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HSC PHYSICS

Brian Shadwick

Science Press 2007


First published 2007
Reprinted 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
Science Press
Private Bag 7023 Marrickville NSW 1475 Australia
Tel: (02) 9516 1122 Fax: (02) 9550 1915
sales@sciencepress.com.au
www.sciencepress.com.au

All rights reserved. No part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Science Press. ABN 98 000 073 861

Contents
Introduction

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Points
Space

vii

Motors and Generators

ix

From Ideas to Implementation

xi

From Quanta to Quarks

xiii

Questions
Space

Motors and Generators

39

From Ideas to Implementation

81

From Quanta to Quarks

121

Summaries
Space

161

Motors and Generators

181

From Ideas to Implementation

201

From Quanta to Quarks

219

Answers
Space

237

Motors and Generators

247

From Ideas to Implementation

259

From Quanta to Quarks

271

Appendix
Data Sheet

282

Formula Sheet

283

Periodic Table

284

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

iii

Contents

Notes
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Science Press

Contents

iv

Dot Point HSC Physics

Introduction
What the book includes
,QWKLVERRN\RXZLOOQGW\SLFDOH[DPLQDWLRQTXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVDVZHOODVVXPPDULHVIRUHDFKGRWSRLQWLQ
the Board of Studies syllabus for the following topics in the Year 12 Physics course:


6SDFH

0RWRUVDQG*HQHUDWRUV

)URP,GHDVWR,PSOHPHQWDWLRQ

)URP4XDQWDWR4XDUNV

Also included are typical experimental results for students to analyse if the third column of the syllabus indicates
WKDWVWXGHQWVVKRXOGFDUU\RXWUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQV
Format of the book
The book has been formatted in the following way:
1. Main topic statement (column 1 of syllabus)
1.1etc Syllabus requirement from columns 2 and 3.
1RWHWKDWWKHQXPEHULQJRIWKHVHUHTXLUHPHQWVLVWKHDXWKRUVFKRLFHDQGKDVEHHQXVHGWRPDNHUHIHUHQFLQJ
TXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVFOHDUHU7KHLQGLYLGXDOUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHQRWQXPEHUHGLQWKHV\OODEXVWKH\DUHVLPSO\
EXOOHWHGKHQFHRXUXVHRIGRWSRLQWVZKHQZHUHIHUWRWKHP
1.1.1 )LUVWW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQW
1.1.2 6HFRQGW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQWHWF
7KHQXPEHURIOLQHVSURYLGHGIRUHDFKDQVZHUJLYHVDQLQGLFDWLRQRIKRZPDQ\PDUNVWKHTXHVWLRQPLJKWEH
worth in an examination. As a rough rule, every two lines of answer might be worth one mark. Note that in many
DQVZHUVWKUHHOLQHVKDYHEHHQSURYLGHGDVWKHDPRXQWRIZULWLQJUHTXLUHGH[FHHGVWZROLQHVEXWWKHSK\VLFV
involved is worth only one mark.
How to use the book
&RPSOHWLQJDOOTXHVWLRQVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDVXPPDU\RIDOOWKHZRUN\RXQHHGWRNQRZIURPWKHV\OODEXV
You may have done work in addition to this with your teacher as extension work. Obviously this is not covered,
but you may need to know this additional work for your school exams.
:KHQZRUNLQJWKURXJKWKHTXHVWLRQVZULWHWKHDQVZHUV\RXKDYHWRORRNXSLQDGLIIHUHQWFRORXUWRWKRVH\RX
NQRZZLWKRXWKDYLQJWRUHVHDUFKWKHZRUN7KLVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDTXLFNUHIHUHQFHWRZRUN\RXVKRXOG
spend more time revising later, and allow you to spend your study time more productively.

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

Introduction

Verbs to Watch
account/account for
State reasons for, report on, give an account of,
narrate a series of events or transactions.

distinguish
Recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or
different from, note difference between things.

analyse
Identify components and the relationships among
them, draw out and relate implications.

evaluate
Make a judgement based on criteria.
examine
,QTXLUHLQWR

apply
Use, utilise, employ in a particular situation.

explain
Relate cause and effect, make the relationship
between things evident, provide why and/or how.

appreciate
Make a judgement about the value of something.

extract
Choose relevant and/or appropriate details.

assess
0DNHDMXGJHPHQWRIYDOXHTXDOLW\RXWFRPHV
results or size.

extrapolate
Infer from what is known.

calculate
'HWHUPLQHIURPJLYHQIDFWVJXUHVRULQIRUPDWLRQ

identify
Recognise and name.

clarify
Make clear or plain.

interpret
Draw meaning from.

classify
Arrange into classes, groups or categories.

investigate
3ODQLQTXLUHLQWRDQGGUDZFRQFOXVLRQVDERXW

compare
Show how things are similar and different.

justify
Support an argument or conclusion.

construct
Make, build, put together items or arguments.

outline
Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features.

contrast
Show how things are different or opposite.

predict
Suggest what may happen based on available data.

critically (analyse/evaluate)
Add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge
DQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJORJLFTXHVWLRQLQJUHHFWLRQDQG
TXDOLW\WRDQDQDO\VLVRUHYDOXDWLRQ

propose
Put forward (a point of view, idea, argument,
suggestion etc) for consideration or action.

deduce
Draw conclusions.

recall
Present remembered ideas, facts or experiences.

GHQH
6WDWHWKHPHDQLQJRIDQGLGHQWLI\HVVHQWLDOTXDOLWLHV

recommend
Provide reasons in favour.

demonstrate
Show by example.

recount
Retell a series of events.

describe
Provide characteristics and features.

summarise
Express concisely the relevant details.

discuss
Identify issues and provide points for and against.

synthesise
Put together various elements to make a whole.
Science Press

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Point HSC Physics

Space
Dot Point

Page

1.

*UDYLWDWLRQDOHOG




'HQHZHLJKWDVWKHIRUFHDFWLQJRQ
DQREMHFWGXHWRDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG

1.2

Use F = mg to determine the weight


force of bodies on Earth and other
planets.

1.3.
1.4

1.5

Predict the acceleration due to gravity


on other planets.

Explain that a change in gravitational


potential energy is related to work done.

2.

Rocket launches and gravity

2.1


Describe the trajectory of a projectile


ZLWKLQWKH(DUWKVJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG



'HVFULEH*DOLOHRVDQDO\VLVRISURMHFWLOH
motion.

2.4






11

2XWOLQH1HZWRQVFRQFHSWRIHVFDSH
velocity.

12

2.7



Perform an experiment to calculate


WKHLQLWLDODQGQDOYHORFLWLHVUDQJH
DQGWLPHRILJKWRIDSURMHFWLOH

2.8

Analyse the changing acceleration of


a rocket during launch in terms of the
Law of Conservation of Momentum
and the forces experienced by astronauts.



Explain escape velocity in terms of


the gravitational constant, and the
mass and radius of the planet.

,GHQWLI\ZK\WKHWHUPJIRUFHVLV
used to explain the forces on an
astronaut.

17

17

'HQHGPE as the work done to move


DQREMHFWIURPLQQLW\WRDSRLQWLQD
JUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG

2.10 Analyse forces involved in uniform


circular motion for a range of objects,
including satellites orbiting Earth.

Perform an experiment to determine


the acceleration due to gravity and
identify reasons for possible variations
from 9.8 m s2.

Solve projectile motion problems using


horizontal and vertical components
DQG1HZWRQVHTXDWLRQVRIPRWLRQ

Page

2.11 Solve problems about the centripetal


force on a satellite in Earth orbit using:





2.3

Dot Point

 &RPSDUHTXDOLWDWLYHO\ORZ(DUWKDQG
geostationary orbits.

18

2.13 Outline the contribution to space of


one of: Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard,

(VQDXOW3HOWHULH21HLOORUYRQ%UDXQ



 'HQHRUELWDOYHORFLW\DQGLWV
relationship with G, the mass of the
planet and satellite, and the radius

RIWKHRUELWTXDOLWDWLYHO\DQG

TXDQWLWDWLYHO\



 6ROYHSUREOHPVXVLQJ.HSOHUV/DZ
of Periods.

21

2.16 Account for the orbital decay of satellites


in LEO.

23

2.17 Discuss issues associated with safe



UHHQWU\LQWRWKH(DUWKVDWPRVSKHUH
and landing on the surface.

23

2.18 Identify that there is an optimum angle



IRUUHHQWU\LQWRWKH(DUWKVDWPRVSKHUH

DQGWKHFRQVHTXHQFHVRIIDLOLQJWR
achieve this.

24

3.

The Solar System and gravity

25



'HVFULEHDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGQHDUD
massive object in terms of its effects
on other masses.

25

'HQH1HZWRQV/DZRI8QLYHUVDO
Gravitation.

25


12
3.3

Solve problems and analyse information


using:
25


3.4

14

'LVFXVVWKHHIIHFWRIWKH(DUWKVRUELWDO
and rotational motion on rocket launches. 16

Discuss factors affecting the strength


of the gravitational force.

27

'LVFXVVWKHLPSRUWDQFHRI1HZWRQV
Law of Universal Gravitation in
understanding and calculating the
motion of satellites.

28

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Dot Point HSC Physics

vii

Space

Dot Point
3.6

Page

Identify that a slingshot effect can be


provided by planets for space probes.

28

4.

Understanding time and space

29

4.1

Outline the features of the aether


model for the transmission of light.

29

4.2


Describe and evaluate the


0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW



4.3


Interpret the results of the


0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW



4.4


Discuss the role of the


0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQWLQ
making determinations about
competing theories.

30

Outline the nature of inertial frames


of reference.

30

4.5
4.6


33

 ([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHFRQVHTXHQFH
of special relativity in relation to the
relativity of simultaneity.

34

 ([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHFRQVHTXHQFH

RIVSHFLDOUHODWLYLW\WRWKHHTXLYDOHQFH
of mass and energy.

34

4.15 Solve problems using:

34

 ([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHFRQVHTXHQFH
of special relativity in relation to mass.

35

4.17 Solve problems using the relativistic



PDVVHTXDWLRQ



 ([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHFRQVHTXHQFH
of special relativity in relation to
length contraction.

36

4.19 Solve problems using the relativistic



OHQJWKHTXDWLRQ



 ([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHFRQVHTXHQFH
of special relativity in relation to time
dilation.

37

32

4.21 Solve problems using the time



GLODWLRQHTXDWLRQ



33

4.22 Discuss implications of mass increase,


time dilation, length contraction for
space travel.

38

31

4.7

Discuss the principle of relativity.

32




'HVFULEHWKHVLJQLFDQFHRIWKH
DVVXPSWLRQRI(LQVWHLQVDVVXPSWLRQ
of the constancy of the speed of light.
$QDO\VHDQGLQWHUSUHWVRPHRI(LQVWHLQV
thought experiments about mirrors
and trains and discuss the relationship
between thought and reality.

4.10 Identify that if c is constant, then


space and time become relative.
4.11 Discuss the concept that length standards

DUHGHQHGLQWHUPVRIWLPHLQFRQWUDVW
to the original metre standard.

Page

4.12 Discuss the relationship between


theory and the evidence supporting

LWXVLQJ(LQVWHLQVSUHGLFWLRQVEDVHG
on relativity that were made many
years before evidence was available
to support it.

Perform an investigation to distinguish


EHWZHHQQRQLQHUWLDODQGLQHUWLDO
frames of reference.



Dot Point

32

Answers to Space

33

237

Science Press

Space

viii

Dot Point HSC Physics

Motors and Generators


Dot Point

Page

1.

Current-carrying conductors

1.1


Discuss the effect, on the force on a


FXUUHQWFDUU\LQJFRQGXFWRURI
variations in:
WKHPDJQHWLFHOGLQZKLFKLWLVORFDWHG
WKHFXUUHQWLQWKHFRQGXFWRU
WKHOHQJWKRIWKHFRQGXFWRULQWKHHOG
WKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHPDJQHWLFHOG
and conductor.





