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LABORATORY

REPORT

FLUID

MECHANICS
LABORATORY
SKPU 1711

EXPERIMENT 1 :24th February 2014

FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES

MUHAMMAD KHAIRIL IKRAM(A13KP0047)


AKMAL FAIZ BIN ABDUL RAHIM (A13KP0008)
ABDUL WAHAB (A13KP4006)
KSATRIYA ANANTAYUTYA (A13KP4001)

Report summary:
The experiment was undertaken to measure the head lost in the pipe due to shear stress
between the fluid and the wall of the pipe. Different flow rates were introduced along
with a different diameters and roughness of the pipes. Therefore we measured the friction
factor of the pipes using our measurements. Fluid velocity was also studied and related to
the diameter, flow rate and roughness of the pipe during the experiment.
As the flow rate, Q was changed, the values for the inlet and outlet, H1 and H2
were measured. The Flow rate was changed to a range of different values and hence the
respective values of H1 and H2 were recorded. The procedure was repeated for the for
the different pipes which include, rough, smooth, sudden contraction and sudden
enlargement pipes.
Reynolds number was used to understand the variation of the flow between the
laminar and the turbulent flows. As the Laminar flow (f) can be known by analysis
while the turbulent flow (f) is found experimentally.
As the frictional factor increased the Reynolds number decreased, this shows the
inverse proportion between the friction factor (f) and the Reynolds number. The head loss
was also found to increase with increase in the velocity. As during the sudden
enlargement, the minor loss was also increased.
To conclude, we chiefly studied the head losses in the pipes as along pipes of
different diameters and roughness. There were few improvements required which include
the forming of bubble along the inlets which gave inconsistent readings and there were
few leaking inlets which affected the value of the flow rate. With these errors taken into
consideration, the experimental results would be better.

THEORY
In Bernoullis equation as shown below, hf represents the head loss due to the
friction between the fluid and the internal surface of the constant diameter pipe as well as
the friction between the adjacent fluid layers
p1/g + V1/2g + Z1 = p2/g + V2/2g + Z2 + hf
(1)

This will result in a continuous change of energy from a valuable mechanical form (such
as kinetic or potential energies) to a less valuable thermal form that is heat. This change
of energy is usually referred to as friction head loss, which represents the amount of
energy converted into heat per unit weight of fluid.
The head losses (hf) in pipe due to friction can be determined using Darcy-Weisback
equation;

Turbulent flow

(2)

Laminar flow
(3)
Where:
f = Friction factor
L = Length
V = Mean velocity (Q/A)
3

g = Gravity
D = Constant diameter

The friction head loss for both laminar and turbulent flows can be expressed by similar
formulas although the original derivation of each one is different:
(4)

In laminar flow, the friction factor is only a friction of Reynolds number while for
turbulent flow it is a function of Reynolds (Re) number and the relative roughness of the
pipe.
Re = VD /

(5)

Where : density, V: average velocity, D: Pipe inside diameter, : Viscosity.

Based on the nature of the flow, friction factor (f) can be estimated using the following
correlations

Laminar flow

f = 64/Re

(6)

Turbulent Flow

f =0.316 x Re -0.25

(7)

Equation (7) is Blausius Equation and only valid for smooth pipe and 3000<Re<105.
The value of f for turbulent flow can be obtained experimentally from the Moody Chart.
Moreover, for turbulent flow, the relationship between hf and V takes the form
4

hf= KVn

(8)

Where K is a loss coefficient and n ranges from 1.7 to 2.0 (depending on the value of Re
and ks/D).This equation can be written as
Log hf= Log K + n Log V

(9)

In order to find K and n experimentally, using graph

Experimentally, one can obtain the head loss by applying energy equation between any
two points along a constant diameter pipe. This is done in Eq.1 and by noticing that the
pipe is horizontal and the diameter is constant. The pressure heads of a fluid between 2
points, h1 and h2 are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The total head loss can be
determined experimentally by applying the Bernoullis equation as follows:
hf= (P1 P2)/ g = h1 h2

(10)

Energy losses are proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an
elbow, through an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, or through a valve.
Experimental values for energy losses are usually reported in terms of a resistance or loss
coefficient K as follows:
hL= KV2/2g

(11)

where hL is the minor loss, K is the resistance or loss coefficient, and V is the average
velocity of flow in the pipe in the vicinity where the minor occurs. The resistance or loss
coefficient is dimensionless because it represents a constant of proportionality between
the energy loss and the velocity head. The magnitude of the resistance coefficient
depends on the geometry of the device that causes the loss and sometimes on the velocity
of flow.

