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# HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

## ICP B PHYSICS 2014

Abstract
Has conducted lab hydrostatic pressure. Practicum aims to determine the effect of the depth
and density of the liquid to the hydrostatic pressure, as well as understand the principle of
hydrostatic pressure experiments. In this experiment, there are two activities that have been carried
out. Activity 1 was to investigate the influence of the depth of the hydrostatic pressure. In this
activity measurements were carried out repeatedly three times at each depth that is used is 2 cm, 3
cm, 4 cm, 5 cm, 6 cm, 7 cm and 8 cm. And the second activity is investigating the influence of the
density of the liquid to the hydrostatic pressure. There are 5 types of liquids used in this
experiment: water, glycerin, oil, salt solution 1 and salt solution 2. From these experiments, it can
be concluded that the depth and density of liquid affect the hydrostatic pressure. The depth and
density is directly proportional to the hydrostatic pressure. The higher the depth of a liquid
substance, the higher the pressure hidrostatiknya, as well as the density of the liquid, the higher the
density of the liquid, the higher the hydrostatic pressure.

## Key words: hydrostatic pressure, fluid density, depth.

PURPOSE
1. To determine the influence of the depth of the hydrostatic pressure.
2. To determine the influence of the density of the liquid to the hydrostatic pressure.
3. To determine the principle of hydrostatic pressure experiments.

EXPERIMENT METHOD
Brief theory

## Theory of hydrostatic pressure can also be explained by observing or glass

vessel containing water as an example. Consider the following picture:

P=

F
A

w
A

m. g
A

( V ) . g
A

( hA ) . g
A

P=

gh

## Thus, the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure is generally formulated with:

P=

gh

Explanation :
P = hydrostatic pressure (N/m2 atau Pascal)

## = density of fluid (kg/m3)

g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
h = depth of fluid (m)
If the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the liquid that is P0, the absolute pressure at
the place or point located at a depth h is:
P= P0 +

gh

## Hydrostatic force on a base force vessel is determined by the following formula:

F = P.A
F=

gh.A

Explanation :
F = hydrostatic force (N)
A = area of the base vessel (m2)

As for the type of large pressure liquids in it depends on the depth. Each point
that is at the same depth will undergo the same hydrostatic pressure anyway.
Tools and Material
1.
2.
3.
4.

U-shaped pipe
Pycnometer
Beaker
Plastic hose

Variables Identification

5. Funnel
6. Ruler
7. 311 gram ohaus balance
8. Kinds of liquid (fluid)

## Activity 1 : The effect of depth to the hydrostatic pressure

1. Control variable : Kinds of liquid / density of liquid
2. Manipulation variable : Depth
3. Response variable : The difference in height of the liquid in the pipe U
Activity 2 : The effect of the density of liquid to the hydrostatic pressure
1. Control variable : Depth
2. Manipulation variable : Kinds of liquid / density of liquid
3. Response variable : The difference in height of the liquid in the pipe U

## Operational Definition of Variables

Activity 1: The effect of depth to the hydrostatic pressure
1. Control variable
Kinds of liquid is a liquid that is used in this observation is water. The unit of
the density is gram /cm3
2. Manipulation variable
The depth is the height of liquid in the funnel when the funnel in placed in
distilled water. The unit is centimeter (cm)
3. Response variable
The difference in height of the U pipe is the differenced in height of the U pipe
measured with a ruler at the time of the funnel depth altered. The unit is
centimeter (cm)
Activity 2: The effect of the density of liquid to the hydrostatic pressure
1. Control variable
The depth is the height of the liquid in the funnel to the surface of liquid
when the funnel in place in distilled water. In this activity, the depth used
was 5,00 cm. The unit is centimeter (cm)
2. Manipulation variable
The kinds of liquid is the liquid by used in this activity. There were five
kinds of liquid was used. That are water, glycerin, oil, salt solutions 1 and
salt solutions 2. The density of liquid is gram /cm3
3. Response variable
The difference in height of the U pipe is the differenced in height of the
U pipe measured with a ruler upon the type of liquid used altered. The unit
is centimeter (cm)
Work procedure
Activity 1 : The effect of depth to the hydrostatic pressure

