Experiment 1 - Friction Losses in Pipes-report

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Experiment 1 - Friction Losses in Pipes-report

© All Rights Reserved

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REPORT

FLUID

MECHANICS

LABORATORY

SKPU 1711

AKMAL FAIZ BIN ABDUL RAHIM (A13KP0008)

ABDUL WAHAB (A13KP4006)

KSATRIYA ANANTAYUTYA (A13KP4001)

Report summary:

The experiment was undertaken to measure the head lost in the pipe due to shear stress

between the fluid and the wall of the pipe. Different flow rates were introduced along

with a different diameters and roughness of the pipes. Therefore we measured the friction

factor of the pipes using our measurements. Fluid velocity was also studied and related to

the diameter, flow rate and roughness of the pipe during the experiment.

As the flow rate, Q was changed, the values for the inlet and outlet, H1 and H2

were measured. The Flow rate was changed to a range of different values and hence the

respective values of H1 and H2 were recorded. The procedure was repeated for the for

the different pipes which include, rough, smooth, sudden contraction and sudden

enlargement pipes.

Reynolds number was used to understand the variation of the flow between the

laminar and the turbulent flows. As the Laminar flow (f) can be known by analysis

while the turbulent flow (f) is found experimentally.

As the frictional factor increased the Reynolds number decreased, this shows the

inverse proportion between the friction factor (f) and the Reynolds number. The head loss

was also found to increase with increase in the velocity. As during the sudden

enlargement, the minor loss was also increased.

To conclude, we chiefly studied the head losses in the pipes as along pipes of

different diameters and roughness. There were few improvements required which include

the forming of bubble along the inlets which gave inconsistent readings and there were

few leaking inlets which affected the value of the flow rate. With these errors taken into

consideration, the experimental results would be better.

THEORY

In Bernoullis equation as shown below, hf represents the head loss due to the

friction between the fluid and the internal surface of the constant diameter pipe as well as

the friction between the adjacent fluid layers

p1/g + V1/2g + Z1 = p2/g + V2/2g + Z2 + hf

(1)

This will result in a continuous change of energy from a valuable mechanical form (such

as kinetic or potential energies) to a less valuable thermal form that is heat. This change

of energy is usually referred to as friction head loss, which represents the amount of

energy converted into heat per unit weight of fluid.

The head losses (hf) in pipe due to friction can be determined using Darcy-Weisback

equation;

Turbulent flow

(2)

Laminar flow

(3)

Where:

f = Friction factor

L = Length

V = Mean velocity (Q/A)

3

g = Gravity

D = Constant diameter

The friction head loss for both laminar and turbulent flows can be expressed by similar

formulas although the original derivation of each one is different:

(4)

In laminar flow, the friction factor is only a friction of Reynolds number while for

turbulent flow it is a function of Reynolds (Re) number and the relative roughness of the

pipe.

Re = VD /

(5)

Based on the nature of the flow, friction factor (f) can be estimated using the following

correlations

Laminar flow

f = 64/Re

(6)

Turbulent Flow

f =0.316 x Re -0.25

(7)

Equation (7) is Blausius Equation and only valid for smooth pipe and 3000<Re<105.

The value of f for turbulent flow can be obtained experimentally from the Moody Chart.

Moreover, for turbulent flow, the relationship between hf and V takes the form

4

hf= KVn

(8)

Where K is a loss coefficient and n ranges from 1.7 to 2.0 (depending on the value of Re

and ks/D).This equation can be written as

Log hf= Log K + n Log V

(9)

Experimentally, one can obtain the head loss by applying energy equation between any

two points along a constant diameter pipe. This is done in Eq.1 and by noticing that the

pipe is horizontal and the diameter is constant. The pressure heads of a fluid between 2

points, h1 and h2 are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The total head loss can be

determined experimentally by applying the Bernoullis equation as follows:

hf= (P1 P2)/ g = h1 h2

(10)

Energy losses are proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an

elbow, through an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, or through a valve.

Experimental values for energy losses are usually reported in terms of a resistance or loss

coefficient K as follows:

hL= KV2/2g

(11)

where hL is the minor loss, K is the resistance or loss coefficient, and V is the average

velocity of flow in the pipe in the vicinity where the minor occurs. The resistance or loss

coefficient is dimensionless because it represents a constant of proportionality between

the energy loss and the velocity head. The magnitude of the resistance coefficient

depends on the geometry of the device that causes the loss and sometimes on the velocity

of flow.

When a fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe through a sudden enlargement,

its velocity abruptly decreases, causing turbulence, which generates an energy loss.

