10 OR SO = A LITTLE MORE ANXIETY MAY BE HEALTHY
TO KEEP YOU FOCUSED/GET BLOOD FLOWING
DURING EXAMS.
20 35 = YOU EXHIBIT SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF
TA, THE LEVEL OF STRESS AND TENSION IS HEALTHY.
Over 35 = you are experiencing an unhealthy level of test
anxiety
Source: http://www.muskingum.edu/%7Ecal/

Test anxiety is stress felt before an exam or while taking a


test.
This section highlighted that people with test anxiety may
display some combination of physical and emotional
symptoms.
Test anxiety also produces ve and +ve effects.
So, it is not necessarily bad; it can be good as well.
Some anxiety can actually push you to perform better.
However too much anxiety may cause serious problems.

1. Explain briefly what test anxiety is.


_____________________________________________________________

2. A student suffering from test anxiety experiences both physical and


emotional symptoms.
Give two examples of physical symptoms.
a. ___________________________________________________________
b. ___________________________________________________________

3. Test anxiety can bring about both negative and positive effects.
Give two examples of the negative effects :
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________

Give two examples of the positive effects:


a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
Web references:
1. http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/mcanx.html
2. http://www.couns.uiuc.Brochures/testanx.htm
3. http://www.studygys.net/tstprp8.htm
4. http://www.campusblues.com/test.asp
5. http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/anxiety.html

Introduction

A cause is a producer of an effect, result or consequences.

Causes of test anxiety


1. Fear of failure
2. Feelings of helplessness- blame external factors for poor performance.
3. Threats to self-worth- self-esteem tied too closely to grades

Not well-prepared.
Poor study habits.
Poor organisation.
Poor time management.
Bad experience from previous tests.
Studying at the last minute.
Afraid you cannot remember.
Worrying about your past performances in tests.
Thinking about the negative consequences of failing.
Unrealistic expectations for yourself.
Expectations from others (Your family expects you to do well).
You feel you need to perform well to please others.
You are competing with others- students and siblings.
You cannot understand or master the materials you are studying.

Being well-prepared have good knowledge of test, not


behind schedule, prepared notes and prioritised tests,
assignments or projects.
Avoiding procrastination
Preparing a revision planner
Revising do effective revision
Getting info on the test

a. Think of one thing you are currently procrastinating in, and write it on the space
provided below. It might be personal, study or work-related.
b. Now, write all the reasons for your delay.
c. In the Argument Against Delay column, argue against all the reasons for delay. If
you can argue against them carefully, you will be able to start the task.
Im delaying __________because

Reasons for Delay


1
2
3
4

Arguments Against Delay

The following are group activities. Form a group of four or five and
discuss the following:
1. The things that you can do in a study group to help you study better.
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

2. What are the similarities and differences in each others monthly,


weekly and daily planner?
__________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Fill in the table with info about the test paper you are going to sit for at
the end of your course.
Name of Test
E.g. WUC131 Learning Skills for
University Studies
1

Date of Test.

Time & Place of the Test

Number of sections

Number of questions in each


section

Marks allocated to each section.

Types of objective questions

Types of subjective questions.

Units which will be tested.

Are questions identical or almost


similar to those in course book?

10

How much must I write?

This section discussed some of the main causes of test anxiety such as
poor study habits,
poor organisation
poor time management
fear of failure
bad experience from previous test
studying at the last minute
4 strategies to reduce T.E.
1. be well-prepared
2. dont procrastinate
3. prepare a revision planner
4. get info from test

1. List two main causes of T.E.


a. _____________________________________
b. _____________________________________
2. Briefly describe the 3 strategies that are used to reduce T.E:
a. Be well-prepared.
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
b. Dont procrastinate.
_______________________________________
_______________________________________

c. Get info about the test.


_______________________________________
_______________________________________

For further info on the topic refer to:


1. http://www.answers.com/procrastination
2. http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0361anxiety.
pdf
3. http://www.studygs.net/tstprp1.htm
4. http://www.studygs/tstprp2.htm

Types of T.Qs.
1. Objective Tests (OT)
2. Subjective Tests (ST)

OT

ST

Multiple-Choice Questions
Matching Questions
True/False Questions
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

Short-Answer
Questions
Essay Questions

1. Include MCQ, matching,true/false and fill-in-the-blank questions


2. Only 1 right answer
3. Evaluation is fair as it is objective

1. Example = writing essay of 300 words


2. There is no one definite answer.
3. Examiners expect a wide range of answers.
4. Examiners exercise a certain amount of subjective judgement.