1. The density of liquid were determined and measuring the mass and volume.
2. The U pipe contain the liguid with the glass funnel by a plastic hose were
connected.
3. The funnel was put into the water, hitted with the certain depth. The depth
was measured by using a ruler (measure from the water surface to the surface
of the water in the funnel).
4. Inspecting the change in the surface height of liquid in the U-pipe. The
difference of liquid height was measured. The supervision result in the table
of supervision were recorded.
5. Repeated the experiment with the difference depth by three times

## Activity 2 : The effect of the density of liquid to the hydrostatic pressure

1. Making a graph that showing the relationship between the surface height
with the hydrostatic pressure according to the supervision table.
2. The formula of hydrostatic pressure was determined, if tan was obtained
from the graph is equel

g , with

## = the density of water and g =

acceleration of gravity.
EXSPERIMENT RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS
Experiment Result
Table 1. Density of liquid
Nu

Type of liquid

Mass (gram)

Volume (ml)

Air

|97,000 0,010|

|100,00 0,05|

Glycerin

|103,000 0,010|

|100,00 0,05|

Oil

|87,000 0,010|

|100,00 0,05|

Salt solution 1

|98,910 0,010|

|100,00 0,05|

Salt solution 2

|121,800 0,010|

|100,00 0,05|

## Activity 1. The influence of the depth of the hydrostatic pressure

Type of liquid : water
Table 2. the relationship between the depth of liquid with hydrostatic pressure
Nu

depth(cm)

## Height difference of liquid at U pipe (cm)

1 |2,10 0,05|
1

|2,00 0,05|

2|2,10 0,05|

3 |1,90 0,05|
1 |3,00 0,05|
2

|3,00 0,05|

2|3,00 0,05|
3 |3,15 0,05|
1 |4,10 0,05|

|4,00 0,05|

2|4,00 0,05|

3 |4,10 0,05|
1 |5,15 0,05|
4

|5,00 0,05|

2|5,25 0,05|
3 |5,10 0,05|
1 |6,30 0,05|

|6,00 0,05|

2|6,25 0,05|

3 |6,20 0,05|
1 |7,20 0,05|
6

2|7,15 0,05|

|7,00 0,05|
3 |7,20 0,05|
1 |8,05 0,05|

|8,00 0,05|

2|8,10 0,05|

3 |8,15 0,05|
Activity 2. The influence of the density of the liquid to the hydrostatic pressure
Depth = |5,00 0,05| cm
Table 3. the relationship between the density of the liquid with the hydrostatic
pressure
Nu

Density of Liquid (

## Height difference of liquid at U pipe (cm)

kg /cm

)
1 |5,15 0,05|

Water

| 970,0 0,5849 |

2|5,10 0,05|

3 |5,10 0,05|
1 |6,35 0,05|

Glycerin

| 1030 0,6150 |

2|6,40 0,05|
3 |6,35 0,05|
1 |4,75 0,05|

Oil

| 870,0 0,5349 |

2|4,70 0,05|

3 |4,65 0,05|
1 |5,35 0,05|

Salt solution 1

| 989,1 0,5945 |

2|5,30 0,05|
3 |5,25 0,05|
1 |5,20 0,05|

Salt solution 2

| 121,8 0,7089 |

DATA ANALYSIS
Density of liquid.
1. Water

=
=

m
V

97 x 103
1 x 104

= 970 kg/m3
d

= | m |dm + | v |dv

d = |v dm + |mv|dv

2|5,10 0,05|

3 |5,15 0,05|

v
mv dm +

dm
m

mv
mv dv

+ v dv

m
m

+ v v

=|

m
m

=|

0,01
97

v |

0,05
100 | 970

= 0,58491 kg/m3
RE =
=

100%

0,58491
970

100%

= 0,06 % ( 4 SF )
DC = 100% - RE
= 100% - 0,06%
= 99,94 %
= |970,0 0,5849| kg/m3

2. Oil

m
V

87 x 103
1 x 104

= 870 kg/m3

=|

=|

m
m

0,01
87

v |

0,05
100 | 870

= 0,5349 kg/m3
RE =
=

100%

0,5349
970

100%

= 0,06 % ( 4 SF )
DC = 100% - RE
= 100% - 0,06%
= 99,94 %
= |870,0 0,5349| kg/m3
3. Glycerin

