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experiment on thermal diffusivity determination of polyester resin and steel

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(2015)

ChE 135

Process Engineering Laboratory

Renz Marvin Asprec, Patrick Cruz*, Raphael Victor Mendoza

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

*Corresponding author. Tel.:

Email address:

ABSTRACT

A steel cube and polyester resin cube were immersed in a water bath of 40.0, 60.4, and 80.0C and in an ice bath of

4.0C. The variation of the cube cores temperature with time were measured and recorded. For the steel cube, with a

Biot number of 0.1, a lumped analysis was used to calculate for the thermal diffusivity. Getting the slope from the plot

-5

-5

-5

-5

2

of

vs

, resulted to a thermal diffusivity of 2.66x10 , 2.59x10 , 3.66x10 , and 2.76x10 m /s for the

-5

temperature of 40.0, 60.4, 80.0 and 4.0C, respectively. With a literature value of 1.88x10 m /s, the percent deviation

resulted to 41.5, 37.7, 94.7, and 46.8%, respectively. For the resin cube, with a Biot number of 309, a three-dimensional

conduction analysis was used. Getting the slope from the plot of

) vs (

),

resulted to a thermal diffusivity of 3.25x10-7, 2.33x10-7, 2.91x10-7, and 1.82x10-7 m2/s. The percent deviation

from the literature value of 1.06x10-7 m2/s is 206.6, 119.8, 174.5, and 71.7%.

Keywords: Thermal diffusivity, lumped analysis, heat transfer

1. Introduction

Heat transfer occurs between two objects of

different temperatures. There are three mechanisms

on which this may occur. These are via conduction,

convection or radiation. In conduction, heat is

conducted either by transfer of energy between free

electrons (the mechanism for metallic solids) or by

transfer of energy of motion between adjacent

molecules. In convection, the transfer of heat occurs

due to bulk motion and mixing of the hotter regions

with the cooler regions of the fluid. Finally,

radiation

transfers

heat

by

means

of

electromagnetic waves (Geankoplis, 1993).

There are several parameters that defines the

thermal property of a material, like thermal

conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Thermal

conductivity determines the amount of heat that

will flow in the material while thermal diffusivity

determines the rate at which the heat will flow

(Geankoplis, 1993). The property of interest for the

experiment is the thermal diffusivity of steel and

resin cubes.

Convective heat transfer between a fluid and a solid

surface is given by Newtons Law of Cooling;

(1)

(

)

is the area of the surface,

is the temperature

of the surface of the solid, and

is the

temperature of the bulk fluid.

The convective heat-transfer coefficient is a function

of the system geometry, fluid properties, flow

velocity, and temperature difference.

For materials with small internal resistances such as

metals, the conductivity is high such that the

temperature within the material is uniform at any

given time. Making a heat balance for the system of

a metal cube immersed in a water bath

(

)

(1)

where A is the area of the cube, T is the average

temperature of the cube at a specific time, the

density of the cube, and V the volume of the cube.

Integrating equation (1)

conditions that at time

time

,

with

,

the

boundary

and that at

(2.1)

capacitance of the system.

the

lumped

thermal

(

(2.2)

Plotting

vs

(4)

(

(

) vs (

), the

diffusivity.

Plotting

not valid, dimensionless variables must be used. The

boundary conditions are for

, for

, and for

).

will be determined by plotting

vs

for the

steel cube, and

The system is to be analysed using threedimensional conduction analysis (Perry, 2008). The

equation to be used is

(

)(

(

Where

)

(

(

)

)(

(

(

)) (

Rearranging,

)(

) vs (

the best fit line.

2. Materials and Methodology

First, the initial temperatures of the steel and

polyester resin cubes are noted. Then, each cube is

submerged in a constant temperature bath with

water of temperature 40C. The temperature

readings, which are taken from the center of the

cubes, are noted every 10 seconds until the constant

temperature bath or a constant temperature is

reached. This procedure is repeated with water

temperatures of 60, and 80C. For the 80C system,

the cube is then submerged into an ice bath to

observe its cooling behavior.

)

)

))

(

))

center of the cubes for simplification of equations

that will be used.

(3)

))

With the thermal conductivity of steel, k, equal to

43 W/mK (New Age Publishers, n.d.) and heat

660.361W/m2K (Geankoplis, 1993), the Biot number

for the heating and cooling of the steel cube is equal

to 0.1.

thermal conductivity or

resistance (Geankoplis, 1993).

negligible

thermal

the slope of

vs

, results to the calculated

a lumped analysis is acceptable. Lumping of a

system is valid for materials that have very high

on Table 1 is the percent deviation of the thermal

diffusivity from the theoretical value of 1.88 x10-5

m2/s (Welty, 2008).

ln((T-T)/(T0-T)) vs -hAt/kV

0.5

0

-150

-130

-110

-90

-70

-50

-30

-10

-0.5

ln((T-T)/(T0-T))

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

y = 2.66E-02x + 2.86E-01

R = 9.57E-01

-hAt/kV x10-3

40 C

Fig 2.1. Plot of

vs

Linear (40 C)

ln((T-T)/(T0-T)) vs -hAt/kV

0.5

-105

-85

-65

-45

-25

ln((T-T)/(T0-T))