1.2



Dot Point

40

 ,GHQWLI\WKDWWKHPDJQHWLFHOGLQ

'&PRWRUVFDQEHSURGXFHGE\FXUUHQW
carrying coils or permanent magnets.

50

2.

Generating electricity

51



2XWOLQH)DUDGD\VGLVFRYHU\RIWKH
generation of electricity by a moving
magnet.

51

Perform an investigation to model


the generation of an electric current
by moving a magnet in a coil or a
coil near a magnet.

52

Plan and perform an experiment to


predict and verify the effect on a
generated current of the distance
between the coil and the magnet,
the strength of the magnet, and the
relative motion between the coil and
the magnet.

52




'HQHPDJQHWLFHOGVWUHQJWKB as
PDJQHWLFX[GHQVLW\






'HVFULEHPDJQHWLFX[LQWHUPVRI
PDJQHWLFX[GHQVLW\DQGVXUIDFHDUHD



2.6


Describe generated potential difference


DVWKHUDWHRIFKDQJHRIPDJQHWLFX[





$FFRXQWIRU/HQ]V/DZLQWHUPVRI
conservation of energy.

54

5HODWH/HQ]V/DZWRWKHSURGXFWLRQ
of back emf in motors and that this
opposes the supply emf.

55

Explain production of eddy currents


LQWHUPVRI/HQ]V/DZ



2.2

40

Solve problems and analyse


information about the force on
FXUUHQWFDUU\LQJFRQGXFWRUVLQ
PDJQHWLFHOGVXVLQJ

2.3
40



'HVFULEHTXDOLWDWLYHO\DQGTXDQWLWDWLYHO\
the force between long, parallel
currentcarrying conductors using:
41

1.4

Solve problems using:


42

1.5


1.6

1.8

Describe the forces experienced by a


FXUUHQWFDUU\LQJORRSLQDPDJQHWLF
HOGDQGGHVFULEHWKHQHWUHVXOWRI
the forces.
Perform an experiment to demonstrate
the motor effect.

44

'HQHWRUTXHDVWKHWXUQLQJPRPHQW
of a force using: T

45



2.9


Solve problems and analyse information


about simple motors using:
T

1.9



43

Identify the motor effect is due to the


IRUFHDFWLQJRQDFXUUHQWFDUU\LQJ
FRQGXFWRULQDPDJQHWLFHOG

1.10 Describe the application of the motor


effect in a galvanometer.
1.11 Describe the application of the motor
effect in a loudspeaker.
1.12 Describe the main features of a DC
electric motor and the role of each feature.

46


47
48

Page

2.10 Explain how induction is used in


cooktops.

62

2.11 Explain how eddy currents are used


in electromagnetic braking.

62

3.

Generators

63

3.1

Describe the main components of a


generator.

63

Describe the differences between DC


and AC generators.

63

3.2

49

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

ix

Motors and Generators

Dot Point
3.3
3.4

3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

Compare the structure and function


of a motor and a generator.
Discuss advantages and disadvantages
of AC and DC generators and relate
these to their use.
Perform an experiment to demonstrate
the production of an alternating current.

Page

4.4

4.5
66
66

Assess the effects of the development


of AC generators on society.

67

4.9
67

4.

Transformers

71

4.1

Describe the purpose of transformers


in electrical circuits.

71

&RPSDUHVWHSXSDQGVWHSGRZQ
transformers.

71

Identify the relationship between the


ratio of the number of turns in the
primary and secondary coils and the
ratio of the primary to secondary
voltage.

4.7

67

69

4.3

4.6

4.8

3.10 Identify how transmission lines are


insulated from supporting structures
and protected from lightning.



Solve problems using:


72

66

Analyse the competition between


Edison and Westinghouse to supply
electricity to cities.

Page

65

Discuss energy losses that occur in


transmission lines.

Assess the effects of the development


of AC generators on the environment.

Dot Point

Discuss how the heating effects of


eddy currents are minimised in
transformers.

74

Perform an experiment to model the


structure and working of a transformer.

74

Discuss the need for transformers in


electricity transmission from source
to point of use.

75

Explain why voltage transformations


are related to conservation of energy.

75

Discuss why some electrical appliances


in the home use transformers.

76

4.10 Discuss the impact of the development


of transformers on society.

76

5.

Motors and energy changes

77

5.1

Describe the main features of an AC


electric motor.

77

Perform an investigation to demonstrate


the principle of an AC induction motor.

78

Identify some of the energy


transformations involving the
conversion of electrical energy that
occur in homes and industry.

79

5.2
5.3

Answers to Motors and Generators

247

72

Science Press

Motors and Generators

Dot Point HSC Physics

From Ideas to Implementation


Dot Point

Page

1.

Cathode rays

82

1.1

Explain that cathode ray tubes allowed


the manipulation of charged particles.

82

1.2

1.3






Explain why the apparent behaviour


of cathode rays caused debate as to
whether they were charged particles
or electromagnetic waves.

82

84

1.5


Identify that moving charged particles


LQDPDJQHWLFHOGH[SHULHQFHDIRUFH





'LVFXVVTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHHOHFWULFHOG
strength due to point, positive and
negative charges.

85

1.7


Identify that charged plates produce


DQHOHFWULFHOG





'LVFXVVTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHHOHFWULFHOG
strength due to oppositely charged
parallel plates.

1.10 Outline the experiment by Thomson


to measure the charge/mass ratio of
an electron.

2.

The photoelectric effect and black


body radiation

93

2XWOLQH+HUW]VH[SHULPHQWLQ
measuring the speed of radio waves
and how they relate to light waves.

93

'HVFULEH+HUW]VREVHUYDWLRQRIWKH
effect of a radio wave on a receiver
and the photoelectric effect he
produced but failed to investigate.

94

Perform an experiment to show the


production and reception of radio waves.

94

,GHQWLI\3ODQFNVK\SRWKHVLVWKDW
radiation emitted and absorbed by the
ZDOOVRIDEODFNERG\LVTXDQWLVHG



,GHQWLI\(LQVWHLQVFRQWULEXWLRQWR
TXDQWXPWKHRU\DQGLWVUHODWLRQWR
black body radiation.

96

$VVHVV(LQVWHLQVFRQWULEXWLRQWR
TXDQWXPWKHRU\DQGLWVUHODWLRQWR
black body radiation.

98

Explain the particle model of light in


terms of photons with particular energy
DQGIUHTXHQF\



Identify the relationships between


SKRWRQHQHUJ\IUHTXHQF\VSHHGRI
light and wavelength using:
and

99

Solve problems using:


and

99







2.7

2.8


87

'HVFULEHTXDQWLWDWLYHO\WKHIRUFHRQ
a moving charged particle in a
PDJQHWLFHOGDQGVROYHSUREOHPV
using:
F = qE
F = qvBsin



2.3

Perform an investigation to observe


the different patterns of striations in
cathode ray tubes at different pressures.



For cathode ray tubes, outline the role of:


WKHHOHFWURGHVLQWKHHOHFWURQJXQ
WKHGHHFWLRQSODWHVRUFRLOV
WKHXRUHVFHQWVFUHHQ



83

2.9

87

90

Page

1.11






Perform an investigation to identify


properties of cathode rays using
discharge tubes containing:
D0DOWHVHFURVV
HOHFWULFSODWHV
DXRUHVFHQWVFUHHQ
DJODVVZKHHO
and analyse the information to
determine the sign of the charge on
cathode rays.

1.4

Dot Point

2.10 Summarise the use of the photoelectric


effect in solar cells and photocells.

101

 'LVFXVV(LQVWHLQDQG3ODQFNV

GLIIHULQJYLHZVDERXWZKHWKHUVFLHQWLF
research is removed from social and
political forces.

102

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

xi

From Ideas to Implementation

Dot Point
3.

Transistors

3.1
3.2

3.3



3.5
3.6

3.7


3.9

Page

Dot Point

103

Page

4.

Superconductors

115

Identify that some electrons in solids are


shared between atoms and move freely. 103

4.1

Outline the methods used by the


Braggs to determine crystal structure.

115

Describe, in terms of band structures


and relative electrical resistance,
the differences in conductors,
insulators, semiconductors.

4.2

Identify that metals possess a crystal


lattice structure.

115

Describe conduction in metals as a


movement of free electrons
unimpeded by the lattice.

115

Identify that resistance in metals is


increased by the presence of impurities
and scattering of electrons by lattice
vibrations.

115

Identify absences of electrons in


nearly full bands as positive holes,
and recognise that electrons and holes
help to carry current.

4.3
103
4.4
105

&RPSDUHTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKHUHODWLYH
number of free electrons in conductors,
semiconductors and insulators.

107

Perform an experiment to model the


behaviour of semiconductors.

107

Identify that the use of germanium in


early transistors was related to the
inability to produce other materials
of suitable purity.
Describe how doping a semiconductor
can change its electrical properties.
,GHQWLI\GLIIHUHQFHVLQSDQGQW\SH
semiconductors in terms of their
relative numbers of negative charge
carriers and positive holes.
Describe differences between solid
state and thermionic devices and why
solid state replaced thermionic devices.

3.12 Identify data sources, gather, process


and present information to summarise
the effect of light on semiconductors
in solar cells.

Describe the occurrence in superconductors


below their critical temperature of a
population of electron pairs unaffected
by electrical resistance.
116

4.6


Identify some of the metals, alloys


DQGFRPSRXQGVLGHQWLHGDVH[KLELWLQJ
superconductivity and their critical
temperatures.

116

4.7

Discuss the BCS theory.

116

4.8

Discuss the advantages of using


superconductors and identify
limitations to their use.

117

Explain why a magnet is able to hover


above a superconducting material
below its critical temperature.

118

108
108

4.9
109

109

3.10 Discuss how shortcomings in


communications technology led to
an increased knowledge of the properties
of materials with reference to the
invention of transistors.
110
3.11 Assess the impact of transistors on
society with particular reference to their
use in microchips and microprocessors.

4.5

4.10 Perform an investigation to


demonstrate magnetic levitation.

119

4.11 Describe how superconductors and



WKHHIIHFWVRIPDJQHWLFHOGVKDYH
been applied to develop a maglev train.

119

4.12 Discuss possible applications of


superconductivity and the effects of
those applications on computers,
generators, motors and the transmission
of electricity through transmission grids. 120

110

Answers to From Ideas to Implementation

259

110

Science Press

From Ideas to Implementation

xii

Dot Point HSC Physics

From Quanta to Quarks


Dot Point

Page

1.

Models of the atom

122

1.1

Discuss the Rutherford model of the atom.

122



$QDO\VHWKHVLJQLFDQFHRIWKH
hydrogen spectrum in the
development of the Bohr model.

1.3

2.5



Assess the contribution made by


Heisenberg and Pauli to atomic theory.

134

3.

Development of nuclear physics

135



'HQHWKHFRPSRQHQWVRIWKHQXFOHXV
and contrast their properties.

135

Discuss the importance of the


FRQVHUYDWLRQODZVWR&KDGZLFNV
discovery of the neutron.

135



'HQHWKHWHUPQXFOHDUWUDQVPXWDWLRQ



3.4

Describe nuclear transmutations due


to natural radioactivity.

137




'HVFULEH)HUPLVLQLWLDOH[SHULPHQWDO
REVHUYDWLRQRIQXFOHDUVVLRQ



3.6

Perform an experiment to observe


radiation emitted from a nucleus
using a Wilson cloud chamber or
similar device.

139

122

123




'LVFXVV3ODQFNVFRQWULEXWLRQWRWKH
FRQFHSWRITXDQWLVHGHQHUJ\





'HQH%RKUVSRVWXODWHV





'HVFULEHKRZ%RKUVSRVWXODWHVOHG
to a mathematical model to account
for the hydrogen spectrum.

3.2


125

Solve problems and analyse


information using:

125
1.8


Process and present diagrams to show


%RKUVH[SODQDWLRQRIWKH%DOPHUVHULHV



1.9

Discuss the limitations of the Bohr


model of the hydrogen atom.

