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Many health care settings are now part of national and international initiatives to

promote workplace health. The Health promoting Hospitals Network of the World
Health Organization, for instance, recognizes the importance of workplaces as
settings for promoting the health of service users and service providers. A big part
of looking after others clients you care for, the people who live with, visit and
accompany them and the colleagues you work with and looking after your
workplace. People cannot remain healthy in unhealthy and unsafe environment.
Explain how principles of support are applied to ensure that individuals are cared for
in health and social care practice

For a good and appropriate health and social care practice, there must be some defined principles
of support. 'Principles' means moral rule or regulation of behavior, whereas the social care can
be described as sets of values.
Support is necessary to makes health and social care practice successful. Good support services
are one of the important factors for individuals to choose the right health and support services.
This assures them that their treatment is caring and beneficial. For example take people with
learning disabilities. We can able to make some independent choices but people with learning
disabilities may not have that option. So the support services are needed to ensure that these
people get the best possible care.
Social support is type of support which is related to the persons health. The most elemental
factor by which this effect of socialization works is a basic and sometimes overlooked reason for
the success of psychotherapy. Sometimes just knowing that there is someone to talk to and
confide in can help people overcomes their problems just as much as any treatment (Clark,
2005). Inorder to deal such kind of health and care issues, there is an global authority that is
responsible for establishing rules and regulations, called World Health Organization (WHO).
Outline the procedure for protecting clients, patients, and colleagues from harm

Health and social care staff has the responsibility to protect clients, patients, the public and
colleagues from the risk of harm. They must work appropriately so they can able to protect them
from harm. They must be sure that their behavior does not put clients and patients at risk, even
they should concern about their health issue also. They should make sure that the clients and
patients should away from any chances of infection or environment harms (Common purpose
Consultation draft).
Valuing and respecting others is a basic courtesy. However in order to reinforce our
Societys values, we have laws that state the ways how all people should be treated.

These laws affect how workers behave to others in the workplace. The NHS demands that staff
behave in a professional way, to their clients and to their colleagues. There are important Acts
relating to equality like employment equality, gender recognition, partnership, sex
discrimination, human rights, disability and even racism, also provide legal protection to
everyone relating to health and care system (College, 2008).
Analyse the benefit of following a person-centred approach with users of health and
social services

The person-centred approach is intended to support relationships by providing an empathetic,

understanding, accepting and genuine therapist, counselor or carer relationship. In a health and
social setup a trustworthy relation with a service user is very important. In the beginning it is just
an approach towards care but now its become an integral part of health and social care services
especially in the UK.
Person centred approaches is not only a system of care but it is also what is need either physical
or psychological, of the person. It is a system in which each and every user interest is considered
and every user is equally preferred. In this approach, staff is always asks the consent about his
action and even to the user. There are particular patients assigned to the care worker, thus it
enables him to participate in few choices regarding to patient. It is closely relevant to the Rogers
person centred concept. It recognizes the individual as being at the heart of their own care.
Active listening is a good tool to know the actual issues and matters of the client, thus care
worker can develop the techniques of working together (Cox, 2011).
Explain ethical dilemmas and conflict that may arise when providing care, support
and protection to users of health and social care services

A situation in which principles and rules are not able to determine which of action is right or not.
It is a condition in which ethical morals are being refused to obey. It results in conflicts between
workers, staff, users and families etc
Dilemmas in health and social practice could be not obeying the codes and the law by social care
workers. It may include the inappropriate alternatives for clients. Incorrect reporting by social
worker this may be due to strict legal boundaries and regulations. Some time the staff may fall
out or absent, even confidential are sometime leaked from the settings.
Conflicts and Dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and individuals rights could be
staff having a difference of opinion. For example if the staff of different agencies working in a
single working setup, there is a more chance of conflict, this is because of lack of understanding
between the two. This will lead to the suffering of users and carers. Dilemmas could know when
to get further help regarding child protection and safeguarding issues for example if you did not
refer the case to social services the child might still continue to suffer abuse. Another dilemma
would know when to break confidentiality and share information.

