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tion of




Policy &

Study Preparation
Decision made by the government, in consultation

with the private sector & general public through its

institutional process, to develop tourism, or expand
or improve its present development, in a planned
Any issues relative to economic, environmental &
social costs and benefits of developing or expanding
tourism then a prefeasibility assessment should be
carried out

Plans should have a horizon year indicating when

the plan and its targets and recommendations are to

be realized; provide a time framework for making
projections, setting targets and staging
Time framework long range involved 15-20 years,
while short range less than 5 years but should be
flexible (short term vs long term)

Determination of Goals and

Goals & objectives indicate the desired results of

developing tourism
Study on economic benefits, minimizing
environmental & sociocultural impacts
Objectives should be decided at the commencement of
the study because they will influence the types of
surveys & analyses and formulation of the policy, plan
and recommendations

After the analysis has been completed and during the

formulation of policy, plan and other

recommendations, there is feedback to the objectives
to determine whether the objectives are being
If it is found that some objectives are incompatible,
alternative plans to reach the different objectives can
be prepared & presented to the policy makers before a
decision is made on which plan & related objectives to

Involves collecting data, quantitative and qualitative
Need to be carefully organized to be efficiently

conducted and will include field surveys (tourist

attractions, facilities and services, transportation,
other infrastructure, discussion with
government/private sector and any means to obtain
Important ideas can be gained through discussion
with local persons
Although always not feasible, study team can travel
together during field survey so that they can exchange

Tourist market survey on tourist arrivals and

Place of Origin
the nationality & the country of residence (very useful for marketing
Purpose of Visit
includes the categories of holiday, business, study or visiting friends
Length of Stay
based on the number of nights spend in the area (important in determining
the extent of facility use & expenditure of tourist)
Age, sex and number of family members traveling together

Tourist market survey on tourist

arrivals and characteristics
Type of employment and income levels

Where traveled & stayed during the visit

Number of times visited

Visitor attitudes and satisfaction level

Analysis and Synthesis

Both quantitative & qualitative analysis & synthesis

(combination and integration of the various

components of the analysis) of the survey information
must be carefully done (Figure 3.1, pg 50)
An important type of synthesis is the identification of
the major opportunities & problems or constraints for
developing tourism in an area

These opportunities & constraints provide much of

the foundation for determining future tourism
The analysis & synthesis phase is a major activity,
which usually requires considerable time &
specialized capabilities
The quality & extent of analysis very much depend
on the availability of adequate & accurate survey

Policy and Plan Formulation

Normally lead by the government can be encourage

or discourage the development of tourism

Focus on domestic tourism or international tourism
The reasons of development should be stated in policy
economic reasons, social reason, to achieve
environmental conservation etc

Type of tourism to be develops, location and staging

Any recommendation on enhancement of destination
areas, integration of tourist trail, improvement of tourism
bases, development of entry points, promoting or
marketing strategy for the destinations
The alternative plans are evaluate in terms of their
potential economic - physical and sociocultural costs &
The plan that achieves the most objectives while not
exposing the destination to potentially serious problems is
then selected and then drawn up in full

The completed plan is submitted to the authorities

together with selection of recommendation

concerning the optimum methods of developing
tourism in the destination and achieving the plans
For some types of recommendations, alternatives must
also be evaluated before the most suitable ones can be
For some elements of the plan, no changes to the
existing situation may be necessary, but that fact must
be stated

The methods of implementing the development plan

will be consider throughout most stages of its

Thus, by the time that the implementation stage is
reach, all the necessary legislation and regulation
controls will be bring into effect (implementable)
Also known as action plan

Monitoring and Reformation

Once the development plan is implemented, it must be

monitor closely in order to defect any deviations, which

may occur from the projected path of development
Any deviations, which may occur from the projected path
of development
These deviations must be analyzed in order to assess how
they will affect the development plan and its objectives
Thus, any recommendation and measure can be prepared
in order to stay on target

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