130

 ,GHQWLI\GLIFXOWLHVZLWKWKH%RKU
model, including its inability to
explain spectra of larger atoms,

LQWHQVLW\RIDQGK\SHUQHVSHFWUDO
lines and the Zeeman effect.

130

2.

Development of quantum physics

131



'HVFULEHWKHLPSDFWRIGH%URJOLHV
proposal that any kind of particle has
both wave and particle properties.

131

2.2



3.8

3.9

Solve problems and analyse


information using:
131





'HQHGLIIUDFWLRQDQGLGHQWLI\WKDW
interference occurs between waves
that have been diffracted.

132

'HVFULEHWKHFRQUPDWLRQRIGH%URJOLHV
proposal by Davisson and Germer.

133

Page

Explain the stability of the electron


orbits in the Bohr atom using
GH%URJOLHVK\SRWKHVLV

2.6

Perform an experiment to observe


the visible components of the
hydrogen spectrum.

1.7

Dot Point

'LVFXVV3DXOLVLGHDRIWKHWKH
neutrino and the need to account for
WKHHQHUJ\HOHFWURQVHPLWWHGLQGHFD\ 
Evaluate the relative contribution of
electrostatic and gravitational forces
between nucleons.

141

Account for the need for the strong


nuclear force and describe its properties. 141

3.10 Explain the concept of mass defect



XVLQJ(LQVWHLQVHTXLYDOHQFHEHWZHHQ
mass and energy.

142

3.11 Solve problems to calculate the mass


defect and energy released in natural

WUDQVPXWDWLRQDQGVVLRQUHDFWLRQV



 'HVFULEH)HUPLVGHPRQVWUDWLRQVRI
a nuclear chain reaction in 1942.

146

 &RPSDUHUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUFRQWUROOHG
and uncontrolled chain reactions.

147

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Dot Point HSC Physics

xiii

From Quanta to Quarks

Dot Point

Page

4.

Applications of nuclear physics

151

4.1


Explain the basic principles of a


VVLRQUHDFWRU





$VVHVVWKHVLJQLFDQFHRIWKH
Manhattan Project to society.

153

4.3
4.4

4.5

Describe some medical and industrial


applications of radioisotopes.

Dot Point
4.6

4.7
153

Describe the use of a named isotope


in medicine, agriculture, and
engineering.

154

Describe how neutron scattering is


used as a probe by referring to the
properties of neutrons.

155

Page

Identify ways by which physicists


continue to develop their
understanding of matter using
accelerators as a probe to investigate
the structure of matter.

155

Discuss the key features and


components of the standard model
RIPDWWHULQFOXGLQJTXDUNVDQGOHSWRQV 

Answers to From Quanta to Quarks

271

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From Quanta to Quarks

xiv

Dot Point HSC Physics

DOT POINT
Space

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Dot Point HSC Physics

Space

1. The Earth has a gravitational eld that exerts a force on objects both on it and around it.


'HQHZHLJKWDVWKHIRUFHDFWLQJRQDQREMHFWGXHWRDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG
1.1.1

Predict the weight of a 5 kg object on Earth compared to its weight on Jupiter, and explain the
reasoning behind your prediction. The gravitational acceleration on Jupiter is about 24.8 m s2.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.1.2

Complete the table to compare mass and weight.


Mass

1.2

Weight

Use F = mg to determine the weight force of bodies on Earth and other planets.
1.2.1

Determine the weight of an object of mass 3.0 kg on Earth and on Mars which has a
JUDYLWDWLRQDODFFHOHUDWLRQHTXDOWRWKDWRI(DUWK

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1.2.2

An object has a mass of 12 kg on Earth and a weight of 135.24 N on Saturn. Calculate the
YDOXHRIWKHDFFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\RQ6DWXUQDQGWKHREMHFWVZHLJKWRQ(DUWK

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Space

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1.2.3

A mass is placed on a set of bathroom scales on Earth and the scales read 10 kg. The same
scales and the mass are taken to the Moon to show that the mass of an object is constant
regardless of where it is in the Universe. When placed on the scales on the Moon however,
the scales read 1.67 kg. Account for this reading.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.3

Predict the acceleration due to gravity on other planets.


1.3.1

The table shows masses and diameters of the Sun, our Moon and the planets in the Solar
System.

(a)

Complete the fourth column of the table by ranking the gravitational force on each object
from smallest (1) to largest (11) given the values for the Sun, the Earth and Pluto.

E 

 RPSOHWHWKHIWKFROXPQRIWKHWDEOHE\SUHGLFWLQJWKHUHODWLYHVL]HRIWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOIRUFH
&
on each object given the three values for the Moon, Earth and the Sun.
Object

Mass of object (kg)

Diameter of object
(km)

Gravitational force
(smallest (1) to
largest (12))

Gravitational
acceleration
(m s2 )

The Sun

1.99 1030

1 392 530

11

275.4

Mercury

23

4878

24

12 104

24

12 756

9.8

The Moon

7.35 1022

3467

Mars

6.43 1023

6794

27

142 984

26

120 000

Uranus

25

8.68 10

51 800

Neptune

1.03 1026

49 250

22

2320

Venus
Earth

Jupiter
Saturn

Pluto

3.58 10

4.90 10

5.974 10

1.90 10
5.69 10

1.27 10

1.6

1.3.2

An object has a mass of 60 kg on Mars where the gravitational acceleration is 0.38


that of Earth.

(a)

What will be the mass of the object on Mars?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

What will be the weight of the object on Earth?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

Space

(c)

What will be the weight of the object on Mars?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

What will be the mass of the object on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity
is 2.5 times larger than that on Earth?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

What will be the weight of the object on this planet?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.4

Perform an experiment to determine the value of the acceleration due to gravity and identify
reasons for possible variations from 9.8 m s2.
1.4.1

Outline an experiment you have done to determine the acceleration due to gravity.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.4.2

(a)

A group of students set up a pendulum and recorded the measurements shown in the table.

Length of pendulum
string (m)

Time for 20 swings (s)

0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00

20.0
28.2
38.6
40.0
44.9
49.9
56.5

Period of swing (s)

(Period of swing)2 (s2)

Identify two factors which would have been kept constant if this experiment had been done correctly.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Complete the results table.

Science Press

Space

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(c)

What are these results telling us?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Draw a graph of the period of swing (T) against


the length of the pendulum (l).

(e)

What conclusion can we draw from this graph?


Explain your answer.

.............................................................................................................................
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I 

, QGUDZLQJ\RXUOLQHRIEHVWW\RXVKRXOGKDYHLJQRUHGRQHSORWSRLQW,GHQWLI\ZKLFKSORW
point and explain why it should be ignored.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

J 

7KHHTXDWLRQFRQQHFWLQJWKHYDULDEOHVIRUWKHVZLQJRIDSHQGXOXPLV

5HDUUDQJHWKLVHTXDWLRQWRPDNHJWKHVXEMHFW

T = 2

l
g

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

K 

 VHWKHLQIRUPDWLRQLQ\RXUUHDUUDQJHGHTXDWLRQDQGWKHGDWDLQWKHUHVXOWVWDEOHWRGUDZD
8
graph which does show the relationship between the period of a pendulum and its length.

(i)

Use your graph to determine a value for the


acceleration due to gravity as found by this
experiment.

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Space

1.4.3

Recall three reasons why the acceleration due to gravity at different places on the surface of
the Earth varies slightly from the 9.8 m s2 value we usually use.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.5

Explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to work done.


1.5.1

Explain the relationship between the work done on an object which changes its position in a
JUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGDQGLWVJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\

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1.5.2

Identify the source of the work done when a satellite moves:

(a)

to a higher altitude orbit

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

to a lower altitude orbit

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.5.3

A satellite has 4000 J of work done on it. Does it move to a higher or lower altitude orbit?
Explain your answer.

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1.5.4

A comet approaches the Sun and swings around it to


travel back into the outer Solar System for years. The
graphs show how the gravitational potential and kinetic
energies of this comet change as it moves away from the
Sun. Explain the shape of the two graphs.

KE

0
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Ep

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



 HQHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\DVWKHZRUNGRQHWRPRYHDQREMHFWIURP
'
LQQLW\WRDSRLQWLQDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG
1.6.1

Calculate the gravitational potential energy of a 2000 kg satellite which


orbits the Earth at an altitude of 35 000 km. The radius of Earth is 6378 km.

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1.6.2

A satellite of mass 500 kg is boosted from an orbit of altitude 10 000 km to one of altitude
20 000 km. Given the diameter of Earth as 12 756 km, its mass as 5.97 1024 kg, calculate
the change in the gravitational potential energy of the satellite.

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Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

Space

1.6.3

Explain, in terms of the principles of physics involved, why gravitational potential energy is a
QHJDWLYHTXDQWLW\

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1.6.4

Satellite X has its orbit around Earth changed from an altitude of 10 000 km to an altitude of
20 000 km. Satellite Y has its orbit around Earth changed from an altitude of 20 000 km to an
altitude of 30 000 km. Both satellites have a mass of 500 kg.

(a)

Predict the amount of work done on X compared to the amount done on Y and explain your
reasoning.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the amount of work done on each satellite to see if your prediction was correct.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.5
(a)

Three spacecraft having masses m1 > m2 > m3 are in the same stable orbit around planet X.
Compare their gravitational potential energies and justify your answer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

The three spacecraft are now moved to an orbit with twice the radius relative to the centre of
the planet. Compare the work which needs to be done on each. Justify your answer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(c)

The three spacecraft each undergo orbital decay and fall to identical lower altitude orbits.
Compare the changes in their kinetic energies. Justify your answer.

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Science Press

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Dot Point HSC Physics

2. Many factors have to be taken into account to achieve a successful rocket launch, to
maintain a stable orbit and to return to Earth.
2.1

Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earths
JUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG
2.1.1

Outline the characteristics of the motion of a projectile.

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2.1.2

A projectile is launched at 40 m s1 at 75 to the horizontal. Calculate the components of its


launch velocity.

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2.2

Describe Galileos analysis of projectile motion.


2.2.1

/LVW*DOLOHRVWKUHHQGLQJVUHJDUGLQJSURMHFWLOHPRWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.2.2

The table shows the results of an experiment where a ball was rolled along a smooth,
horizontal surface at 15 m s1 and then over the edge of a 150 m drop. The ball left the surface
and started to fall at time zero.
Time (s)

Speed of ball (m s1)

17.92

24.68

33.01

41.97

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

Space

'HPRQVWUDWHWKDWWKHVHUHVXOWVDUHFRQVLVWHQWZLWK*DOLOHRVDQDO\VLVRISURMHFWLOHPRWLRQ
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.3

Solve projectile motion problems using horizontal and vertical components and Newtons
equations of motion.
2.3.1

$SURMHFWLOHLVUHGKRUL]RQWDOO\DWPV1 from the top of a 196 m high cliff. Calculate:

D 

LWVWLPHRILJKW

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(b)

its range

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

its velocity on hitting the ground

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2.3.2

$SURMHFWLOHKDVDWLPHRILJKWRIVDQGDUDQJHRIP&DOFXODWH

(a)

its horizontal velocity

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Science Press

Space

10

Dot Point HSC Physics

(b)

its maximum height

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(c)

the velocity with which it is projected

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2.3.3

 FDQQRQEDOOLVUHGDWPV1 at an angle of 45 to the horizontal. Calculate the height at


$
which the ball hits a vertical cliff 150 m away.

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2.4

Explain the concept of escape velocity in terms of the gravitational constant, and the mass and
radius of the planet.
2.4.1

.QRZLQJWKDWWKHZRUNGRQHRQDQREMHFWGLVSODFHGLQDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGLVHTXDOWRLWV
FKDQJHLQJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\DQGWKDWWKLVDOVRHTXDOVLWVFKDQJHLQNLQHWLFHQHUJ\
show that escape velocity is independent of the mass of the object being put into orbit.