1. Plan

A conscious intended course of action often made in


advance of the actions to which it applies.

2. Ploy

A specific manoeuvre intended to outwit an opponent or


competitor.

3. Perspective

A way of acting and responding.

Relies heavily on your ability to read quickly and choose the


answer.

Consists of 3 parts:-

1. Root-contains the underlying facts.


2. Stem- call of the questions or direction-tells you what to do
3. Options choices given.
if y = (x + 3), then (-2x-6) must equal which of the following?

root

stem

A. -4y2
B. -2y2
C. -4y
D. 4y

options

1. Eliminate the wrong answers


2. Make an educated guess
3. Pay attention to All of the above and None of the above
statements.
4. Matching questions (objective type)
Strategies:
i. Use one list as starting pt and study the 2nd list to find a
match
ii. Make the matches you know first.
iii. Keep doing until you are left with a few times.
iv. Your chances of finding the right answer increases when
you are
left with fewer options.

5. True/False questions (objective type)


Strategies:
1. Pay close attention to negatives
2. Look for parts that will make the statement false.
3. Extreme modifiers usually make the statement
false.
4. Qualify words usually make the statement true

Strategies:

1. If the blank has the letter an in front of it, that


means you look for a word that starts with
a/e/i/o/u.
2. If the blank has the letter a in font of it, you
look for a word that starts with a consonant like
c,d,f,g,h, etc.
3. Check the tense form used in the text. E.g. ,
blank no. 1. The answer to this blank should be in
the present tense.

Strategies:
1. Read the instructions.
2. The length of your answer depends on the marks allocated.
3. Divide your time wisely.
4. Understand what type of info you have to provide.
e.g. Analyse,Compare,Criticise,Define etc.
5. Prepare an outline
6. Write legibly
7. Enumerate your points or use transition markers.
e.g. 5 reasons = 5 paragraphs
8. Do not use SMS lingo.
e.g. B4, TQ, u r

1. Tests at WOU include both continuous assessments and final


exams.
2. Online format allows you to complete assignments or even sit for
test when it is convenient to you.
Strategies for online test-taking.
Before the test
Take rest, review course objectives and mastered them.
read course guide, course materials and texts
Mail tutor or coordinator doubts/questions
Do not enter site until you are ready
Ascertain test duration.How long to attempt test?

During the test


Find suitable time to take test and let family members know.
Read the instructions carefully.
Check how many attempts allowed.
Check the time limit.
Check answers before submitting.
After the test
Pay attention to feedback received.
If you find errors in the test, inform tutors or CC immediately.

1. Did you face any problems accessing the test? If you did, what were
they?
____________________________________________________________

2. How many times did you attempt the test?


_____________________________________________________________

3. Were you able to complete the test on time?


_____________________________________________________________

4. Did you find the online test relevant and interesting ? Why?
_____________________________________________________________

1. http://www.byu.edu/ccl/learning/strategy.php
2. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/multicho.html
3. http://www.stfx.ca/campus/stu-serv/disabled-students/success/examstartegies.html
4. http://mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap13/cahp13b.htm
5. http://www.heralddispatch.com/apps/pbcs.dll/articles?AID=/20060426/NEWS04/604260323/1001/NE
WS
6. http://www.twu.edu/o-sl/counseling/SelfHelp024.html

Objectives
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
1. List the strategies to reduce test anxiety on the day of
the exam.
2. List the strategies for reducing anxiety during the
exam.

1. Eating well nutritious food


2. Dressing comfortably-so your concentration & performance not affected
3. Getting materials ready- make a checklist before exam.
Checklist:

Date of test:____________

Time of test:___________

Scientific Calculator

Other mathematical instruments

Several 2B pencils (sharpen them)

Eraser

Pens (must be in working order)

Ruler

Identity card

Test slip (with index number)

...................................................

...................................................

4. Being early on the day of the examination- make allowance for


traffic jam etc.
5. Positive thinking- Whether you think that you can, or that you
cant, you are usually right....Henry Ford.
- avoid people who have negative thoughts.

1. Read instructions carefully


2. Previewing the test paper-go through the questions,
correct paper?
3. Answering easy questions first-confidence level will
go up
4. Asking for clarification- if unsure ask invigilator
5. Trying to answer all the question
6. Studying other questions for clues
7. Checking your answers-to detect and correct errors

1. Give yourself a treat.


2. Go for a hearty lunch or dinner.
3. See a movie.
4. Do not discuss the test with family, friends or course
mates.
5. Maintain a positive feeling throughout.