m
V

103 x 103
1 x 104

= 1030 kg/m3

=|

m
m

0,01
= | 103

v |

0,05
100 | 1030

= 0,615 kg/m3
RE =

100%

0,615
1030

100%

= 0,06 % ( 4 SF )
DC = 100% - RE
= 100% - 0,06%
= 99,94 %
= |1030 0,6150| kg/m3
4. Salt Solutions 1

m
V

98,91 x 10
4
1 x 10

= 989,1 kg/m3

=|

m
m

0,01
= | 98,91

v |

0,05
100 | 989,1

= 0,5945 kg/m3
RE =
=

100%

0,5945
989,1

100%

= 0,06 % ( 4 SF )
DC = 100% - RE
= 100% - 0,06%
= 99,94 %
= |989,1 0,5945| kg/m3

5. Salt Solutions 2

m
V

121,8 x 103
1 x 104

= 1218 kg/m3

=|

m
m

0,01
= | 121,8

v |

0,05
100 | 1218

= 0,7089 kg/m3
RE =
=

100%

0,7089
1218

100%

= 0,06 % ( 4 SF)
DC = 100% - RE
= 100% - 0,06%
= 99,94 %

## Activity 1 Influence of depth to hydrostatic pressure

Type of liquid: Water
1. For depth 2 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

2,1+2,1+1,9
3

= 2,03 cm = 0,0203 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,021 0,0203 | = 0,0007 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,021 - 0,0203 | = 0,0007 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,019 - 0,0203 | = -0,0013 m
h= max 0,0007 m
h = | 0,0203 0,0007

2. For depth 3 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

|m

3+ 3+3,15
3

= 3,05 cm = 0,0305 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,03 0,0305 | = -0,0005 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,03 - 0,0305 | = -0,0005 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0315 - 0,0305 | = 0.001 m
h= max 0,001 m
h = | 0,0305 0,0010 | m

3. For depth 4 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

4,1+4 +4,1
3

= 4,07 cm = 0,0407 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,041 0,0407 | = 0,0003 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,040 - 0,0407 | = -0,0007 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,041 - 0,0407 | = 0.0003 m
h= max 0,0003 m

h = | 0,0407 0,0003 | m

4. For depth 5 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

5,15+5,1+5,1
3

= 5,12 cm = 0,0512 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,0515 0,0512 | = 0,0003 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,051 - 0,0512 | = -0,0002 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,051 - 0,0512 | = -0,0002 m
h= max 0,0003 m
h = | 0,0512 0,0003 | m

5. For depth 6 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

6,30+ 6,25+6,20
3

= 6,25 cm = 0,0625 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,063 0,0625 | = 0,0005 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,0625 - 0,0625 | = 0 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,062 - 0,0625 | = -0,0005 m
h= max 0,0005 m
h = | 0,0625 0,0005 | m

6. For depth 7 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

7,20+7,15+ 7,20
3

= 7,18 cm = 0,0718 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,072 0,0718 | = 0,0002 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,0715 - 0,0718 | = -0,0003 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,072 - 0,0718 | = 0,0002 m
h= max 0,0002 m
h = | 0,0718 0,0002 | m
7. For depth 8 cm
h1+ h2+h 3
h =
3

8,05+ 8,10+8,15
3

= 8,1 cm = 0,081 m

## 1 = |h1 - h | = |0,0805 0,081 | = -0,0005 m

2 = |h2 - h | = |0,081 - 0,081 | = 0 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0815 - 0,081 | = 0,0005 m
h= max 0,0005 m
h = | 0,0810 0,0005 | m
Table Relationship between the depth and hydrostatic pressure
Nu