Minor losses at sudden enlargement


When a fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe through a sudden enlargement,
its velocity abruptly decreases, causing turbulence, which generates an energy loss.
P1V1

P2V2

1
2
Where,
V1 = Velocity at small cross-section (upstream)
V2 = Velocity at large cross-section (downstream)

The minor loss (hf) due to sudden enlargement of the pipe can be estimated by integrating
the momentum, continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2 to give
(12)
Substituting again for the continuity equation to get an expression involving the two
areas, (i.e V2 = V1 (A1/A2) gives
hL = KV12/2g

(13)

Where, K= (1-A1/A2)2 = (1(D1/D2)2)2

Minor losses at sudden contraction


When a fluid flows from a larger pipe into a smaller pipe through a sudden contraction,
the fluid streamlines will converge just downstream of the smaller pipe, known as vena
contraction phenomena, creating a turbulence region from the sharp corner of the smaller
pipe and extends past the vena contracta, which subsequently generates an energy loss.

V1

V2

In a sudden contraction, flow contracts from point 1 to point 1, forming a vena


contraction. It is possible to assume that energy losses from 1 to 1 are negligible (no
separation occur s in contracting flow) but that major losses occur between 1 and 2 as the
flow expands again

If the vena contracta area is A1=Ac, then the minor loss (hL) can be estimated by
integrating the momentum, continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2
to give
hL= (1-Ac/A2)2 V22/2g

(14)

The above equation is commonly expressed as a function of loss coefficient (K) and the
average velocity (V2) in the smaller pipe downstream from the contraction as follows;
hL = KV2 /2g

(15)

where K = (1 Ac/A2)2
As the difference in pipe diameters gets large (A 1/A20) then this value of K will tend
towards 0.5 which is equal to the value for entry loss from a reservoir into a pipe. The
value of K depends upon the ratio of the pipe diameters (D2/D1) as given below;

d2/d1
K

0
0.5

0.1
0.45

0.2
0.412

0.3
0.39

0.4
0.36

0.5
0.33

0.6
0.28

0.7
0.15

0.8
0.15

0.9
0.06

1.0
0

Minor Losses at elbow or bend pipe


Losses in fittings such as elbow, valves etc have been found to be proportional to the
velocity head of the fluid flowing. The energy loss is expressed in the general form,
hL= KV2/2g

(16)

Where,
K = Loss coefficient (dependent on the ratio of total angle of bending to radius of
bending (R/d) of the curves as the bending occurs)

Experimental determination of total head loss


In the experiment the pressure heads before & after a fluid undergoing sudden change in
pipe diameter or flow direction, h1 and h2 are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The
total head loss (major and minor losses) can be determined experimentally by applying
the Bernoullis equation as follows:
9

p1 /g + v1 / 2g + z1 = p2/g + v1 / 2g + z2 + hL

(17)

h1+ v1 / 2g + z1= h2 + v1 / 2g + z2 + hL

(18)

and since z1 = z2 , then

(19)
Linear Pipe
1
2

Part
A (Rough)

Diameter(mm)
25.0

Length(mm)
1030

B (Smooth)
A (Rough)
B (Smooth)

23.5
14.0
13.3

1030
1030
1030

Note 1: Q (m3/s) = Q (l/min) x 1.667 x 10-5


Note 2: Reynolds Number for Linear Pipe (At room Temperature = 27C)

Pipe 1A
Pipe 1B

: Re = 29.2 x 103 x V
: Re = 27.5 x 103 x V

Pipe 2A
Pipe 2B

: Re = 16.4 x 103 x V
: Re = 15.5 x 103 x V

Table of Water Dynamic Viscosity and Density at Different Temperatures


Temperature (oC)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50

(kg/m3)
999.8
1000.0
999.7
999.1
998.2
997.0
995.7
992.2
988.0

(x 10-3 Ns/m2)
1.781
1.518
1.307
1.139
1.002
0.890
0.798
0.653
0.547
10

60
70
80
90
100

983.2
977.8
971.8
965.3
953.4

0.466
0.404
0.354
0.315
0.282

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
A)