P1V1

P2V2

1

2

Where,

V1 = Velocity at small cross-section (upstream)

V2 = Velocity at large cross-section (downstream)

The minor loss (hf) due to sudden enlargement of the pipe can be estimated by integrating

the momentum, continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2 to give

(12)

Substituting again for the continuity equation to get an expression involving the two

areas, (i.e V2 = V1 (A1/A2) gives

hL = KV12/2g

(13)

When a fluid flows from a larger pipe into a smaller pipe through a sudden contraction,

the fluid streamlines will converge just downstream of the smaller pipe, known as vena

contraction phenomena, creating a turbulence region from the sharp corner of the smaller

pipe and extends past the vena contracta, which subsequently generates an energy loss.

V1

V2

contraction. It is possible to assume that energy losses from 1 to 1 are negligible (no

separation occur s in contracting flow) but that major losses occur between 1 and 2 as the

flow expands again

If the vena contracta area is A1=Ac, then the minor loss (hL) can be estimated by

integrating the momentum, continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2

to give

hL= (1-Ac/A2)2 V22/2g

(14)

The above equation is commonly expressed as a function of loss coefficient (K) and the

average velocity (V2) in the smaller pipe downstream from the contraction as follows;

hL = KV2 /2g

(15)

where K = (1 Ac/A2)2

As the difference in pipe diameters gets large (A 1/A20) then this value of K will tend

towards 0.5 which is equal to the value for entry loss from a reservoir into a pipe. The

value of K depends upon the ratio of the pipe diameters (D2/D1) as given below;

d2/d1

K

0

0.5

0.1

0.45

0.2

0.412

0.3

0.39

0.4

0.36

0.5

0.33

0.6

0.28

0.7

0.15

0.8

0.15

0.9

0.06

1.0

0

Losses in fittings such as elbow, valves etc have been found to be proportional to the

velocity head of the fluid flowing. The energy loss is expressed in the general form,

hL= KV2/2g

(16)

Where,

K = Loss coefficient (dependent on the ratio of total angle of bending to radius of

bending (R/d) of the curves as the bending occurs)

In the experiment the pressure heads before & after a fluid undergoing sudden change in

pipe diameter or flow direction, h1 and h2 are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The

total head loss (major and minor losses) can be determined experimentally by applying

the Bernoullis equation as follows:

9

p1 /g + v1 / 2g + z1 = p2/g + v1 / 2g + z2 + hL

(17)

h1+ v1 / 2g + z1= h2 + v1 / 2g + z2 + hL

(18)

(19)

Linear Pipe

1

2

Part

A (Rough)

Diameter(mm)

25.0

Length(mm)

1030

B (Smooth)

A (Rough)

B (Smooth)

23.5

14.0

13.3

1030

1030

1030

Note 2: Reynolds Number for Linear Pipe (At room Temperature = 27C)

Pipe 1A

Pipe 1B

: Re = 29.2 x 103 x V

: Re = 27.5 x 103 x V

Pipe 2A

Pipe 2B

: Re = 16.4 x 103 x V

: Re = 15.5 x 103 x V

Temperature (oC)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

(kg/m3)

999.8

1000.0

999.7

999.1

998.2

997.0

995.7

992.2

988.0

(x 10-3 Ns/m2)

1.781

1.518

1.307

1.139

1.002

0.890

0.798

0.653

0.547

10

60

70

80

90

100

983.2

977.8

971.8

965.3

953.4

0.466

0.404

0.354

0.315

0.282

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

A)

1. The water manometers rubber tube was connected to the inlet flowing

pressure (H1) and the outlet flowing pressure (H2).

2. The flow rate (Q) was reduced until it reached 26 liter/minute by closing the

control valve. At the same time, the outlet valves of pipes 1 and 4 were closed

while pipe 2 was opened.

11

26 to 12 liter/minute. The values of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as

Q was adjusted.

B)

1. The manometer rubber tube from H2 of rough surface of pipe 2A was moved

to H1 of smooth surface of pipe 2B.

2. The control valve was slowly opened until flow rate (Q) reached 26

liter/minute. Air bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

3. Five Qs were determined. The values of H1 and H2 were recorded in

millimeter as Q was adjusted.

C)

1. The manometer rubber tubes of H1 and H2 of pipe 2B were moved to the rough

surface of pipe 1A.

2. The outlet valve of pipe 1 was opened first before the outlet valve of pipe 2

was closed.

3. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 42 liter/minute. Air

bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

4. Q was readjusted to appropriate maximum value of 42 liter/minute and five

different Q from 42 to 12 liter/minute were determined. The values of H1 and

H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

12

D)

1. The manometer rubber tube from H2 of rough surface of pipe 1A was moved

to H1 of smooth surface of pipe 1B.