This is a powerful visualisation activity to reduce anxiety. Dr. Maxwell Maltz,


in his book Psycho-Cybernetics, reports that mentally performing skilldeveloping activities is nearly the same as the actual performance. For
example, a person practising throwing darts mentally improves his aim as
much as a person actually darts. In an experiment, Dr. Maltz reported that a
group of students who practised 20 minutes sinking basketball free throws
every day improved their scoring by 24 percent. Another group of students
who practised the same skill in their imagination improved by 23 percent.
C.G. Kop, a recognised authority on teaching piano, recommends that all
pianists practise in their heads. What is the relevance of this information
to you? If you want to reduce anxiety on the day of the examination, you
should:
mentally visualise yourself sitting calmly for the test.
see yourself place in the examination centre.
see the invigilators distributing the examination booklets to the candidates.
hear the chief invigilator giving the instruction to begin writing.
see yourself writing calmly and without anxiety.
at all times, see yourself being calm and happy.
Allocate 10 to 20 minutes daily to practise this visualisation exercise until the day of the
examination and see if it works for you.

1. http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/Irnres/handouts/1305.html
2. http://www.yorku.ca/cdc/Isp/eponline/exam6.htm
3. http://gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/index.gw/Site_ID/5176/Page_ID/14095/
4. http://fhss.byu.edu/anthro/Anthropology/tstanaxiety.htm

Summary
The section deals with strategies to reduce T.A. on the day of the exam,
during and after the exam. Some of the strategies include being
prepared, being early and thinking positively. The strategies for
reducing anxiety during the exam are also highlighted such as
previewing the test paper, clarifying doubts and checking answers. The
strategies suggested for reducing anxiety after the exam are avoiding
discussion on the paper and giving yourself a treat.

Objectives:
By the end of this section, you should be able
to:
1. Define Academic Integrity (AI)
2. State the various forms of Academic
Dishonesty.(AD)
3. State the consequences of AD.
4. Explain the importance of AI.

1. Integrity relates to all areas of our lives.


2. It is an integral component of our spiritual, political and economic wellbeing.
3. The Integrity Institute of Malaysia (IIM) set up in 2003 by Datuk Seri
Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi to enhance integrity as a way of life for Malaysian
society.
4. The Business Ethics Institute of Malaysia (BEIM) promote ethics thru
education, and nurturing values such as honesty, fairness, integrity among
businesses.
5. The Malaysian Medical Association uphold the image and credibility of the
medical profession.
6. One of the greatest problems faced by schools, colleges,universities is AI.
7. We want to obtain high grades or just fair grade and when that does not
seem possible, we think of an easy way out- cheating.

1. AI involves honesty, trust, fairness, respect and


responsibility at school, college or university level.
2. Integrity cannot really be taught.
3. Integrity is a quality that you need to nurture and put into
practise every day.
4. As a student you must maintain the highest AI.

1. Cheating : Getting someone to do your


assignment,copying, etc
2. Fabrication: making up false info or data.
3. Facilitation: to make an activity easier-provide test answers
to another student, etc.
4. Plagiarism: intentionally or unintentionally using an
authors words, ideas or research.
To avoid plagiarism every quotation you use must be
indicated by quotation marks and cited in the text or in the
reference section.

1. Some forms of AD are considered criminal. Example:


a. gaining info of the contents of a test before the actual
exam (eg buying photocopies of stolen test papers.)
b. Breaking into an institution and stealing or making copies
of test.
c. Using bribes, threats, close personal relationships and
other illegal means to earn grades.
d. Denying other students to academic resources and
materials e.g. making books unavailable by stealing
etc,giving other students false info etc.

students will be punished.


Examples: i. student given failing grade or barred
from exam.
ii. students may be suspended or expelled.
WOU want you to be committed to AH
AD put an end to your career now or eventually.

1. Suspension from the institution.


2. Expulsion from the institution.
3. Being awarded a zero in the test or exam.
4. Reduction of marks in a test or assignment.

Read the 2 newspaper articles on landmark cases in dishonesty and answer


the questions below.
Article 1
Hwang Woo-Suk was a professor at Seoul National University. He became famous after
claiming a series of remarkable achievements in the field of stem cell research. Hwang
first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced that he had
successfully created a cloned dairy cow in February 1999. Hwangs next claim came 2
months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i. On
both occasion he did not provide any scientically verifiable data. Even though the
validity of his research could not be examined, Hwangs claims were well received by
the SK media and public.
In 3 August 2005, Hwang announced that his team of researchers had become the first
team to successfully clone a dog. The dog, an Afghan Hound, was named Snuppy.
Shortly after his so-called groundbreaking 2005 work, Hwang was appointed to head
the new World Stem Cell Hub, a facility that was to be the worlds leading stem cell
research centre.
But months later, he and his team were embroiled in controversy. Hwang was forced
to admit that female researchers in his own lab had supplied eggs for his research.
Subsequently, 2 of his key scientific papers published in Science Magazine, were
found to have been fabricated. In the paper published in February 2004, he claimed
that he had created the worlds first cloned human embryos. In the May 2005 paper, he
claimed he had created 11 stem cell lines from patients- each tailored to that
individual.