Experiment with Pipe 2A: Rough Surface


1. The water manometers rubber tube was connected to the inlet flowing
pressure (H1) and the outlet flowing pressure (H2).
2. The flow rate (Q) was reduced until it reached 26 liter/minute by closing the
control valve. At the same time, the outlet valves of pipes 1 and 4 were closed
while pipe 2 was opened.
11

3. Q was readjusted to 26 liter/minute and five Q were determined from value of


26 to 12 liter/minute. The values of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as
Q was adjusted.
B)

Experiment with Pipe 2B: Smooth Surface


1. The manometer rubber tube from H2 of rough surface of pipe 2A was moved
to H1 of smooth surface of pipe 2B.
2. The control valve was slowly opened until flow rate (Q) reached 26
liter/minute. Air bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
3. Five Qs were determined. The values of H1 and H2 were recorded in
millimeter as Q was adjusted.

C)

Experiment with Pipe 1A: Rough Surface


1. The manometer rubber tubes of H1 and H2 of pipe 2B were moved to the rough
surface of pipe 1A.
2. The outlet valve of pipe 1 was opened first before the outlet valve of pipe 2
was closed.
3. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 42 liter/minute. Air
bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
4. Q was readjusted to appropriate maximum value of 42 liter/minute and five
different Q from 42 to 12 liter/minute were determined. The values of H1 and
H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

12

D)

Experiment with Pipe 1B: Smooth Surface


1. The manometer rubber tube from H2 of rough surface of pipe 1A was moved
to H1 of smooth surface of pipe 1B.
2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached maximum value of 42
liter/minute. Air bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
3. Five different Qs were determined similar to pipe 1A. The values of H1 and H2
were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

E)

Experiment with Pipe 4: Sudden Enlargement


1. The manometer rubber tubes of H1 and H2 of pipe 1B were moved to the
Sudden Enlargement section of pipe 4.
2. The outlet valve of pipe 4 was opened before the outlet valve of pipe 1 was
closed.
3. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air
bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
4. Q was readjusted to 30 liter/minute and five Qs were determined from the
maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values of H1 and H2 were
recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

F)

Experiment with Pipe 4: Sudden Contraction


1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of Sudden Enlargement of pipe 4 was
moved to H2 of Sudden Contraction of pipe 4.
2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air
bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs
were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values
of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

13

G)

Experiment with Pipe 4: 90o Bend


1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of Sudden Contraction of pipe 4 was
moved to H2 of 90o bend of pipe 4.
2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air
bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs
were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values
of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

H)

Experiment with Pipe 4: Elbow


1. The manometer rubber tube from H1 of 90o bend of pipe 4 was moved to H2 of
elbow of pipe 4.
2. The control valve was slowly opened until Q reached 30 liter/minute. Air
bubbles present were removed to the manometer glass tube.
3. Q was readjusted to appropriate value of 30 liter/minute and five different Qs
were determined from the maximum value of 30 to 12 liter/minute. The values
of H1 and H2 were recorded in millimeter as Q was adjusted.

14

Experimental data and analysis


ftheo
Pipe

2A

2B

hf.theo

hf.exp

fexp

h=h1-h2)

(Eq. 10)

26

4.33

920

35

4.91

0.882

14.46

(Eq 6 or
(Eq. 4)
Eq. 7 or
Moody
diagram)
0.162
0.473

22

3.67

770

155

4.91

0.747

12.25

0.168

0.352

0.615

0.294

18

3.00

660

240

4.91

0.611

10.02

0.177

0.248

0.420

0.300

14

2.33

565

320

4.91

0.475

7.790

0.189

0.160

0.245

0.290

12

2.00

530

350

4.91

0.407

6.670

0.196

0.122

0.180

0.289

26

4.33

915

185

4.34

0.998

15.47

0.159

0.625

0.730

0.186

22

3.67

780

245

4.34

0.846

13.11

0.166

0.469

0.535

0.189

18

3.00

660

300

4.34

0.691

10.71

0.174

0.328

0.360

0.191

14

2.33

570

350

4.34

0.537

8.320

0.185

0.211

2.220

0.193

12

2.00

535

370

4.34

0.461

7.150

0.193

0.162

0.165

0.197

Q
(1/min)