2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached maximum value of 42

liter/minute. Air bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

3. Five different Qs were determined similar to pipe 1A. The values of H1 and H2

were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

E)

1. The manometer rubber tubes of H1 and H2 of pipe 1B were moved to the

Sudden Enlargement section of pipe 4.

2. The outlet valve of pipe 4 was opened before the outlet valve of pipe 1 was

closed.

3. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air

bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

4. Q was readjusted to 30 liter/minute and five Qs were determined from the

maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values of H1 and H2 were

recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

F)

1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of Sudden Enlargement of pipe 4 was

moved to H2 of Sudden Contraction of pipe 4.

2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air

bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs

were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values

of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

13

G)

1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of Sudden Contraction of pipe 4 was

moved to H2 of 90o bend of pipe 4.

2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air

bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs

were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values

of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

H)

1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of 90o bend of pipe 4 was moved to H2 of

elbow of pipe 4.

2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air

bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.

3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs

were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values

of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

14

ftheo

Pipe

2A

2B

hf.theo

hf.exp

fexp

h=h1-h2)

(Eq. 10)

26

4.33

920

35

4.91

0.882

14.46

(Eq 6 or

(Eq. 4)

Eq. 7 or

Moody

diagram)

0.162

0.473

22

3.67

770

155

4.91

0.747

12.25

0.168

0.352

0.615

0.294

18

3.00

660

240

4.91

0.611

10.02

0.177

0.248

0.420

0.300

14

2.33

565

320

4.91

0.475

7.790

0.189

0.160

0.245

0.290

12

2.00

530

350

4.91

0.407

6.670

0.196

0.122

0.180

0.289

26

4.33

915

185

4.34

0.998

15.47

0.159

0.625

0.730

0.186

22

3.67

780

245

4.34

0.846

13.11

0.166

0.469

0.535

0.189

18

3.00

660

300

4.34

0.691

10.71

0.174

0.328

0.360

0.191

14

2.33

570

350

4.34

0.537

8.320

0.185

0.211

2.220

0.193

12

2.00

535

370

4.34

0.461

7.150

0.193

0.162

0.165

0.197

Q

(1/min)

Q x 10-4

(m3/s)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

A

2

(m x10-4)

V

(m/s)

Re

(x 103)

(m)

2 Dgh f ,exp

0.885

0.303

LV 2

15

Pipe

1A

1B

Q x 10-4

(m3/s)

Q

(1/min)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

A

(m x10-4)

2

V

(m/s)

Re

(x103)

ftheo

hf.theo

hf.exp

fexp

(Eq 6 or

Eq. 7 or

Moody

diagram)

(Eq. 4)

h=h1-h2)

(Eq. 10)

(m)

2 Dgh f ,exp

28

4.67

390.2

300

4.91

0.951

28.33

0.137

0.260

0.09

0.047

24

4.00

373

315

4.91

0.815

24.29

0.142

0.198

0.06

0.043

20

3.33

360

330

4.91

0.678

20.20

0.149

0.144

0.03

0.031

16

2.67

353

340

4.91

0.544

16.21

0.157

0.098

0.013

0.021

12

2.00

349

345

4.91

0.407

12.13

0.169

0.059

0.004

0.011

28

4.67

384

305

4.34

1.076

29.59

0.135

0.349

0.079

0.031

24

4.00

370

315

4.34

1.168

32.12

0.132

0.402

0.055

0.018

20

3.33

365

317

4.34

1.402

38.56

0.126

0.553

0.048

0.011

16

2.67

363

320

4.34

1.749

48.10

0.120

0.820

0.043

0.006

12

2.00

365

325

4.34

2.335

64.21

0.111

1.352

0.04

0.003

LV 2

Q

(1/min)

Qx10-4

(m3/s)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

h

(m)

A1

(m2x10-4)

A2

(m2x10-4)

V1

(m/s)

V2

(m/s)

hL,theo

(m)

Eq. 2

hL,exp

(m)

Eq. 9

K

hL,exp /(V12/2g)

16

28

4.67

5356

525

0.01

1.39

4.26

3.360

1.096

0.261

0.524

0.911

24

4.00

490

485

0.005

1.39

4.26

2.878

0.939

0.192

0.382

0.905

20

3.33

445

440

0.005

1.39

4.26

2.396

0.728

0.133

0.266

0.909

16

2.67

405

400

0.005

1.39

4.26

1.921

0.627

0.085

0.173

0.920

12

2.00

365

363

0.002

1.39

4.26

1.439

0.469

0.048

0.096

0.910

Q

(1/min)