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Science Press

Dot Point HSC Physics

11

Space

2.4.2

The escape velocity of Earth is 11.2 kps. That for Neptune is 23.6 kps. Give possible reasons
to account for this difference.

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2.4.3

Mercury has a mass of 3.58 1023 kg and a diameter of 4880 km. Venus has a mass of
4.92 1024 kg and a diameter of 12 104 km. Predict which has the greater escape velocity and
explain your reasoning.

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2.5

Outline Newtons concept of escape velocity.


2.5.1

2XWOLQH1HZWRQVLGHDRIHVFDSHYHORFLW\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.6

Identify why the term g-forces is used to explain the forces acting on an astronaut.
2.6.1

([SODLQWKHWZRPDLQUHDVRQVZHXVHDJIRUFHVFDOH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.6.2

A rocket is accelerating from the launch pad at 26.95 m s2.

D 

&DOFXODWHWKHJIRUFHRQDNJDVWURQDXW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

3UHGLFWWKHJIRUFHDFWLQJRQDQNJDVWURQDXW ..................................................................................................
Science Press

Space

12

Dot Point HSC Physics

2.6.3

A rocket is accelerating from between Mars and Jupiter at 26.95 m s2&DOFXODWHWKHJIRUFH


on a 60 kg astronaut.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



 HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRFDOFXODWHWKHLQLWLDODQGQDOYHORFLWLHVUDQJHDQGWLPHRI
3
LJKWRIDSURMHFWLOH
2.7.1

The diagram shows a stroboscopic photograph of a projectile which was released from
SRLQW3UROOHGGRZQWKHFXUYHGWUDFNDQGZDVSURMHFWHGLQWRWKHDLU7KHIUHTXHQF\RIWKH
VWURERVFRSHZDV+]DQGHDFKJULGVTXDUHRQWKHGLDJUDPUHSUHVHQWVFPFP

(a)

Calculate the horizontal component of the projectile as it left the track.

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
0

(b)

Calculate the vertical component of the


projectile as it left the track.

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the velocity of the projectile as it


left the track.

.......................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................

(d)

Determine the maximum height of the


projectile above the end of the track.

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.......................................................................................................

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Dot Point HSC Physics

13

Space

H 

,IWKHSURMHFWLOHKLWWKHRRUPEHORZWKHODVWSRVLWLRQVKRZQGHWHUPLQHLWVWLPHRILJKW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(f)

Calculate the range of the projectile.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.8

Analyse the changing acceleration of a rocket during launch in terms of the Law of
Conservation of Momentum and the forces experienced by astronauts.
2.8.1

A rocket has a mass of 400 kg, 75% being fuel. It develops a thrust of 8000 N.

(a)

Calculate its initial acceleration.

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(b)

Calculate its acceleration when half its fuel has been consumed.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

F 

 DOFXODWHWKHJIRUFHRQDNJDVWURQDXWLQWKHURFNHWZKHQKDOIWKHIXHOKDVEHHQ
&
FRQVXPHG$VVXPHWKHURFNHWLVVWLOOZLWKLQ(DUWKVJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG

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14

Dot Point HSC Physics

2.8.2

 UDZDW\SLFDOJIRUFHJUDSKIRUDWZRVWDJHURFNHWDQGXVHLWWRH[SODLQZK\VWDJHGURFNHWV
'
are used to put astronauts into space.

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2.8.3

([SODLQZK\WKHJIRUFHDFWLQJRQDQDVWURQDXWLQFUHDVHVDVDURFNHWWDNHVRII

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2.8.4

A rocket has a mass of 30 000 kg, including 25 000 kg of fuel. It develops 360 000 N of
thrust. Calculate:

D 

LWVDFFHOHUDWLRQDWOLIWRII

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(b)

the theoretical maximum acceleration of the rocket

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F 

WKHJIRUFHH[SHULHQFHGE\DQDVWURQDXWXQGHUPD[LPXPDFFHOHUDWLRQFRQGLWLRQV

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15

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2.8.5

Explain, in terms of the Law of Conservation of Momentum, how a rocket takes off.

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2.9

Discuss the effect of the Earths orbital and rotational motion on the launch of a rocket.
2.9.1

Recall the optimum position on Earth and orientation of a launch in order to place a satellite
in orbit around the Earth.

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2.9.2

Justify your answer to 2.9.1 above.

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2.9.3

 URFNHWLVWREHODXQFKHGWR0DUV([SODLQZLWKUHIHUHQFHWRWKH(DUWKVRUELWDOPRWLRQDURXQG
$
WKH6XQDQGZLWKWKHDLGRIDGLDJUDPWKHFRQFHSWRIDODXQFKZLQGRZIRUWKLVURFNHW

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2.10 Analyse the forces involved in uniform circular motion for a range of objects, including
satellites orbiting Earth.
2.10.1 Choose an object which undergoes uniform circular motion (do not choose a satellite in
orbit). With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the forces acting on this object.
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2.10.2 State the forces acting on a satellite in a stable orbit around Earth.
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2.10.2 $QDVWURQDXWLQDFLUFXODURUELWDURXQG(DUWKIHHOVZHLJKWOHVV$FFRXQWIRUWKLVIHHOLQJ
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2.11 Solve problems to calculate the centripetal force acting on a satellite in orbit about Earth using:

2.11.1 A 3000 kg satellite is orbiting Earth at an altitude of 250 km. Its orbital speed is 27 800 kph.
and the diameter of Earth is 12 756 km. Calculate:
(a)

the centripetal force acting on it

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(b)

its centripetal acceleration

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17

Space

2.11.2 A 150 kg satellite is orbiting Earth at an altitude of 272 km. Its orbital period is 90 minutes.
Given that the diameter of Earth is 12576 km, and its mass is 5.974 1024 kg, calculate the
centripetal force on the satellite.
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2.12 Compare qualitatively, low Earth and geostationary orbits.


2.12.1 Recall a use for low Earth orbit and geostationary satellites.
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2.12.2 Explain why each type of satellite is ideal for the use you have given in 2.12.1 above.
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2.12.3 Complete the table to compare low Earth and geostationary satellites.
Low Earth satellites

Geostationary satellites

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2.13 Outline the contribution of one of the following to the development of space exploration:
Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, ONeill or von Braun.
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 '
 HQHRUELWDOYHORFLW\DQGWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQRUELWDOYHORFLW\WKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOFRQVWDQW
the mass of the planet, the mass of the satellite and the radius of the orbit qualitatively and
quantitatively.
2.14.1 'HQHRUELWDOYHORFLW\
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.14.2 Imagine satellites orbiting Earth and Jupiter, both at altitudes of 2000 km. Compare their
RUELWDOYHORFLWLHV TXDOLWDWLYHO\RQO\ DQGDFFRXQWIRUWKHGLIIHUHQFH
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2.14.3 Three moons around planet X have masses M, 9 M and 16 M.


D 

, IDOOPRRQVDUHWKHVDPHGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSODQHWVFHQWUHFDOFXODWHWKHUDWLRRIWKHLURUELWDO
speeds.

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19

Space

E 

, IWKHGLVWDQFHVRIWKHVHPRRQVIURPWKHSODQHWVFHQWUHDUHR, 9 R and 16 R respectively,


calculate the ratio of their orbital speeds.

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2.14.4 Three identical moons are in orbit around planets of masses M, 9 M and 16 M. The planets
have the same radii.
D 

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E 

,IWKHRUELWDOUDGLLRIWKHPRRQVDUHWKHVDPHQGWKHUDWLRRIWKHLURUELWDOVSHHGV

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2.14.5 Calculate the orbital speed of the Earth around the Sun given the mass of the Sun is
1.99 1030 kg, and its diameter is 1 392 530 km. The mass of the Earth is 5.974 1024 kg, its
diameter is 12 756 km, and the distance between the Sun and Earth is 150 000 000 km.
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2.15 Solve problems using Keplers Law of Periods:

2.15.1 Calculate the orbital period of Deimos, one of the two moons of Mars. Its average distance
from Mars is 23 400 km and its irregular shape averages about 13 km across. The mass of
Mars is 6.42 1023 kg, and its diameter is 6794 km.
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2.15.2 Calculate the altitude of an Earth satellite with a period of 12 hours. The mass of the Earth is
5.974 1024 kg.
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2.15.3 7
 KHWDEOHJLYHVLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWIRXURIWKHPRRQVRIWKHSODQHW8UDQXV8VH.HSOHUV/DZ
of Periods to calculate the missing data in the following table:
Moon

Radius of orbit (km)

Miranda

Ariel
Titania
Oberon

Orbital period (Earth days)


1.41

190 900

8.71

583 400

13.46

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21

Space

2.15.4 *HRVWDWLRQDU\VDWHOOLWHVRUELWZLWKDUDGLXVRINP8VHWKLVLQIRUPDWLRQWRQG
(a)

the period of a satellite which orbits with a radius of 15 000 km

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(b)

the orbital radius of a satellite which has an orbital period of 4.0 hours

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2.15.5 Io, closest to the planet, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, furthest from the planet, are the four
moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo in 1610. There is an interesting relationship between
the orbital period (T RIWKHUVWWKUHHPRRQVHDFKEHLQJKDOIWKDWRIWKHQH[WPRRQIXUWKHU
from the planet. In other words:
TIo

0.5 TEuropa

TEuropa

0.5 TGanymede

Given the mass of Jupiter as 1.90 1027 kg and the orbital radius of Ganymede as
1.1 106 km, calculate:
(a)

the orbital radius of Io

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E 

,RVRUELWDOVSHHG

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2.16 Account for the orbital decay of satellites in LEO.


2.16.1 Explain, in terms of the principle of physics involved why satellites in low Earth orbits will
eventually fall to Earth.
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2.16.2 Two students are discussing orbital decay. Maria says that frictional forces between the
spacecraft and the atmosphere are responsible. Edward says that this is incorrect and that
WKHUHDOUHDVRQLVWKDWJUDYLWDWLRQDOIRUFHVSXOOWKHVSDFHFUDIWGRZQ(YDOXDWHWKHVWXGHQWV
statements.
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2.17 Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry into the Earths atmosphere and landing on the
Earths surface.
2.17.1 6XPPDULVHKRZKHDWEXLOGXSZDVLVPLQLPLVHGLQVSDFHFUDIWUHHQWU\
D 

LQWKHHDUO\GD\VRIVSDFHLJKW

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(b)

on the space shuttle

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2.17.2 Explain the concept of VDFULFLDOOD\HUVRQUHHQWU\VSDFHFUDIW


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2.17.3 ,GHQWLI\DQGMXVWLI\WKHGLUHFWLRQDVWURQDXWVVKRXOGIDFHGXULQJWDNHRIIDQGUHHQWU\
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.18 Identify that there is an optimum angle for re-entry of a spacecraft into the Earths atmosphere
and the consequences of failing to achieve this.
2.18.1 5
 HFDOOWKHUDQJHRIWKHVDIHUHHQWU\DQJOHIRUWKH$SROORPLVVLRQUHHQWU\FUDIWUHHQWHULQJ
(DUWKVDWPRVSKHUH
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.18.2 ,GHQWLI\WKHFRQVHTXHQFHVRIIDLOLQJWRDFKLHYHDUHHQWU\DQJOHZLWKLQWKLVUDQJH
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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2.18.3 7
 KHUHHQWU\DQJOHYDULHVIRUGLIIHUHQWUHHQWU\FUDIW3UHGLFWWKHWZRPDLQSURSHUWLHVRIWKH
UHHQWU\FUDIWZKLFKGHWHUPLQHVLW
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3. The Solar System is held together by gravity.




'HVFULEHDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGQHDUDPDVVLYHREMHFWLQWHUPVRILWVHIIHFWVRQRWKHUPDVVHV
3.1.1

'HQHLQJHQHUDOWKHFRQFHSWRIDHOGLQSK\VLFV

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3.1.2

'HQHWKHFRQFHSWRIDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG

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'HQH1HZWRQV/DZRI8QLYHUVDO*UDYLWDWLRQ
3.2.1

1HZWRQV/DZRI8QLYHUVDO*UDYLWDWLRQLVPDGHXSRIWKUHHVWDWHPHQWV5HFDOOWKHP

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3.2.2

 HWHUPLQHWKHXQLWVRI1HZWRQVXQLYHUVDOJUDYLWDWLRQDOFRQVWDQWDQGXVHNQRZQYDOXHVWR
'
calculate its magnitude.

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3.3

Solve problems and analyse information using:

3.3.1

Calculate the gravitational force between the Moon and the Earth. The mass of the Moon is
7.35 1022 kg, that of the Earth is 5.974 1024 kg, the diameter of the Moon is 3467 km, that
of the Earth is 12 756 km and the distance between them is about 406 676 km.

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25

Space

3.3.2

The mass of Jupiter is 1.9 1027 kg. Its diameter is 142 984 km. Calculate:

(a)

the weight of a 10 kg object on its surface

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(b)

the value of its acceleration due to gravity at its surface

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3.3.3

The radius of the Earth is 6378 km and its mass is 5.974 1024 kg. Calculate the acceleration
at an altitude of 15 000 m.

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3.3.4

Two moons have masses M and 4 M and radii R and 4 R respectively. Compare their
accelerations due to gravity.

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3.3.5

The mass of Mercury is 3.58 1023 kg. Its diameter is 4880 km. Compare its gravitational
acceleration with that of Pluto, mass 1.27 1022 kg, diameter 2320 km.

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3.3.6

Calculate the gravitational force between two 60 kg students two metres apart.

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3.4

Discuss factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force.


3.4.1

Predict the effect on the gravitational force between two objects of:

(a)

halving the distance between them ................................................................................................................................

(b)

doubling both masses

(c)

doubling one mass and halving the distance between them

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3.4.2

Calculate how far an astronaut would need to be away above the Earth in order for his weight
WREHKLVZHLJKWRQWKH(DUWKVVXUIDFH

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3.4.3
(a)

An astronaut is in a satellite orbiting the Earth at an altitude of one Earth radius.


What is the gravitational force acting on him compared to his weight on the surface of the
Earth? Justify your answer.

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(b)

The satellite is boosted to double this altitude. What is the new gravitational force acting on
the astronaut?

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(c)

Calculate the orbital velocity of the astronaut in this higher orbit.

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27

Space

3.5

Discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and


calculating the motion of satellites.
3.5.1

Given that the gravitational force holding an orbiting satellite in a stable orbit is also the
centripetal force acting on it due to its orbital speed, determine the relationship between the
orbital speed and the mass of the satellite.

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3.5.2

A satellite has an orbital period of T and an orbital radius of R8VLQJWKHHTXDWLRQ\RX


GHULYHGLQWKHODVWTXHVWLRQDQGWKHIRUPXODIRUWKHDYHUDJHYHORFLW\RIDQREMHFWIURP
<HDU DYHUDJHYHORFLW\ WRWDOGLVWDQFHWUDYHOOHGWRWDOWLPHWDNHQ GHULYH.HSOHUV
formula.

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3.6

Identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes.
3.6.1

Explain the slingshot effect.

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3.6.2

Explain the role of gravitational attraction between a spacecraft and a planet as the spacecraft
moves around the planet and accelerated due to the slingshot effect.

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4. Current and emerging understanding about time and space has been dependent upon
earlier models of the transmission of light.
4.1

Outline the features of the aether model for the transmission of light.
4.1.1

List the properties of the aether as predicted by scientists in the 1800s, and justify their
perception of the need for each property.
Property of the aether

4.2

Justication

Describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley experiment.


4.2.1

'HVFULEHWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW

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4.2.2

:KDWZHUH0LFKHOVRQDQG0RUOH\DWWHPSWLQJWRQGLQWKHLUH[SHULPHQW"

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4.2.3

'HVFULEHKRZWKLV \RXUDQVZHUWRWKHTXHVWLRQDERYH ZRXOGLQGLFDWHWKHSUHVHQFHRIDQDHWKHU

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29

Space

4.2.4

(YDOXDWHWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW

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4.3

Interpret the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment.


4.3.1

,GHQWLI\ZKDWZDVNQRZQDERXWWKHDHWKHUEHIRUHWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.3.2

'HVFULEHWKHUHVXOWVRIWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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4.3.3

([SODLQZKDWFRQFOXVLRQFRXOGEHGUDZQIURPWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4

Discuss the role of the Michelson-Morley experiment in making determinations about


competing theories.
4.4.1

 XWOLQHWKHHIIHFWRIWKH0LFKHOVRQ0RUOH\H[SHULPHQWRQVFLHQWLVWVLGHDVDERXWWKHDHWKHUDW
2
that time.

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4.5

Outline the nature of inertial frames of reference.


4.5.1

'HQHJLYLQJDSSURSULDWHH[DPSOHVDQLQHUWLDOIUDPHDQGDQRQLQHUWLDOIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFH

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4.5.2

An astronaut tied her mascot to a string and hung it from the ceiling. One day she noticed that
instead of hanging straight down, it hung at an angle.

(a)

Account for this.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Identify the frame of reference when it hangs straight down. Justify your answer.

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4.5.3

Identify the frame of reference of the spaceship when the mascot hangs at an angle. Justify
your answer.

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4.6

Perform an investigation to distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference.


4.6.1

 XWOLQHDQH[SHULPHQW\RXKDYHGRQHWRGLVWLQJXLVKEHWZHHQQRQLQHUWLDODQGLQHUWLDOIUDPHV
2
of reference.

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4.6.2

If you are in an inertial frame of reference you cannot tell if you are moving at a constant
velocity or if you are stationary. Why not?

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31

Space

4.7

Discuss the principle of relativity.


4.7.1

Explain the principle of relativity.

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 HVFULEHWKHVLJQLFDQFHRIWKHDVVXPSWLRQRI(LQVWHLQVDVVXPSWLRQRIWKHFRQVWDQF\RIWKH
'
speed of light.
4.8.1

Outline the essential problem with light, the aether and the principle of relativity.

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4.9

Analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and
discuss the relationship between thought and reality.
4.9.1

2XWOLQH(LQVWHLQVUVWWKRXJKWH[SHULPHQW

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4.9.2

,GHQWLI\WKHFRQFOXVLRQWR(LQVWHLQVUVWWKRXJKWH[SHULPHQW

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4.10 Identify that if c is constant, then space and time become relative.
4.10.1 ,GHQWLI\WKHFRQVHTXHQFHVRI(LQVWHLQVVSHFLDOWKHRU\RIUHODWLYLW\
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 '
 LVFXVVWKHFRQFHSWWKDWOHQJWKVWDQGDUGVDUHGHQHGLQWHUPVRIWLPHLQFRQWUDVWWRWKHRULJLQDO
metre standard.
4.11.1 Explain why the standard of length changed from being the distance between two lines on a
SODWLQXPLULGLXPDOOR\EDUWRWKHGLVWDQFHOLJKWWUDYHOVLQWKRIDVHFRQG
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4.12 Analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and the evidence supporting it
using Einsteins predictions based on relativity that were made many years before evidence was
available to support it.
4.12.1 , WZDVRYHU\HDUVEHIRUHH[SHULPHQWDOHYLGHQFHZDVDYDLODEOHWRVXSSRUW(LQVWHLQVVSHFLDO
theory of relativity. Outline one piece of evidence in support of his theory.
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4.12.2 &RPPHQWRQWKHVWDWHPHQWDWKHRU\LVXVHOHVVXQOHVVLWKDVVXSSRUWLQJHYLGHQFH
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Space

4.13 Explain qualitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to the relativity of
simultaneity.
4.13.1 &ODULI\WKHWHUPUHODWLYLW\RIVLPXOWDQHLW\
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4.13.2 ([SODLQJLYLQJDQDSSURSULDWHH[DPSOHWKHFRQFHSWRIVLPXOWDQHLW\
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4.14 Explain qualitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to the equivalence between
mass and energy.
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4.15 Solve problems using:


4.15.1 ([SODLQWKHFRQFHSWRIUHVWPDVV
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4.15.2 Explain why the concept of rest mass is needed.


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4.15.3 A proton has a rest mass of 1.673 1027 kg. Calculate its rest energy.
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4.15.4 (
 LQVWHLQVPDVVHQHUJ\HTXLYDOHQFHKROGVLQDOOVLWXDWLRQVQRWMXVWQXFOHDUSURFHVVHV
That is, in all exothermic or endothermic chemical processes, the energy involved is
actually a result of mass to energy or from energy to mass.
(a)

This would seem to contradict the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation
of mass. Comment on this statement.

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E 

*LYHQ(LQVWHLQVZRUNLWLVPRUHVHQVLEOHWRWDONDERXWDODZRIPDVVDQGHQHUJ\
Comment on this idea.

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(c)

Which way would the energy/mass conversion work for:


(i)

an endothermic process?

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(ii)

an exothermic process?

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4.16 Explain qualitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to mass.


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Space

4.17 Solve problems using:

4.17.1 The mass of an electron at rest is 9.11 1031 kg. Calculate its mass in a TV tube when it is
moving at 0.15 c.
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4.17.2 Calculate the mass of a proton, rest mass 1.673 1027 kg in a linear accelerator when it is
moving at 0.8 c.
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4.18 Explain qualitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to length contraction.
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4.19 Solve problems using:


4.19.1 $
 PORQJVSDFHVKLSLHVSDVWWKH(DUWKDWc. Calculate the apparent length of the
spacecraft as seen from Earth.
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4.19.2 $
 VSDFHFUDIW\LQJSDVW(DUWKDWFRQVWDQWVSHHGDSSHDUVWRKDYHDOHQJWKZKLFKLVRILWV
stationary length. Calculate how fast it is travelling.
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4.19.3 $
 VSDFHVKLSLQWKHVKDSHRIDPFXEHLHVKRUL]RQWDOO\SDVW(DUWKDWc. Describe its
shape as seen by an observer on Earth.
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4.20 Explain qualitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to time dilation.
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4.21 Solve problems using:

4.21.1 An astronaut travelling at 0.5 c takes 10 hours ship time to reach his destination. Calculate
how much time has passed on Earth.
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4.21.2 $
 VSDFHVKLSLHVSDVWDSODQHWDWc. The pilot and his girlfriend on the planet each wave at
the other for 4.0 seconds.
(a)

Calculate how long the pilot sees his girlfriend waving.

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(b)

Calculate how long the girlfriend sees the pilot waving.

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(c)

Account for these answers being the same value.

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37

Space

4.21.3 0
 HVRQVKDYHDOLIHRIV+RZHYHUPHVRQVIRUPHGLQWKHXSSHUDWPRVSKHUHDVDLUSDUWLFOHV
DUHKLWE\FRVPLFUD\VWDNHVWRUHDFKWKH(DUWKVVXUIDFH&DOFXODWHKRZIDVWWKH\WUDYHO
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4.21.4 Star X is 8.0 ly from Earth. A spaceship travels at 0.5 c to reach the star.
(a)

Calculate how long the trip takes as measured by an observer on Earth.

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(b)

Calculate how long the trip takes as measured by the astronauts in the ship.

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(c)

Calculate the distance travelled as measured by the astronauts.

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(d)

Calculate the speed of the ship as measured by the astronauts.

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4.22 Discuss the implications of mass increase, time dilation, and length contraction for space travel.
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DOT POINT
Answers

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235

Answers

Notes
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Space
1.1.1

Weight on Jupiter will be 2.53 times greater than its weight on Earth (124 N compared to 49 N).