Q x 10-4
(m3/s)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

A
2
(m x10-4)

V
(m/s)

Re
(x 103)

(m)

2 Dgh f ,exp

0.885

0.303

LV 2

15

Pipe

1A

1B

Q x 10-4
(m3/s)

Q
(1/min)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

A
(m x10-4)
2

V
(m/s)

Re
(x103)

ftheo

hf.theo

hf.exp

fexp

(Eq 6 or
Eq. 7 or
Moody
diagram)

(Eq. 4)

h=h1-h2)

(Eq. 10)

(m)

2 Dgh f ,exp

28

4.67

390.2

300

4.91

0.951

28.33

0.137

0.260

0.09

0.047

24

4.00

373

315

4.91

0.815

24.29

0.142

0.198

0.06

0.043

20

3.33

360

330

4.91

0.678

20.20

0.149

0.144

0.03

0.031

16

2.67

353

340

4.91

0.544

16.21

0.157

0.098

0.013

0.021

12

2.00

349

345

4.91

0.407

12.13

0.169

0.059

0.004

0.011

28

4.67

384

305

4.34

1.076

29.59

0.135

0.349

0.079

0.031

24

4.00

370

315

4.34

1.168

32.12

0.132

0.402

0.055

0.018

20

3.33

365

317

4.34

1.402

38.56

0.126

0.553

0.048

0.011

16

2.67

363

320

4.34

1.749

48.10

0.120

0.820

0.043

0.006

12

2.00

365

325

4.34

2.335

64.21

0.111

1.352

0.04

0.003

LV 2

Table for Data of Sudden Enlargement Pipe


Q
(1/min)

Qx10-4
(m3/s)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

h
(m)

A1
(m2x10-4)

A2
(m2x10-4)

V1
(m/s)

V2
(m/s)

hL,theo
(m)
Eq. 2

hL,exp
(m)
Eq. 9

K
hL,exp /(V12/2g)

16

28

4.67

5356

525

0.01

1.39

4.26

3.360

1.096

0.261

0.524

0.911

24

4.00

490

485

0.005

1.39

4.26

2.878

0.939

0.192

0.382

0.905

20

3.33

445

440

0.005

1.39

4.26

2.396

0.728

0.133

0.266

0.909

16

2.67

405

400

0.005

1.39

4.26

1.921

0.627

0.085

0.173

0.920

12

2.00

365

363

0.002

1.39

4.26

1.439

0.469

0.048

0.096

0.910

Table for Data of Sudden Contraction Pipe


Q
(1/min)

Qx10-4
(m3/s)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

h
(m)

A2
2
(m x10-4)

A2
2
(m x10-4)

V1
(m/s)

V2
(m/s)

hL,theo
(m)
Eq. 5

hL,exp
(m)
Eq. 9

hL,exp /(V22/2g)

28

4.67

845

280

0.565

4.26

1.39

1.096

3.360

0.288

0.051

0.089

24

4.00

765

300

0.465

4.26

1.39

0.939

2.878

0.211

0.088

0.208

20

3.33

635

335

0.300

4.26

1.39

0.782

2.396

0.146

0.039

0.133

16

2.67

560

340

0.220

4.26

1.39

0.627

1.921

0.094

0.052

0.276

12

2.00

485

360

0.125

4.26

1.39

0.469

1.439

0.053

0.031

0.294

V
(m/s)

hL,theo
(m)
Eq. 6

hL,exp
(m)
Eq. 9

Table for Data of 90o Bend Pipe


Q
(1/min)

Qx10-4
(m3/s)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

h
(m)

A
2
(m x10-4)

hL,exp /(V2/2g)