On 23 December, 2005 Hwang apologised for creating a shock and a


disappointment and announced that he was resigning his position as
professor at the university. However, Hwang maintained that patientmatched stem cell technology remains in SK, and his countrymen shall
see it.
On 9 February, 2006, the university suspended Hwangs position as the
universitys professor, together with 6 other faculty members who
participated in Hwangs team. Subsequently, Hwang was dismissed from
the university on 20 March, 2006.
1. What form(s) of dishonesty do you detect in Dr. Hwangs work?
______________________________________________________

2. Will prominent international scientists be willing to collaborate with South


Korean scientists in future ? Why ?
________________________________________________________

Kaavya Viswanathan is an Indian-American undergraduate student in Harvard.


In April 2006, Kaavyas first novel, How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and
Got a Life, was published. Shortly after publication, the Harvard crimson
published allegations that the author had lifted materials from 2 novels by
Megan Mccafferty.
On April, 2006, The Harvard Crimson reported that several portions of How Opal
Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life appeared to have been taken from
Sloppy Firsts and Second Helpings, both written by Megan McCafferty.In a
statement issued by her publisher, Viswanathan admitted she accidentally
borrowed some passages from Megan McCaffertys novels. The subsequent
national publicity led her publisher, Little, Brown and Company, to withdraw all
editions of the book and stop plans by Dream Works SKG to develop the book
into a movie.
Viswanathan began writing Opal Mehta while attending Bergen County
Academics, a public high school in New Jersey. After receiving an early
acceptance to Harvard, she showed her work to her private college admissions
adviser, Katherine Cohen. Cohen contacted the William Morris agency, which
suggested that Viswanathan work with a division of Alloy Entertainment.
Viswanathan eventually signed a two-book deal with Little, Brown and Company
for an advance originally reported to be $500,000. Michael Pietsch, the senior
vice president and publisher of little, Brown, told the New York Times that the

advance was less than the reported sum, and was split between Kaavya and
Alloy Entertainment. She sold the movie rights to the book to Dream Works.
As of 27 April, Little, Brown has recalled all copies of the novel and has
cancelled Viswanathans UK publicity tour. Though the publishing house
initially indicated plans to release a revised version of the novel, these plans
were soon cancelled. Finally,, DreamWorks has halted development of the
movie.
On 2 May, 2006, Michael Pietsch, Little, Browns senior vice president,
released a statement sayingthat Little, Brown and Company will not be
publishing a revised edition of How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got
a Life by Kaavya Viswanathan, as well as the second book under contract.
3. What form(s) of dishonesty did Ms. Viswanathan resort to ?
______________________________________________________________
4. What action do you think should be taken against Ms. Viswanathan ?
______________________________________________________________

While it is alright to search for necessary info to complete your tasks,

make a commitment to present your assignment honestly.


If you copied you need to acknowledge.
AI requires you do 2 of these:i. Use your own effort to complete your tasks and assignments.
ii. Cite the source when you are quoting someone elses work.

You need to tell the world where you found the info.
You need to give credit to the various people you
consulted in the advancement of your academic growth.
e.g. your tutor and Course Coordinator.

The following are findings of a survey on AI undertaken by Don McCabe from the
Centre for AI (CAI). Read the findings carefully and answer the questions below.
As part of CAIs Assessment Project, almost 50,000 undergraduates on more than
60 campuses have participated in a nationwide survey of AI since the fall of 2002.
The most recent results (released in June 2005) are disturbing, provocative, and
challenging.
o On most campuses, 70% of students admit to some cheating. Close to onequarter of the participating students admitted to serious test cheating in the past
year and half admitted to one or more instances of serious cheating on written
assignments.
o Academic honor codes effectively reduce cheating. Surveys conducted in 1990,
1995 and 1999, involving over 12,000 students on 48 different campuses,
demonstrate the impact of honor codes and student involvement in the control of
academic dishonesty. Serious test cheating on campuses with honor codes is
typically 1/3 to lower than the level on campuses that do not have honor codes.
The level of serious cheating on written assignments is to 1/3 lower.