1.1.2
Mass

Weight

Amount of matter in an object

Measure of gravitational force on an object

Measured in kilograms

Measured in newtons

Does not vary

Varies as gravitational acceleration varies

Cannot be zero

Can be zero

Is a scalar quantity

Is a vector quantity

1.2.1

29.4 N, 11.17 N

1.2.2

11.27 m s2, 117.6 N

1.2.3

The bathroom scales are calibrated in kilograms, but actually measure weight because they work by the mass on them
FRPSUHVVLQJDVSULQJ7KHFDOLEUDWLRQWKHUHIRUHWDNHVLQWRDFFRXQW(DUWKVJUDYLWDWLRQDOSXOO2QWKH0RRQWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDO
force is only about one sixth that of Earth, so the spring will only compress about one sixth as much. The scales therefore read
1.6 kg instead of 10 kg.

1.3.1

Correct values for (a) and (b) given in table. Your estimates may be different, but see how close you were. Gravitational
DFFHOHUDWLRQLVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHPDVVRIWKHSODQHWEXWLQYHUVHO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRLWVUDGLXVVTXDUHG
Object

1.4.1

Diameter of object (km)

Rank of gravitational force


(smallest (=1) to largest
(=12))

Gravitational acceleration
(m s2 )

The Sun

1.99 1030

1 392 530

11

275.4

Mercury

3.58 1023

4878

4.01

Venus

24

4.90 10

12 104

8.92

Earth

5.974 1024

12 756

9.8

7.35 1022

3467

1.6

The Moon

1.3.2

Mass of object (kg)

Mars

23

6.43 10

6794

3.72

Jupiter

1.90 1027

142 984

10

24.8

Saturn

26

5.69 10

120 000

10.54

Uranus

8.68 1025

51 800

8.63

Neptune

1.03 1026

49 250

11.33

Pluto

1.27 1022

2320

0.63

(a)

60 kg

(b)

588 N

(c)

223.4 N

(d)

60 kg

(e)

1470 N

Answers will vary check with your teacher if unsure.

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237

Space

A group of students set up a pendulum and recorded the measurements shown in the table.
Length of pendulum string (m)

Time for 20 swings (s)

Period of swing (s)

(Period of swing)2 (s2)

0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00

20.0
28.2
34.8
40.0
44.9
49.9
56.5

1.00
1.41
1.74
2.00
2.25
2.49
2.83

1.00
1.99
3.72
4.00
5.06
6.20
8.00

The mass of the pendulum bob (although this


would not affect the results), the angle of swing,
the person doing the timing, the timer used.

(b)

See above.

(c)

As the length of the pendulum increases, the


period of swing increases.

(d)

See graph (right).

(e)

Only that as length increases, period of


swing increases we cannot express this as a
SURSRUWLRQDOUHODWLRQVKLSEHFDXVHWKHJUDSKLV
not a straight line.

(f)

The period for pendulum length 0.75 m seems


to be incorrect. It should be treated as an
RXWOLHUDQGQRWLQFOXGHGLQWKHWUHQGOLQH

(g)

g  2l/T 2

(h)

You should graph length of the pendulum


versus period2.

L 

0ERIODS

(a)
















2.5

,ENGTHM

Period squared (s2)

1.4.2

10
8
6
4
2
0
0

0.5

1.5

Length (m)

 URPWKHHTXDWLRQJ 2/gradient of this


)
graph = 9.49 m s2.

1.4.3

Value for acceleration due to gravity will vary as altitude varies, because the Earth is not a perfect sphere, so at sea level at
WKHHTXDWRUDPDVVFDQEHIXUWKHUIURPWKHFHQWUHRI(DUWKWKDQDWDQ\RWKHUSRVLWLRQ GHFUHDVHVWRDPLQLPXPGLVWDQFHDWWKH
poles), type of, and amount of rock in the crust underneath the object could cause very slight variations.

1.5.1

Work is done on an object whenever an applied force causes a change in energy of the object. When a gravitational force (or
DQH[WHUQDOIRUFH FDXVHVDQREMHFWWRFKDQJHLWVSRVLWLRQLQDJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGWKHQWKHZRUNGRQHE\WKDWIRUFHLVHTXDOWR
the gravitational potential energy the object loses (or gains).

1.5.2

(a)

external force (thrust from engines)

(b)

gravity

1.5.3

 HDUHXQDEOHWRVD\:HZRXOGQHHGWRNQRZWKHVRXUFHRIWKHZRUNEHIRUHWKLVTXHVWLRQFDQEHDQVZHUHG,IWKHVRXUFHLV
:
gravity, then it moves to a lower orbit. If the source is its engines and these are providing an impulse away from the Earth,
then it moves to a higher orbit.

1.5.4

 VWKHFRPHWOHDYHVWKH6XQDQGDSSURDFKHVLQQLW\LWVJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\ZKLFKLVDOZD\VQHJDWLYHZLOOGHFUHDVH
$
WR]HURDWLQQLW\7KHFRPHWZLOOEHPRYLQJDWLWVIDVWHVWDIWHULWPRYHVDURXQGWKH6XQDQGZLOOEHVORZHGGRZQE\WKH6XQV
gravitational force as it travels away from the Sun, so its kinetic energy decreases and will also become zero if it reaches
LQQLW\

1.6.1

1.93 1010 J

1.6.2

+4.61 109 J

1.6.3

7KHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\RIDQREMHFWFDQRQO\EH]HURZKHQLWVGLVWDQFHIURPDSODQHWLVLQQLWH$VWKHREMHFWWKHQ
falls towards the planet, its gravitational potential energy will decrease (its kinetic energy increases). If GPE decreases from
zero, it must become negative in value.

1.6.4

(a)

Your prediction could be anything less for X, less for Y, same for each. The most logical is the same for each based
on the fact that they both have their orbit increased by the same amount.

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1.6.5

(b)

Calculations show that the initial EP of X is 3.119 1010-DQGQDOLV10 J for an increase of 5 107 J.
The initial EP of Y is 3.114 1010-DQGQDOLV10 J also for an increase of 5 107 J.

(a)

The gravitational potential energy of m1 > m2 > m3VLQFHIURPWKHHTXDWLRQJUDYLWDWLRQDOSRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\LVGLUHFWO\


proportional to the masses of the objects.

(b)

The work needed to put the three spacecraft into a higher, identical orbit is directly proportional to their masses also
(W = Fs = mgs. Note that g is the value of the acceleration due to gravity of planet X at the altitude of the orbit). This
makes the work done on m1 > m2 > m3.

(c)

As the objects fall to a lower orbit they lose gravitational potential energy and gain kinetic energy. If they all end up
at the same altitude, then the loss of EP and gain in KE for each will be the same, but EP loss will depends on their
masses, so KE gain will also. Therefore, KE of m1 > m2 > m3.

2.1.1

Horizontal component of its motion is constant velocity (zero acceleration), while the vertical component is accelerated by
gravity.

2.1.2

Horizontal component is 10.35 m s1, vertical component is 38.64 m s1.

2.2.1

Horizontal and vertical components of the motion of a projectile are independent of each other.
Horizontal component of its motion is constant velocity (zero acceleration).
Vertical component is constantly accelerated (by gravity).

2.2.2

Using Pythagoras,
at t = 1,
so
therefore

17.92 = vector sum of vy + 15


vy2 = 17.922 152
vy = 9.8 m s1

at t = 2,
so
therefore

24.68 = vector sum of vy + 15


vy2 = 24.682 152
vy = 19.6 m s1

at t = 3,
so
therefore

33.01 = vector sum of vy + 15


vy2 = 33.012 152
vy = 29.4 m s1

at t = 4,
so
therefore

41.97 = vector sum of vy + 15


vy2 = 41.972 152
vy = 39.2 m s1

So, change in velocity each second = 9.8 m s1, so acceleration is constant at 9.8 m s2ZKLFKLVFRQVLVWHQWZLWK*DOLOHRVDQDO\VLV
2.3.1

2.3.2

(a)

6.32 s

(b)

948.7 m

(c)

162 m s1 at 22.5 down from the horizontal

(a)

160 m s1

(b)

68.9 m

(c)

up at 164.2 m s1 at 12.9 to the horizontal

2.3.3

115.5 m

2.4.1

Given EP = Gm1m2/r = m1v2 (m2 = mass planet, m1 = mass satellite)


v2 = 2Gm1m2/m1r
i.e.
v Gm2/r
i.e.
escape velocity is independent of the mass of the satellite.

2.4.2

Either the mass of Neptune is larger than the mass of Earth, or its radius is smaller, or the combination mass/radius is larger
for Neptune than for Earth.

2.4.3

For Mercury, mass/radius = 1.475 1020, for Venus this ratio is 8.13 1020, therefore this would indicate escape velocity for
9HQXVLVKLJKHUWKDQHVFDSHYHORFLW\RI0HUFXU\ )URPWKHHTXDWLRQHVFDSHYHORFLWLHVIRU0HUFXU\LVPV1, for Venus it
is 10 393 m s1.)

2.5.1

1
 HZWRQDUJXHGWKDWWKHIDVWHUDSURMHFWLOHZDVUHGWKHIXUWKHULWZRXOGJRDQGWKDWWKHUHZRXOGHYHQWXDOO\EHDVSHHGZKLFK
ZRXOGFDXVHLWWRRUELWWKH(DUWKUDWKHUWKDQIDOOLQJEDFNWRWKHJURXQG+HIXUWKHUUHDVRQHGWKDWLILWZDVUHGIDVWHUWKDQWKLV
YDOXHLWZRXOGHVFDSH(DUWKVJUDYLWDWLRQDOHOG

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2.6.1

It is simpler to use than an absolute force scale, and communicates the same relative forces acting on astronauts of different
masses.

2.6.2

(a)

3.75

(b)

3.75

2.6.3

2.75

2.7.1

(a)

0.625 m s1

(b)

2.352 m s1

(c)

2.43 m s1 at 75.1 up from horizontal

(d)

0.28 m

(e)

0.84 s

(f)

0.525 m

(a)

10.2 m s2

(b)

22.2 m s2

(c)

3.265

2.8.1

2.8.2

6WDJHGURFNHWVDUHXVHGIRUWZRUHDVRQVUVWO\LWHQDEOHVWKHH[WUDPDVVRIHPSW\IXHOWDQNVDQGKXJHURFNHWHQJLQHVWREH
discarded, lessening the mass for the second stage engines and so making their thrust more effective and it also reduces the
PD[LPXPJIRUFHH[SHULHQFHGE\DVWURQDXWV
4

3
g-force
2

0
0

Time after lift-off

2.8.3

As fuel is used the mass of the rocket decreases and because the thrust is constant, the force on the rocket stays the same, so
the acceleration (as per F = ma) must increase.

2.8.4

(a)

2.2 m s2

(b)

62.2 m s2

(c)

7.35

2.8.5

 KHPRPHQWXPRIWKHH[KDXVWJDVHV GRZQZDUGV SURYLGHVDQHTXDOEXWXSZDUGVLPSXOVHRQWKHURFNHW7KLVLVWKHWKUXVW


7
which causes the upwards acceleration of the rocket.

2.9.1

)URPWKHHTXDWRUWRZDUGVWKHHDVW

2.9.2

 RZDUGVWKHHDVWVRWKDWWKHURFNHWWDNHVDGYDQWDJHRIWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKH(DUWKVURWDWLRQDOPRWLRQDERXWLWVD[LV NSK 
7
DQGVDYHVRQIXHOZKLFKZRXOGRWKHUZLVHEHQHHGHGWRJDLQWKLVLQLWLDOVSHHG$WWKHHTXDWRUEHFDXVHLWLVKHUHWKDWWKH(DUWKV
rotational speed is greatest.

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2.9.3

If the rocket is launched too early, or in the wrong direction, it will reach its destination before Mars gets to the same position.
If launched too late, Mars will have passed the intercept point before the rocket gets there.