Depth (m)

Difference in height of

.
1

| 0,02 0,0005 |

| 0,03 0,0005 |

## liquid the U pipe (m)

| 0,0203 0,0007 |
| 0,0305 0,0010 |

| 0,04 0,0005 |

| 0,05 0,0005 |

| 0,06 0,0005 |

| 0,07 0,0005 |

| 0,0407 0,0003 |
| 0,0512 0,0003 |
| 0,0625 0,0005 |
| 0,0718 0,0002 |

| 0,08 0,0005 |

| 0,0810 0,0005 |

0.1
0.08
0.06

## the difference in height of the pipe U (m)

f(x) = 0.98x + 0
R = 1

0.04
0.02
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

## Activity 2 Influence the dencity of liquid to hydrostatic pressure

Depth = | 5,00 0,05 | cm
1. Water
h =

h1+ h2+h 3
3

5,15+5,10+ 5,10
3

= 5,12 cm = 0,0512 m

## 1 = |h - h | = |0,0515 - 0,0512 | = 0,0003 m

1
2 = |h2 - h | = |0,051 - 0,0512 | = - 0,0002 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,051 - 0,0512 | = - 0,0002 m
h= max 0,0003 m
h = | 0,0512 0,0003 | m

2. Oil

h =

h1+ h2+h 3
3

4,75+4,70+ 4,65
3

= 4,7 cm = 0,047 m

## 1 = |h - h | = |0,0475 - 0,047 | = 0,0005 m

1
2 = |h2 - h | = |0,047 - 0,047 | = 0 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0465 - 0,047 | = - 0,0005 m
h= max 0,0005 m
h = | 0,0470 0,0005 | m

3. Glycerin
h =

h1+ h2+h 3
3

6,35+ 6,40+6,35
3

= 6,37 cm = 0,0637 m

## 1 = |h - h | = |0,0635 - 0,0637 | = -0,0002 m

1
2 = |h2 - h | = |0,0640 - 0,0637 | = 0,0003 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0635 - 0,0637 | = - 0,0002 m
h= max 0,0003 m

h = | 0,0637 0,0003 | m

4. Salt Solutions 1
h =

h1+ h2+h 3
3

5,35+5,30+ 5,25
3

## 1 = |h - h | = |0,0535 - 0,053 | = 0,0005 m

1
2 = |h2 - h | = |0,053 - 0,053 | = 0 m

= 5,3 cm = 0,053 m

## 3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0525 - 0,053 | = - 0,0005 m

h= max 0,0005 m
h = | 0,0530 0,0005 | m

5. Salt Solutions 2
h =

h1+ h2+h 3
3

5,20+5,10+ 5,15
3

= 5,15 cm = 0,0515 m

## 1 = |h - h | = |0,052 - 0,0515 | = 0,0005 m

1
2 = |h2 - h | = |0,051 - 0,0515 | = - 0,0005 m
3 = |h3 - h | = |0,0515 - 0,0515| = 0 m
h= max 0,0005 m
h = | 0,0515 0,0005 | m

Nu

Liquid

Density (kg/m3)

.
1

Water

| 970,0 0,5849 |

Oil

| 870,0 0,5349 |

Glycerin

| 1030 0,6150 |

Salt Solutions 1

| 989,1 0,5945 |

Salt Solutions 2

| 1218 0,7089 |

## Difference in height of liquid

the U pipe (m)
| 0,0512 0,0003 |
| 0,0470 0,0005 |
| 0,0637 0,0003 |
| 0,0530 0,0005 |
| 0,0515 0,0005 |

Graph the relationship between the density of liquids with hydrostatic pressure
1400
1200
1000

density ( kg/m3)