17

28

4.67

825

2201

0.605

1.27

3.677

0.262

1.294

1.878

24

4.00

735

250

0.485

1.27

3.150

0.192

0.991

1.960

20

3.33

640

295

0.345

1.27

2.622

0.133

0.695

1.983

16

2.67

550

330

0.220

1.27

2.102

0.086

0.445

1.976

12

2.00

475

355

0.120

1.27

1.575

0.048

0.246

1.946

hL,exp
(m)
Eq. 9
1.469

K
hL,exp /(V2/2g)
2.132

Table for Data of Elbow Pipe


Q
(1/min)

Qx10-4
(m3/s)

h1
(mm)

h2
(mm)

h
(m)

A
2
(m x10-4)

V
(m/s)

28

4.67

860

80

0.780

1.27

3.677

hL,theo
(m)
Eq. 6
0.262

24

4.00

755

155

0.600

1.27

3.150

0.192

1.106

2.187

20

3.33

640

230

0.410

1.27

2.622

0.133

0.760

2.169

16

2.67

545

295

0.250

1.27

2.102

0.086

0.475

2.109

12

2.00

475

340

0.135

1.27

1.575

0.048

0.261

2.064

18

19

GRAPH RESULT:

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


1.value of n:
n = (log hf 1 - log hf 2 ) / (log V1 - log V 2 )
pipe 2A: (log 0.84 log 0.32)/ (log 0.84 log 0.46)
= 1.4688
pipe 2B: (log 0.54 log 0.16)/ (log 0.82 log 0.44)
= 1.0525
pipe 1A: (log 0.075 log 0.01)/ (log 0.9 log 0.5)
= 0.1612
pipe 1B: (log 0.05 log 0.04)/ (log 01.35 log 2.1)
= 0.0234
Graph of ftheo and fexp versus Re
In the graph of ftheo and fexp versus Re for pipe 2A, the graph of fexp is a straight line with
postitive gradient. Meanwhile, the graph of ftheo for 2A is a straight line with negative
gradient. For pipe 2B, both graphs of fexp and ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient.
The difference between fexp and ftheo is very small. For pipe 1A, graph of fexp is a straight
line with positive gradient and graph of ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient. In
pipe 1B, both fexp and ftheo is a straight line with negative gradient, also with a very small
difference between ftheo and fexp.
For all graphs, there are some inaccuracies and marginal difference of values that causing
the fexp differ from the ftheo. These errors may be occurred due to the bubble inside the pipe
that can cause great difference of measurement, and also because of the flow rate of water
source that keep changing inconsistently during the experiment.

32

Value of the slope of straight line, n.


Slope of the graph 2A have a value of 1.4688. While in the graph 2B, the value of n is
1.0525. In the graph 1A, the value of the slope is 0.1612 and in the graph of 1B, the value
of n is 0.0234. Pipe 2A and 1A are the pipes with rough surfaces and 2B and 1B are the
pipes with smooth surfaces. Therefore, from these values, we can conclude that when the
rougher the surface, the higher the slope of the graph (n). These difference of the value of
n occur because when the surface of the pipe is rough, the friction is also high.
From the graphs that has been plotted, we can get the value of loss coefficient (K). The
value of loss coefficient (K) are influenced by the size of the diameter, pipe roughness
and fluid velocity. From the experiment, the smaller the size of pipe diameter, the greater
the value of loss coefficient. While the rougher the pipe, the greater the value of loss
coefficient.
Graph of Sudden Enlargement), Graph of Sudden Contraction, Graph of 90 bend,
and Graph of Elbow pipe.
All the graphs plotted are straight line and having positive gradient. There are significant
differences between the experimental and the theoretical results in all these 4 graphs.
These differences may be occurring due to the errors happen during the
experiment. Some of the noticeable errors during the experiment are the inconsistent flow
rate of the water source. Besides, there are bubbles in the measuring tubes that cause big
inaccuracies in measuring the water level. The effect of fluid flow rate will affect the
energy loss directly. The larger the fluid flow rate, the larger the energy loss of fluid.
Graph of hLexp versus V21/2g for sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, 90 bend
pipe and elbow pipe.
All the graph plotted are all straight line with positive gradient. The value of loss
coefficeient (K) is obtained from the slope of the graph. The value of K for sudden
enlargement pipe is 0.9999, while the value of K for sudden contraction is 0.2616. The
value of K for 90 bend pipe is 0.9983 while for the value of K for elbow pipe is 0.9054.
We can see that the value of K is different for each value of graph. Sudden enlargement
33