0OSITIONOF-ARSATLAUNCH
,AUNCHLATE -ARSGONE
0OSITIONOF%ARTHATLAUNCH

0OSITIONOF-ARSAFTERFLIGHT
,AUNCHEARLY -ARSNOTTHERE

2.10.1

For example: An electron in orbit about a nucleus is moving with uniform circular motion. The centripetal force is provided
by the electrostatic force of attraction between the positive charge on the protons in the nucleus and the negative charge on the
electrons.
.EGATIVEELECTRON
#ENTRIPETALFORCEELECTROSTATICATTRACTION

0OSITIVENUCLEUS

#IRCULARORBIT

2.10.2

Gravitational attraction towards the Earth (= centripetal force).

2.10.2

7
 KHDVWURQDXWLVLQIUHHIDOOWKDWLVKHVKHLVIDOOLQJWRZDUGVWKH(DUWKXQGHUWKHLQXHQFHRIJUDYLW\%HFDXVHWKHUHLVQR
UHDFWLRQIRUFHRQWKHDVWURQDXWKHVKHIHHOVZHLJKWOHVVKHVKHGRHVQRWQRWLFHWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOIRUFH

2.11.1

(a)

26 991.3 N towards the centre of the Earth

(b)

8.98 m s2 towards the centre of the Earth

2.11.2

1350.8 N towards the centre of the Earth

2.12.1

LEO spy satellites, geostationary communications

2.12.2

LEO satellites cover the entire surface of the Earth at least once per day and, being much lower, can see more detail in the
things they observe (reading car number plates, identifying faces, seeing a golf ball on a golf green). They are therefore useful
for spy activities.

*HRVWDWLRQDU\VDWHOOLWHVFRYHUDPXFKODUJHUSURSRUWLRQRIWKH(DUWKVVXUIDFHDQGGRQRWKDYHWREHWUDFNHGVRDUH
HFRQRPLFDOIRUERXQFLQJFRPPXQLFDWLRQVVLJQDOVDURXQGWKH(DUWK7KHFDQDOVRVHHORQJGLVWDQFHZHDWKHUSDWWHUQVDQGDUH
therefore able to be used to predict weather in other places.

2.12.3
Low Earth satellites

2.13

Geostationary satellites

Altitude 250 - 1000 km

Altitude 35 800 km

Period 90 minutes to 4 or 5 hours

Period 23 hours 65 min 4 sec

Usually polar orbit

Equatorial orbit

Not xed relative to Earths surface

Stay over same position on Earths surface

Used for spying

Used for communications and weather forecasting

Answers will vary according to the scientist chosen check your text for details.

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2.14.1

 UELWDOYHORFLW\LVDPHDVXUHRIWKHVSHHGDWZKLFKDVDWHOOLWHPRYHVDURXQGLWVSULPDU\ $SULPDU\LVWKHKHDYHQO\REMHFWD
2
SODQHWRUELWVHJ7KH6XQLV(DUWKVSULPDU\

2.14.2

The orbital speed of the satellite around Jupiter would have to be greater than that of the satellite around Earth if both are to be
in stable orbits because the gravitational pull of Jupiter is greater than that of Earth.

2.14.3

(a)

1 : 1 : 1 (orbital speed is independent of the mass of the satellite)

(b)

12 : 4 : 3

(a)

1 : 9 : 16

(b)

1:3:4

2.14.4

2.14.5

2.968 m s1 = 106 839 kph

2.15.1

133240.6 s = 37 hours

2.15.2

20 229.2 km

2.15.3

A = 129 643 km
B = 2.51 days
C = 436 464 km

2.15.4

2.15.5

(a)

5.075 hours

(b)

12 798.6 km

(a)

4.37 105 km

(b)

17 009 m s1 = 4750 kph

2.16.1

Friction between the satellite and the atmosphere reduces the speed of the satellite, so gravitational forces can attract it closer
to Earth where the denser atmosphere will provide greater frictional forces which will slow it even more and allow gravity to
pull it even closer to Earth, and so on.

2.16.2

Both students are correct in that each factor contributes to orbital decay, but both are incorrect in assuming that their factor is
the only one involved. Both frictional forces to slow the craft and gravity are needed before orbital decay can occur. Without
the slowing of the craft due to friction, gravity will simply keep it in a stable orbit, and without gravity, the craft would not be
pulled to Earth.

2.17.1

(a)

Because air is one of the best heat insulators, the most effective heat protection is the cushion of air that builds up in
IURQWRIWKHEOXQWQRVHRUEHOO\RIWKHUHHQWU\FUDIW2WKHUVWUDWHJLHVXVHGWRPLQLPLVHKHDWEXLOGXSLQVLGHUHHQWU\
FDSVXOHVKDYHLQFOXGHGVDFULFLDOVNLQVLQLWLDOO\PHWDODOOR\VWKHQPRUHHIFLHQWEUHJODVVRUKHDWUHVLVWDQWFHUDPLFV
that absorb much of the heat energy as they vaporise.

E 

%HFDXVHWKH\FRXOGEHXVHGRQO\RQFHVDFULFLDOOD\HUVZHUHUHSODFHGZLWKVSRQJLIRUPEUHJODVVWLOHVRQWKHVSDFH
shuttles. These are 90% air (an excellent insulator) and are painted with a waterproof silicon sealant between each
LJKW7KHVHDODQWSUHYHQWVWKHWLOHVIURPDEVRUELQJDWPRVSKHULFPRLVWXUH ZKLFKZRXOGLQFUHDVHWKHPDVVRIWKHFUDIW
VLJQLFDQWO\ DQGEXUQVRIIGXULQJWKHUVWVWDJHVRIUHHQWU\

2.17.2

 DFULFLDOOD\HUVDUHOD\HUVRIPHWDODOOR\VDQGEUHJODVVDQGKHDWUHVLVWDQWFHUDPLFVWKDWDEVRUEVRPHKHDWDVVRFLDWHGZLWK
6
UHHQWU\IULFWLRQDVWKH\PHOWDQGYDSRULVH,QWKLVZD\WKLVKHDWLVQRWFRQGXFWHGWKURXJKDQGLQWRWKHUHHQWU\FDSVXOH

2.17.3

 LYHQWKHVPDOOJIRUFHVLQYROYHGLQPRGHUQVSDFHFUDIWLWUHDOO\GRHVQWPDWWHUEXWWRJLYHPD[LPXPVSLQDOVXSSRUWDQG
*
VXSSRUWIRUVRIWIDFLDOWLVVXHVHVSHFLDOO\H\HVDVWURQDXWVVKRXOGIDFHIRUZDUGVGXULQJWDNHRII LQHUWLDOIRUFHVSXVKWKHP
EDFNZDUGVLQWRWKHLUFRQWRXUHGVHDWV DQGEDFNZDUGVGXULQJUHHQWU\IRUWKHVDPHUHDVRQ

2.18.1



2.18.2

7RRVKDOORZDQGWKHFUDIWZLOOVNLSRIIEDFNLQWRVSDFHWRRGHHSDQGWKHIRUFHVDQGKHDWLQYROYHGZLOOEHWRRODUJHIRU
survival of the astronauts or the craft.

2.18.3

7KHVSHHGVRIUHHQWU\DQGWKHVKDSHRIWKHFUDIW

3.1.1

$HOGLVDUHJLRQLQZKLFKVRPHWKLQJH[SHULHQFHVDIRUFH

3.1.2

$JUDYLWDWLRQDOHOGLVDUHJLRQLQZKLFKDPDVVH[SHULHQFHVDIRUFH

3.2.1

Every object in the Universe attracts every other object with a gravitational force.
The force is directly proportional to the masses of the objects.
7KHIRUFHLVLQYHUVHO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHVTXDUHRIWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHP

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3.2.2

Units for G are N m2 kg2 or kg1 m3 s2.


Using weight force = mg = GMm/r2
We get G = gr2/M, and substituting values for the mass of Earth and its radius, and 9.8 for g, we get 6.673 1011.

3.3.1

1.702 1020 N

3.3.2

(a)

247.95 N

(b)

24.795 m s2

3.3.3

9.75 m s2

3.3.4

gM : g4M = 4 : 1

3.3.5

gM : gP = 4.01 : 0.63 = 6.37 : 1

3.3.6

6 108 N attraction

3.4.1

(a)

multiplies the force by 4

(b)

multiplies the force by 4

(c)

multiplies the force by 8

3.4.2

1.93 105 km

3.4.3

D 

WLPHVKLVZHLJKWDWWKHVXUIDFH IRUFHLVLQGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRGLVWDQFHIURP(DUWKVFHQWUHVTXDUHG 

(b)

0.11 times his surface weight force.

(c)

If you do this calculation using weight force = centripetal force, you should get 4564 m s1 which is 1268 kph.

,I\RXXVHWKHRUELWDOYHORFLW\HTXDWLRQ\RXZLOOJHWPV1 which is 1215 kph.

The difference can be accounted for in rounding off errors and approximations of values used.
3.5.1
3.5.2

3.6.1

%
 \HTXDWLQJWKHWZRHTXDWLRQVDQGUHDUUDQJLQJWKHP\RXVKRXOGVKRZWKDWRUELWDOVSHHGLVLQGHSHQGHQWRIWKHPDVVRIWKH
satellite.
GM 2R
From v =
=
we get
R
T
GM 4 2 R 2
=
v2 =
R
T2
R 3 GM
Which, on rearranging, gives 2 = 2
4
T
$
 VDVSDFHFUDIWDSSURDFKHVDQGJRHVFORVHWRDSODQHWDQRQFRQWDFWHODVWLFFROOLVLRQRFFXUVZKLFKUHVXOWVLQWKHWUDQVIHURI
rotational kinetic energy from the planet to linear kinetic energy of the spacecraft.

3.6.2

Gravitational forces draw the spacecraft close enough to the planet so that the slingshot collision can occur, but gravitational
forces are not responsible for the increase in speed that results. Gravitational forces which increase the speed of the spacecraft
as it approaches the planet (and decrease its speed for a shorter time as it recedes from the planet) do contribute to a small
amount of speed increase, but this is in addition to the slingshot effect.

4.1.1

List the properties of the aether as predicted by scientists in the 1800s, and justify their perception of the need for each
property.
Property of the aether

4.2.1

Justication

Fill space

Light travelled everywhere.

Be transparent

We cannot see it.

Permeate all matter

Light travels everywhere.

Have an extremely low density

It cannot be detected.

Have great elasticity

Transfer of energy over long distances requires the medium transmitting the wave to be highly
elastic otherwise signicant amounts of energy will be lost to the particles of the medium.

7
 KH\VHWXSWKHLUDSSDUDWXVRQDODUJHKHDY\URFNZKLFKWKH\RDWHGRQPHUFXU\7KHODUJHURFNZDVDQDWWHPSWWRHOLPLQDWH
vibrations from external sources as these would blur the light pattern results. Floating the apparatus on mercury enabled them
to rotate it to try to detect the expected interference patterns from different directions. The interferometer used by Michelson
DQG0RUOH\UHHFWHGOLJKWIURPDFRPPRQVRXUFHLQWZRGLUHFWLRQVDQGWKHQEDFNWRDQREVHUYDWLRQSRLQW,IWKHDHWKHU
existed, then the light rays travelling with and against the aether should interfere with each other more than the rays travelling
DWULJKWDQJOHVWRWKHDHWKHUVPRWLRQ

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4.2.2

They were looking for a difference in the speed of light relative to the Earth depending on the direction of its travel through
the aether.

4.2.3

If the aether existed, then the light rays travelling with the aether and against the Earth should interfere with each other more
WKDQWKHUD\VWUDYHOOLQJDWULJKWDQJOHVWRWKH(DUWKVPRWLRQ

4.2.4

, WZDVWKRURXJKZLGHO\DFFHSWHGDQGZKLOHQRWGLVSURYLQJWKHH[LVWHQFHRIWKHDHWKHUFKDQJHGWKHGLUHFWLRQWKDWVFLHQWLF
WKRXJKWKDGEHHQERJJHGGRZQLQIRU\HDUVDQGVWDUWHGVFLHQWLVWVORRNLQJDWDOWHUQDWHLGHDVIRUWKHUVWWLPHLQDJHV

4.3.1

Nothing only predicted properties.