-125

0

-5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

-hAt/kV x10-3

60.4 C

Fig 2.2. Plot of

vs

-3.5

y = 2.59E-02x + 2.13E-01

R = 9.75E-01

Linear (60.4 C)

ln((T-T)/(T0-T)) vs -hAt/kV

1

-125

-105

-85

-65

-45

0

-5

-25

ln((T-T)/(T0-T))

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

y = 3.66E-02x + 4.44E-01

R = 9.15E-01

-hAt/kV x10-3

80 C

vs

Linear (80 C)

ln((T-T)/(T0-T)) vs -hAt/kV

0

-180

-160

-140

-120

-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

ln((T-T)/(T0-T))

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-hAt/kV x10-3

cooling

Linear (cooling)

vs

Thermal

diffusivity (m2/s)

y = 2.76E-02x - 1.00E+00

R = 9.72E-01

heating and cooling of steel cube

Water bath

temperature

(C)

-6

Percent

Deviation (%)

40

60.4

80

4.0 (cooling)

2.66x10-5

2.59x10-5

3.66x10-5

2.76x10-5

41.49

37.7

94.68

46.81

cube, the lumped analysis is not valid because the

Biot number is greater than 0.2. Using a thermal

plots

of

vs

obtained

for

the

steel

cube

ln(/t)vs -(2t/R2)x,y,z

0

-11.5

-9.5

-7.5

-5.5

-3.5

-1.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

ln(/t)

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

-5

-(2t/R2)x,y,z x106

40 C

y = 3.25E-01x - 2.12E-01

R = 9.29E-01

Linear (40 C)

) vs (

ln(/t)vs -(2t/R2)x,y,z

0

-17

-15

-13

-11

-9

-7

-5

-3

-1

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

ln(/t)

The

resin, the Biot number is equal to 309.

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

-(2t/R2)x,y,z x106

60.3 C

) vs (

Linear (60.3 C)

-5

y = 2.33E-01x - 1.19E-01

R = 9.83E-01

are

ln(/t)vs -(2t/R2)x,y,z

1

0

-15

-13

-11

-9

-7

-5

-3

-1

-1

ln(/t)

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

-(2t/R2)x,y,z x106

80 C

) vs (

Linear (80 C)

y = 2.91E-01x + 7.33E-02

R = 9.25E-01

ln(/t) vs -(2t/R2)x,y,z

1

0

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

ln(/t)

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-(2t/R2)x,y,z x106

cooling

) vs (

resin cube and corresponding percent deviations

from a literature value of 1.06x10-7 m2/s (Welty,

2008) are

Table 2. Thermal diffusivity and percent deviation for the

heating and cooling of polyester resin cube

Water bath

temperature

(C)

Thermal

diffusivity (m2/s)

Percent

Deviation (%)

Linear (cooling)

y = 1.82E-01x + 8.00E-02

R = 9.28E-01

40

60.3

80

4.0 (cooling)

3.25x10-7

2.33x10-7

2.91x10-7

1.82x10-7

206.60

119.81

174.53

71.70

behavior. The rate of temperature change is faster at

the start and becomes slower when its temperature

is approaching the temperature of the water bath.

for heat transfer. Also, near the start and near the

end of the plot, the slope is non-linear, which means

that the thermal diffusivity is changing. Whereas for

the metals, the time for heat transfer is relatively

short and the slope is already linear, meaning that

the thermal diffusivity is constant.

One probable source of error is the value of thermal

heat-transfer coefficient used. Also, adhesive

material on the top of the cube also blocked some

are for heat transfer. One face of the cube is also in

contact with the metal inside the temperature bath.

For the cooling system, some parts of the cube are

exposed to liquid water and some to ice. This should

be taken into account for the thermal heat-transfer

coefficient used.

4. Conclusion and Recommendations

The experiment did not yield thermal diffusivity

values with high accuracy, especially for the

polyester resin system. The deviations for the steel

cube system, from a literature value are 41.49%,

37.7%, 94.68%, and 46.81% for water bath

temperatures of 40, 60.4, and 80C and for cooling,

respectively. On the other hand, the deviations for

the steel cube system, from a literature value are

206.60%, 119.81%, 174.53%, and 71.70% for water

bath temperatures of 40, 60.3, and 80C and for

cooling, respectively. For experiments to be done in

the future, the thermal heat-transfer coefficients to

be used should take into account the geometry,

fluid properties, flow velocity, and the temperature

difference of the system.

References

[1] Geankoplis C. Transport Processes and Unit

Operations. 3rd ed. USA: Prentice-Hall Internation,

Inc. 1993

[2] Perry R, Green D. Perrys Chemical Engineers

Handbook. 8th ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill

Companies, Inc. 2008.

[3] New Age Publishers. Heat and Mass Transfer Data

Book. New Age Publishers. n.d. Available at:

http://www.newagepublishers.com/samplechapter/0

00915.pdf

[4] Harper C. Handbook of Building Materials for Fire

Protection. McGraw-Hill. 2004

[5] Welty, Wicks, Wilson, Rorrer. Fundamentals of

Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer. 5th ed.

Hamilton Printing. 2008

Appendix

Sample Calculations

1.

Area of a cube

)

(

)

(

(

2. Volume

( )( )( )

(

)(

)(

(

(

3.

)

Biot Number

( )

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