graph has the highest value of K, while for sudden contraction graph has the lowest. The
different pipe geometry will cause the difference in the value of loss condition and lead to
the difference of the energy loss in pipe. The experiemental value of K obtained for the
experiments of sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, 90 bend pipe and elbow pipe
are all different from the theoritical value of K calculated. This occurs because there
errors happen during the experiment. In addition, the might not be equal to 27 C since
the value of the proposed Ktheo should be at 27 C.
Overall
From the experiment conducted, there are some of the errors that will affect the result of
the experiment. While conducting, presence of air bubble in the tube that caused the
height value of H1 and H2 have lower sensitivity. Unstable flow rate from the water
source will cause the height value to be inaccurate. Furthermore, there are leakages in
some point of the pipe causing the pressure of the water is not consistent and leads to the
difference in the experimental and theoretical value.
Therefore, some precautionary steps should be taken. Firstly, make sure that valve is tide
enough in order to prevent leakage happen during the flow and also to make sure that the
flow rate through the pipe is the same as the flow rate from the water meter. Furthermore,
flow rate must be always constant during experiment by fully open the valve during every
part of experiment. Smaller scale on water meter should be used. Other than that, every
air bubble in the tube is removed. Hence, the reading should be taken repeatedly to
minimize the errors. In avoiding parallax error, the eyes should be perpendicular to the
scale. Last but not least, all water flow must be turn off before pipe changing. This is to
make sure that water level does not exceed maximum level in the tube.

34

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, all the objectives of the experiment are achieved. However, the
result obtained in the experiment is inaccurate. This is due to difference in the
experimental value and theoretical value. From the experiment, we can conclude that
linear pipe with rough surface have larger energy losses than the energy losses in linear
pipe with smooth surface. This occurs because friction in rough surface pipe is higher
than the friction in smooth surface pipe. From the experiment, we also know that losses in
pipe are also dependent on the diameter of the pipe. The smaller the diameter will have
the greater losses. Besides, losses in pipe are also dependent on the flow rate. When the
flow rate is higher, the losses will also be greater. Losses in sudden enlargement in pipe
are greater than sudden contraction in pipe and 90 bend pipe. Losses in 90 bend pipe
are greater than losses in sudden contraction in pipe.
Ksudden enlargement > K90 bend > Ksudden contraction
Hence, the precautionary steps should be taken to get the best result in order to
avoid all the errors come out. Some of the steps are to make the flow rate of the water
source consistent and remove the bubble from the tubes in the measurements.

35

REFERENCES
A)

Rolf H. Sabersky, Allan J Acosta, Edward G. Hauptmann and E.M. Gates, "Fluid
Flow-A First Course of Fluid Mechanics" (Fourth Edition), Prentice Hall Inc.,
1999.

B)

R.V Giles, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics (Third Edition), McGrawHill Inc;

1994.
C)

Lab Manual University Teknologi Malaysia.

36

Appendix
Sample Calculation
For pipe 1 and 2
(i)

(ii)

(iii)Reynolds Number for Pipe 1A

(iv)Turbulent flow,

(v)

(vi)

(vii) fexp,

37

Same method using for data of Pipe 1(B), 2(A) and 2(B) in determine of Reynolds
Number:1B: Re = 27.5 x 103 x V
2A: Re = 16.4 x 103 x V
2B: Re = 15.5 x 103 x V
Losses in Pipe of Sudden Enlargement Pipe
(i)

(ii)h = h1 h2
= 582-570 mm
= 12 mm
= 0.012 m
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

38

(vii)

Losses in Pipe of Sudden Contraction Pipe


Note: Same method uses to find value of Q, h as shown in calculation of losses in pipe
of sudden enlargement pipe.
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Losses in Pipe for 900 Bend Pipe and Elbow Pipe


Note: Same method uses to find value of Q, h as shown in calculation of losses in pipe
of sudden enlargement pipe.

39

(i)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

40

41