800

## f(x) = 5183x + 739.27

R = 0.06

600
400
200
0
0.050.050.050.050.050.060.060.060.060.060.07

## the difference in height of the pipe U(cm)

From the graph, shows that the pressure is proportional to the density of the
liquid and depth. Can be written:
Ph ~
dan
Ph ~
The factors that affect the pressure experienced by objects in liquids is the
depth and density of the liquid. Can be written:
Ph ~ h
Ph= k h
where: k = constant
Dimensional analysis to obtain the hydrostatic pressure equation:
Ph=k h
kg
kg
=k 3 ( m)
2
m. s
m

( )
M
M
=k
( L)
(
LT
L )
2

M L1 T 2=k M L2
1

ML T
k=
2
ML
k=

a=

L
T 2
L
T 2

=k

because a is not a constant, then that becomes a constant in the equation is the
acceleration of gravity (g) the value of 9,8 m/s2. Thus, the hydrostatic pressure
equation can be written as follows.
Ph=g h
DISCUSSION
In this experiment we get the density value at any liquids from the biggest to
the smallest, respectively, are salt solution 2 with = | 121.8 0.7089 | kg / m3,
Glycerin with = | 1030 0.6150 | kg / m3, salt solution 1 with = | 989.1
0.5945 | kg / m3, with = | 970.0 0.5849 | kg / m3 and oil with = | 870 , 0
0.5349

kg

m3

## The experiment consists of two activity is the activity of the first to

investigate the relationship between the depth of the hydrostatic pressure. The
second activity to investigate the relationship between the density of liquids with
hydrostatic pressure.
1. Relationship

with

the

depth

of

hydrostatic

pressure

## In this activity, repeated measurements were performed three times at each

depth that is used is 2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm, 6 cm, 7 cm and 8 cm but we only use
one type of liquid. Liquids used in this activity, namely water. In this experiment,
the difference in height of the liquid in the pipe U is assumed as the magnitude of
the hydrostatic pressure. From the analysis of data and graphs, the data obtained
showed that the depth is proportional to the hydrostatic pressure. Where the
funnel pressed deeper into the water, the greater the difference in height in the
pipe U. It can also be proved by looking at the graph where the linear-shaped
graph with R = 0.9998, or in other words, the degree of credibility reaches
99.98%. This is in accordance with the theory that the depth is proportional to the
hydrostatic pressure or can be written p ~ h.
2.

Relationship

density

of

liquid

with

hydrostatic

pressure

## In this activity, we investigated the hydrostatic pressure using the mass of

different types at the same depth. There are 5 types of liquids used in this
experiment include water, glycerin, oil, salt and salt solution 1 solution 2. Prior to
the experiment, we first determine the depth is used. In this experiment, the depth

used is | 5.00 0.05 | cm. As in the first activity, we observe the difference in
height of liquid in the pipe U is assumed as the magnitude of the hydrostatic
pressure at the time of a funnel inserted into the various types of fluids. This
activity is performed three times repeatedly for each liquid. From the analysis of
the data, the data obtained showed that the density of the liquid is directly
proportional to the hydrostatic pressure. Where the greater the density of the
liquid, the greater the difference in height of the liquid in the pipe U. This is
consistent with the theory that the density of the liquid is directly proportional to
the hydrostatic pressure, which can be written p ~ . However, the analysis of
charts, graphs depicted are not too good with the degree of truth R = 0.0642 or R
= 6.42%. This is caused by an error in data collection in salt solution 2. However,
four other data indicate that the density of the liquid is directly proportional to the
hydrostatic pressure.

CONCLUSION
From these experiments, it can be concluded that the hydrostatic pressure is
affected by the depth and density of the liquid. The relationship between the depth
and density of liquid with a hydrostatic pressure that the pressure is directly
proportional to the depth and density of liquid, where the larger the depth and
density of the liquid, the greater its hydrostatic pressure.
REFERENCES
Herman . 2014. Penuntun Praktikum Fisika Dasar I. Makassar: Jurusan Fisika FMIPA
UNM.
Tipler, Paul A. 2001. Fisika untuk sains dan teknik edisi ketiga jilid 1(terjemahan).
Jakarta: Erlangga.