Qx10-4

(m3/s)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

h

(m)

A2

2

(m x10-4)

A2

2

(m x10-4)

V1

(m/s)

V2

(m/s)

hL,theo

(m)

Eq. 5

hL,exp

(m)

Eq. 9

hL,exp /(V22/2g)

28

4.67

845

280

0.565

4.26

1.39

1.096

3.360

0.288

0.051

0.089

24

4.00

765

300

0.465

4.26

1.39

0.939

2.878

0.211

0.088

0.208

20

3.33

635

335

0.300

4.26

1.39

0.782

2.396

0.146

0.039

0.133

16

2.67

560

340

0.220

4.26

1.39

0.627

1.921

0.094

0.052

0.276

12

2.00

485

360

0.125

4.26

1.39

0.469

1.439

0.053

0.031

0.294

V

(m/s)

hL,theo

(m)

Eq. 6

hL,exp

(m)

Eq. 9

Q

(1/min)

Qx10-4

(m3/s)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

h

(m)

A

2

(m x10-4)

hL,exp /(V2/2g)

17

28

4.67

825

2201

0.605

1.27

3.677

0.262

1.294

1.878

24

4.00

735

250

0.485

1.27

3.150

0.192

0.991

1.960

20

3.33

640

295

0.345

1.27

2.622

0.133

0.695

1.983

16

2.67

550

330

0.220

1.27

2.102

0.086

0.445

1.976

12

2.00

475

355

0.120

1.27

1.575

0.048

0.246

1.946

hL,exp

(m)

Eq. 9

1.469

K

hL,exp /(V2/2g)

2.132

Q

(1/min)

Qx10-4

(m3/s)

h1

(mm)

h2

(mm)

h

(m)

A

2

(m x10-4)

V

(m/s)

28

4.67

860

80

0.780

1.27

3.677

hL,theo

(m)

Eq. 6

0.262

24

4.00

755

155

0.600

1.27

3.150

0.192

1.106

2.187

20

3.33

640

230

0.410

1.27

2.622

0.133

0.760

2.169

16

2.67

545

295

0.250

1.27

2.102

0.086

0.475

2.109

12

2.00

475

340

0.135

1.27

1.575

0.048

0.261

2.064

18

19

GRAPH RESULT:

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

1.value of n:

n = (log hf 1 - log hf 2 ) / (log V1 - log V 2 )

pipe 2A: (log 0.84 log 0.32)/ (log 0.84 log 0.46)

= 1.4688

pipe 2B: (log 0.54 log 0.16)/ (log 0.82 log 0.44)

= 1.0525

pipe 1A: (log 0.075 log 0.01)/ (log 0.9 log 0.5)

= 0.1612

pipe 1B: (log 0.05 log 0.04)/ (log 01.35 log 2.1)

= 0.0234

Graph of ftheo and fexp versus Re

In the graph of ftheo and fexp versus Re for pipe 2A, the graph of fexp is a straight line with

postitive gradient. Meanwhile, the graph of ftheo for 2A is a straight line with negative

gradient. For pipe 2B, both graphs of fexp and ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient.

The difference between fexp and ftheo is very small. For pipe 1A, graph of fexp is a straight

line with positive gradient and graph of ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient. In

pipe 1B, both fexp and ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient, also with a very small

difference between ftheo and fexp.

For all graphs, there are some inaccuracies and marginal difference of values that causing

the fexp differ from the ftheo. These errors may be occurred due to the bubble inside the pipe

that can cause great difference of measurement, and also because of the flow rate of water

source that keep changing inconsistently during the experiment.

32

Slope of the graph 2A have a value of 1.4688. While in the graph 2B, the value of n is

1.0525. In the graph 1A, the value of the slope is 0.1612 and in the graph of 1B, the value

of n is 0.0234. Pipe 2A and 1A are the pipes with rough surfaces and 2B and 1B are the

pipes with smooth surfaces. Therefore, from these values, we can conclude that when the

rougher the surface, the higher the slope of the graph (n). These difference of the value of

n occur because when the surface of the pipe is rough, the friction is also high.

From the graphs that has been plotted, we can get the value of loss coefficient (K). The

value of loss coefficient (K) are influenced by the size of the diameter, pipe roughness

and fluid velocity. From the experiment, the smaller the size of pipe diameter, the greater

the value of loss coefficient. While the rougher the pipe, the greater the value of loss

coefficient.

Graph of Sudden Enlargement), Graph of Sudden Contraction, Graph of 90 bend,

and Graph of Elbow pipe.