4.3.2

7KH\DFKLHYHGDQXOOUHVXOWWKDWLVWKH\GLGQRWQGDQ\LQWHUIHUHQFHSDWWHUQV

4.3.3

No conclusion could be drawn as no results were obtained.

4.4.1

Many accepted the experimental null result as evidence that the aether did not exist, others still search for the aether, blaming
WKHQXOOUHVXOWRQHTXLSPHQWWKDWZDVQRWDFFXUDWHHQRXJK

4.5.1

A frame of reference that is not accelerating is known as an inertial frame of reference. A spaceship at constant velocity in
deep space would be an inertial frame of reference. Motion cannot be detected in an inertial frame of reference. Motion is
GHWHFWDEOHLQDQRQLQHUWLDOIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFHRQHZKLFKLVDFFHOHUDWLQJIRUH[DPSOHDSODQHWDNLQJRII

4.5.2

(a)

Craft was no longer an inertial frame of reference. Craft was accelerating in the opposite direction to the angle of
hang.

(b)

Inertial frame of reference. If the craft was accelerating, inertial forces would be noticeable (the mascot would not
hang vertically down).

4.5.3

1RQLQHUWLDOPRWLRQLVREYLRXVEHFDXVHRIWKHLQHUWLDOIRUFHVDFWLQJRQWKHPDVFRWDQGFDXVLQJLWWRKDQJDWDQDQJOH

4.6.1

Answers will vary check with your teacher if unsure.

4.6.2

7KHUHDUHQRLQHUWLDOIRUFHVDFWLQJLQDQLQHUWLDOIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFH WKHUHFDQEHQRQLQHUWLDOIUDPHVRIUHIHUHQFHwithin the


inertial frame of reference, but we are not talking about these here), so there will be no effects by which movement of the
frame of reference can be judged.

4.7.1

$OOPRWLRQLVUHODWLYHEXWFRQVWDQWPRWLRQFDQQRWEHGHWHFWHGZLWKRXWUHIHUHQFHWRD[HGSRVLWLRQRXWVLGHWKHIUDPHRI
reference. Motion may appear different from different frames of reference.

4.8.1

If the aether permeated all matter, then measurements of the speed of light made from an object moving with constant velocity
would give different values, depending on which way the object was moving relative to the aether. These measurements
would enable the observer to determine that they were in an inertial frame of reference. This would violate the principle of
relativity.

4.9.1

Einstein wondered: Suppose I am sitting in a train travelling at the speed of light. If I hold a mirror in front of me, will I see
P\UHHFWLRQ"7KHUHDUHWZRSRVVLELOLWLHV

 R,IWKHWUDLQLVWUDYHOOLQJDWWKHVSHHGRIOLJKWOLJKWIURPKLVIDFHZRXOGQRWUHDFKWKHPLUURULQRUGHUWREHUHHFWHGEDFN
1
%\QRWEHLQJDEOHWRVHHKLVUHHFWLRQKHZRXOGNQRZWKDWWKHWUDLQZDVWUDYHOOLQJDWWKHVSHHGRIOLJKWZLWKRXWKDYLQJWRUHIHU
to an outside point. This violates the principle of relativity.
Yes. This means that light would travel at its normal speed relative to the train. This does not violate the principle of relativity.
However, it also means that, relative to a stationary observer outside the train, light would have to travel at twice its usual
speed!

4.9.2

Einstein concluded that, if we accept that the principle of relativity can never be violated, then:
1.

The aether model must be wrong.



+HZRXOGVHHKLVUHHFWLRQ

3.

The speed of light is constant regardless of the motion of the observer.

4.10.1

The length of an object and the time taken to do something depends on the motion of the observer. Length and time can no
ORQJHUEHUHJDUGHGDVVHSDUDWHFRQFHSWV,QRUGHUWRGHQHDQREMHFWVSRVLWLRQZHPXVWFRQVLGHUfourFRRUGLQDWHVLQWKHVSDFH
time continuum three dimensions of space and time.

4.11.1

:LWKWKHUHDOLVDWLRQWKDWWKHOHQJWKRIDQREMHFWFKDQJHVDVLWVVSHHGFKDQJHVDQHZXQFKDQJLQJGHQLWLRQZDVQHHGHG

4.12.1

 LWKWKHWHFKQRORJ\RIDWRPLFFORFNVDEOHWRNHHSWLPHWRDQXQSUHFHGHQWHGDFFXUDF\RQHFORFNRZQDURXQGWKHZRUOGZDV
:
found to record less time passing than an identical clock kept stationary at the airport.

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4.12.2

Answers will vary you may support the statement as long as you give supporting evidence, or you may disagree, but must
RIIHUWKHVDPHHYLGHQFH)RUH[DPSOHGH%URJOLHVLGHDDERXWPRYLQJPDWWHUSDUWLFOHVKDYLQJDZDYHOHQJWKKDGQRVXSSRUWLQJ
HYLGHQFHEXWLWVWLPXODWHGRWKHUVFLHQWLVWVWRWKLQNDERXWWKHFRQFHSWDQGHYHQWXDOO\ZDVSURYHQWUXHDQGOHGWRVLJQLFDQW
DGYDQFHVLQLGHDVDERXWWKHVWUXFWXUHRIPDWWHU,QDVLPLODUZD\(LQVWHLQVLGHDVLQLWLDOO\KDGQRVXSSRUWLQJH[SHULPHQWDO
evidence, but because of the strength of the mathematics describing them were accepted and eventually proven correct
as technology advanced to catch up with them. In addition, the existence of a theory will provide a direction for further
VFLHQWLFVWXG\DQGIRFXVVFLHQWLFZRUNLWZLOOJLYHGLUHFWLRQWRZKDWVFLHQWLVWVGRDQGWKHUHIRUHZLOOEHYDOXDEOHZKHWKHU
experimental evidence for it exists or not.

4.13.1

6LPXOWDQHLW\UHIHUVWRRXULGHDWKDWGLIIHUHQWWKLQJVKDSSHQDWWKHVDPHWLPH(LQVWHLQVUHODWLYLW\FRPSOLFDWHVWKLVVLPSOH
idea. At speeds approaching that of light, events that are simultaneous in one frame of reference, may not be simultaneous in
another frame of reference.

4.13.2

An astronomer sees two supernova explosions appear in his telescope at exactly the same time. However, when he checks his
VWDUFKDUWVKHQGVWKDWRQHVWDUZDVWHQWLPHVWKHGLVWDQFHIURP(DUWKRIWKHRWKHU7KHPRUHGLVWDQWVWDUPXVWKDYHH[SORGHG
a long time before the closer one.

4.14

(LQVWHLQV WKHRUHWLFDO H[SODQDWLRQRIWKLVLVWKDWZKHQDQREMHFWLVPRYLQJ DWDQ\VSHHG WKHHQHUJ\XVHGWRDFFHOHUDWHWKH


mass also changes its mass. At high speeds, while the energy still changes the mass of the object, not all of it results in an
increase in speed. He put forward a new concept for the energy of an object: E = KE + m0c2

4.15.1

Rest mass is the mass of an object when it is at rest.

4.15.2

Because the mass of an object increases as its speed increases.

4.15.3

1.506 1010 J

4.15.4

(a)

The mass changes in normal chemical reactions are so small that they are not detected by any instruments normally
used. If we consider mass and energy to be independent substances then both conservation laws would be broken by
(LQVWHLQVSURSRVDO E = mc2). Because the amounts of mass involved are so small however, we do not detect any
change and therefore do not consider either law broken.

E 

*LYHQWKHHTXLYDOHQFHRIPDVVDQGHQHUJ\LWLVRQO\E\FRQVLGHULQJWKHPERWKDWWKHVDPHWLPHWKDWDVHQVLEOH
conservation law can be considered.

(c)

In an endothermic process, energy put into the system would be converted into mass. In an exothermic process, mass
is converted into energy and this is the source of the energy released.

4.16

7
 KHPDVVRIDQREMHFWLVDIIHFWHGLILWLVPRYLQJ$WDOOVSHHGVPDVVLQFUHDVHVDFFRUGLQJWR(LQVWHLQVUHODWLYLVWLFPDVV
HTXDWLRQ6RPDVVFDQQRWEHUHJDUGHGDVDIXQGDPHQWDOTXDQWLW\LWFKDQJHVDFFRUGLQJWRWKHVSHHGRIWKHREMHFW

4.17.1

9.214 1031 kg

4.17.2

2.788 1027 kg

4.18

Moving objects always appear to be shorter when measured from a different frame of reference. To generalise, observers from
outside a moving system will always see the system as shorter than its real length. This effect is known as length contraction.
6ROHQJWKFDQQRWEHUHJDUGHGDVDIXQGDPHQWDOTXDQWLW\LWFKDQJHVDFFRUGLQJWRWKHIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFHRIWKHREVHUYHU

4.19.1

120 m

4.19.2

0.8 c

4.19.3

The spaceship will appear to be 12 m wide but will retain its 20 m height and thickness because there in no relative motion in
those two directions.

4.20

Time in a moving frame of reference always passes more slowly than time in any other frame of reference. This effect
LVNQRZQDVWLPHGLODWLRQ6RWLPHFDQQRWEHUHJDUGHGDVDIXQGDPHQWDOTXDQWLW\LWFKDQJHVDFFRUGLQJWRWKHIUDPHRI
reference of the observer.

4.21.1

11.5 hours

4.21.2

(a)

5.0 s

(b)

5.0 s

(c)

Because both the pilot and the girlfriend are in inertial frames of reference, special relativity works for the
REVHUYDWLRQVWKH\HDFKPDNH%RWKZLOOVHHWLPHUXQQLQJPRUHVORZO\LQWKHRWKHUVIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFHVRWKH\ZLOO
both think a longer time has passed in their frame of reference.

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4.21.3

0.99 c

4.21.4

Star X is 8.0 ly from Earth. A spaceship travels at 0.5 c to reach the star.

4.22

(a)

16 years

(b)

13.86 years

(c)

6.93 ly

(d)

0.5 c

Note7KHDQVZHUJLYHQLVLQPXFKPRUHGHWDLOWKDQQHHGHGWRJLYH\RXDEURDGSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHFRQVHTXHQFHV
The nearest galaxy to us, Andromeda galaxy, is about 2 million light years away. If we could travel at the speed of light it
would take us 2 million years to get there. The fastest any space probe has gone is about 150 000 kph following a slingshot
around the Sun. This would involve temperatures humans could not survive. The fastest space probes following slingshots
around Mars, Jupiter and Saturn have travelled at about 100 000 kph. At this speed it would take us about 21 600 000 000
years to get to Andromeda.

 EYLRXVO\LIZHFRXOGDFKLHYHIDVWHUVSHHGVWKHWLPHGLODWLRQDQGOHQJWKFRQWUDFWLRQHIIHFWVPHDQWKHUHZRXOGQWEHDVIDUWR
2
travel, and it would take less time to get there than we think well, less time as far as the astronauts are concerned, but still a
long time from an Earth perspective.
Unfortunately, while the time and length contractions work in our favour, relativistic mass increases mean that we would need
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mass as it approaches the speed of light. None of this is possible. So, with current technology, space travel outside the Solar
System is not feasible.
Within the Solar System, where distances are much smaller (say 5900 000 000 km to Pluto the furthest planet), travelling at
100 000 kph would take us 6.7351598 years. The time dilation effect would make this seem like 6.7351597 years a saving
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246

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4.7.2

Quarks are fundamental particles within the nucleus. They combine to make larger particles such as the proton and neutron.
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4.7.3

(a)

proton = up, up, down

(b)

neutron = up, down, down

4.7.4

Leptons are fundamental particles which include the electron, and various neutrinos.

4.7.5

(a)

Fundamental particles are those which cannot be broken down into component parts they exist as an integral whole
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(b)

Quarks and leptons (including the electron).

F 

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therefore not fundamental.

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From Quanta to Quarks