Internet plagiarism is a growing concern on all campuses as students struggle


to understand what constitutes acceptable use of the Internet.
Faculty are reluctant to take action against suspected cheaters.
Longitudinal comparisons show significant increases in serious test/exam
cheating and unpermitted student collaboration.
Studies of 18,000 students at 61 schools, conducted in the last 4 years, suggest
cheating is also a significant problem in high school.
Source: http://www.academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp
1. Comment on the findings of this survey.
____________________________________________________________________

2. In your opinion, how can we overcome the problem of academic dishonesty


among college and university students.
_____________________________________________________________________

This section dealt with academic integerity which involves


honesty; trust, fairness, respect and responsibility at school
or university level. The four main forms of academic integrity
covered in this section are cheating, fabrication, facilitation
and plagiarism. The usual forms of punishment for academic
dishonesty are suspension or expulsion from the institution
or being awarded a zero in the test or exam.

1. Recently, I was accused of plagiarism despite the fact that I included a


reference page which clearly listed all websites and books used. The
assignment was to compile background information to be used in relation to
one of the novels I read this year. Unfortunately, my reference page was not
in the correct format and the sources were not written directly on the
documents. Is this a case of bad citing or plagiarism ?
How would you answer this question ?
_________________________________________________________________

2. In the examination centre, a close friend, who happens to be seated beside


you, keeps looking at your answers. Would you permit your friend to look at
your answers or will you keep your answers covered because you feel it is
dishonest?
_________________________________________________________________

1. http://depts.washington.edu/grading/issue1/honesty.htm
2. http://www.nd.edu/~msander1/plag.html
3. http://www.umanitoba.ca/student/advocacy/academic/_honesty_qui
z.shtml
4. http://www.usask.ca/honesty/
5. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/

This unit examined issues related to taking tests and


exams. The topics discussed included types of test anxiety,
that is positive and negative test anxiety. It also looked at
the causes of namely fear for failure, feelings of
helplessness and threats to self-worth. It also provided 5
strategies that you can adopt for overcoming these
anxieties. Finally, the unit focused on Aademic Integrity. The
4 main forms of Academic Dishonesty discussed were
cheating, fabrication, facilitation, and plagiarism. The
consequences of academic dishonesty are suspension or
expulsion form the institution, being awarded a zero in the
test or axam or a reduction of marks in a test or
assignment.

Tutor-marked Assignment 2
(TMA 2 - 30%)
Submission Date:
25 October, 2013
(2400 hrs)
Evidence

Q2.
Compare and contrast the teaching strategies
used in the conventional learning system and
the open distance learning system.
In your essay include at least 8 point
that differentiate the two systems
Your answer must have an introduction
and a conclusion
.

8 main points
1.Self-managed learning - learners have to be independent and organise their
own learning. In the conventional system, they are teacher dependent
2. Synchronous and asynchronous learning- teaching and learning may take
place simultaneously or at different times. In the conventional system- the times
are fixed

3. Unlimited access to course- 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year.
In the conventional system- access only during class lectures
4. Just in time and on-demand learning- digital learning is delivering knowledge
when and where the student needs it, and as often as they need it.This concept of
anywhere-anytime learning leads to greater student retention and satisfaction, in
addition to significant cost savings for employers. In the conventional system- learning
is mostly done during lecture/tutorials, more costly to study in a F2F institution.

5. Institutional accreditation- both are accredited but are offered in different


mediums. Sometimes the programmes are taken from foreign universities and
accredited internationally.
6.Use of mixed-media courseware- including print, radio and television
broadcasts, video and audio cassettes, computer-based learning and
telecommunications. Courseware tends to be pre-tested and validated before use.
In the conventional system- mostly lectures only with limited visual aids.

7. Two-way communication- allows learners and tutors to interact as distinguished


from the passive receipt of broadcast signals. Communication can be synchronous
or asynchronous. In the conventional system- communication is quite limited to face
to face.
8.Face-to-face meetings for tutorials- learner-learner interaction, library study and
laboratory or practice sessions. In the conventional system- majority of interaction is
face to face.

Your TMA 2
deadline is Friday,
24th April 2015 by
2400 hours

Discuss FIVE (5) reasons why open distance


learning graduates are in demand. Your answer
must have an introduction and a conclusion.

Explain any FOUR (4) learning styles. Your


answer must have an introduction and a
conclusion.
It is important for you cite and quote
appropriately.

Go through the checklist given by CC on CC Forum