All the graphs plotted are straight line and having positive gradient. There are significant

differences between the experimental and the theoretical results in all these 4 graphs.

These differences may be occurring due to the errors happen during the

experiment. Some of the noticeable errors during the experiment are the inconsistent flow

rate of the water source. Besides, there are bubbles in the measuring tubes that cause big

inaccuracies in measuring the water level. The effect of fluid flow rate will affect the

energy loss directly. The larger the fluid flow rate, the larger the energy loss of fluid.

Graph of hLexp versus V21/2g for sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, 90 bend

pipe and elbow pipe.

All the graph plotted are all straight line with positive gradient. The value of loss

coefficeient (K) is obtained from the slope of the graph. The value of K for sudden

enlargement pipe is 0.9999, while the value of K for sudden contraction is 0.2616. The

value of K for 90 bend pipe is 0.9983 while for the value of K for elbow pipe is 0.9054.

We can see that the value of K is different for each value of graph. Sudden enlargement

33

graph has the highest value of K, while for sudden contraction graph has the lowest. The

different pipe geometry will cause the difference in the value of loss condition and lead to

the difference of the energy loss in pipe. The experiemental value of K obtained for the

experiments of sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, 90 bend pipe and elbow pipe

are all different from the theoritical value of K calculated. This occurs because there

errors happen during the experiment. In addition, the might not be equal to 27 C since

the value of the proposed Ktheo should be at 27 C.

Overall

From the experiment conducted, there are some of the errors that will affect the result of

the experiment. While conducting, presence of air bubble in the tube that caused the

height value of H1 and H2 have lower sensitivity. Unstable flow rate from the water

source will cause the height value to be inaccurate. Furthermore, there are leakages in

some point of the pipe causing the pressure of the water is not consistent and leads to the

difference in the experimental and theoretical value.

Therefore, some precautionary steps should be taken. Firstly, make sure that valve is tide

enough in order to prevent leakage happen during the flow and also to make sure that the

flow rate through the pipe is the same as the flow rate from the water meter. Furthermore,

flow rate must be always constant during experiment by fully open the valve during every

part of experiment. Smaller scale on water meter should be used. Other than that, every

air bubble in the tube is removed. Hence, the reading should be taken repeatedly to

minimize the errors. In avoiding parallax error, the eyes should be perpendicular to the

scale. Last but not least, all water flow must be turn off before pipe changing. This is to

make sure that water level does not exceed maximum level in the tube.

34

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, all the objectives of the experiment are achieved. However, the

result obtained in the experiment is inaccurate. This is due to difference in the

experimental value and theoretical value. From the experiment, we can conclude that

linear pipe with rough surface have larger energy losses than the energy losses in linear

pipe with smooth surface. This occurs because friction in rough surface pipe is higher

than the friction in smooth surface pipe. From the experiment, we also know that losses in

pipe are also dependent on the diameter of the pipe. The smaller the diameter will have

the greater losses. Besides, losses in pipe are also dependent on the flow rate. When the

flow rate is higher, the losses will also be greater. Losses in sudden enlargement in pipe

are greater than sudden contraction in pipe and 90 bend pipe. Losses in 90 bend pipe

are greater than losses in sudden contraction in pipe.

Ksudden enlargement > K90 bend > Ksudden contraction

Hence, the precautionary steps should be taken to get the best result in order to

avoid all the errors come out. Some of the steps are to make the flow rate of the water

source consistent and remove the bubble from the tubes in the measurements.

35

REFERENCES

A)

Rolf H. Sabersky, Allan J Acosta, Edward G. Hauptmann and E.M. Gates, "Fluid

Flow-A First Course of Fluid Mechanics" (Fourth Edition), Prentice Hall Inc.,

1999.

B)

R.V Giles, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics (Third Edition), McGrawHill Inc;

1994.

C)

36

Appendix

Sample Calculation

For pipe 1 and 2

(i)

(ii)

(iv)Turbulent flow,

(v)

(vi)

(vii) fexp,

37

Same method using for data of Pipe 1(B), 2(A) and 2(B) in determine of Reynolds

Number:1B: Re = 27.5 x 103 x V

2A: Re = 16.4 x 103 x V

2B: Re = 15.5 x 103 x V

Losses in Pipe of Sudden Enlargement Pipe

(i)

(ii)h = h1 h2

= 582-570 mm

= 12 mm

= 0.012 m

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

38

(vii)

Note: Same method uses to find value of Q, h as shown in calculation of losses in pipe

of sudden enlargement pipe.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Note: Same method uses to find value of Q, h as shown in calculation of losses in pipe

of sudden enlargement pipe.

39

(i)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

40

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