2.1 Implementation of policies, legislation, regulations and

codes of practice that are relevant to own work in health and social

A policy should be applicable to all, covers all the Issues of confidentiality, according to the Data
Protection Act and what will be the action in case of breach. It should include accountability and
continuously monitored and reviewed. A complete procedure should be available to all the
workers. Appropriate instructions should be given to employees about the implementation of the
policies. All legal issues should be discussed in policy
Following are the laws that are in force by the government, in order to save the people from
discriminations. (Legislation Information England, 2011):
Health and Social Care Bill 2011
Building the National Care Service White Paper (2010)
Sex Discrimination Act 1975
Equal Pay Act 1976
Race Relations Act 1976,
Employment Rights Act 1996
Disability Discrimination Act 1995
Protection from Harassment Act 1997
Human Rights Act 1998
Disability Rights Commission Act 2000
Employment Equality Regulations 2003
Mental Capacity Act Code of practice (2007)

Code of Practice
The code of practice for health and social care worker mentions the responsibility of employers
with respect to the care worker. The code of practice requires that employers should stick to the
standards as in their codes; and their support to meet the codes and should take action when
carers not meet the standards.

The codes basically reflect existing practice. The purpose of the workforce regulation is to
protect and promote the interests of service users and carers. The code is made to complement
the policies and procedure about legislation and employment of staff.
Explain how local policies and procedures can be developed in accordance with
national and policy requirements

Local policies and procedures provide the primary infrastructure for a quality system including
all the aspects of health and Social care. Without the proper policies and procedure, it is
impossible to keep the quality improvements efforts in their places. Policies and procedures
provide the base for the desired outcomes, how health and social care is to be delivered,
according to the national legal and policy requirements.
First of all it is essential to follow the National Minimum Standards and introduction of
document control before any policies or procedures.
Header containing the draft number
Title of policy and procedure
Approval date and the approving authority.
Footer, stating the policy area, the date of review and the revision number.
A copy is available to every staff member.
In the development of policies and procedures, it should be keep in mind that it should be:
Client focussed
Be useful for the intended users e g service users, staff, management
Should comply with the accreditation and legislative requirements
Should improve the quality of service
Should be accessible to all concerned
The main contents of a policy:

Health, safety and welfare issues

Fairness and consistent procedure
Monitoring and review

2.3 Impact of policy, legislation, regulation, and codes of

The main impact of writing policies and procedures, codes and other developed supporting
documentation, is that the organization is working smoothly and rises with passage of time. If the
policies and procedures and other regulations are not according to the plan, organizations and
workers are always unsure that they are working according to the legal guidelines and
professional bodies.
The first step in this process is to specify what to expect from its staff. The policies and
procedures state what the requirement is, and what should be done in such a situation. With the
help of appropriate polices and procedure, it is a piece of cake to determine the quality of
practice and services, even in case of any inspection. Quality of service can easily be
demonstrated by the organization by showing all the supporting documentation.
Explain the theories that underpin in health and social care practice.

There are different learning theories, which are related to health and social care practice. These
theories include (M.Braungart, G.Braungart, 2007):

Behaviorist Theory
This theory is solely about observation. It mainly focuses on direct observation; it is considered
that learning is the product of the stimulus conditions (S) and the responses (R) so that it is also
called the S-R model of learning. The learning process is relatively simple not only in humans
but also in animals. Behaviorist theories are more used in education and psychology. It is also
used in combination with other theories, like cognitive theory.

Cognitive Theory
Cognitive theory consists of a number of sub theories and is mainly used in education and
counseling. This theory is based on the learning and changing in the cognition including
perception, thought, memory, and interpretation. Cognitive learning, a highly active process
directed by the individual, involves receiving the information, interpreting it based on own
knowledge and then reorganizing the information into new way.

Social Theory

Social learning theory is on learning that involves consideration of the personal characteristics of
the learner, behavior patterns, and the environment. In early formulations, behaviorist features
and the imitation of role models; next the focus was on cognitive considerations, such as the
attributes of the self and the internal processing of the learner.

Psychodynamic Theory
This theory is different than the rest of all. As this is all about motivation and emotions rather
than responses, the psychodynamic theory emphasizes the importance of conscious and
unconscious forces in guiding behavior, personality conflicts, and the enduring effects of
experiences. As Pullen (2002) pointed out, negative emotions are important to recognize and
assess in nursepatientdoctorfamily interactions, and the psychodynamic theory can be helpful
in this regard.

Humanistic Theory
This theory is all about the probability and positivity. Every individual is unique and wants to
move in positive way. Humanistic theory go with healthcare providers, as they focus on caring
and patient centeredness, an orientation that is increasingly challenged by the emphasis in
medicine and health care on science, technology, cost efficiency, for- profit medicine,
bureaucratic organization, and time pressures.
Analyse how social processes impact on users of health and social care services

The social processes are the fundamental in social relationships are established due to
interaction among people. Following are the few processes that occurs amongst people or groups
in health and social care
Accommodation: It is the adjustment of people or groups in which health and social care people
starts accommodate others in case of limited services or carers
Assimilation: Penetration of people or groups, who share memories, ideas, emotions and
attitudes of other persons or groups during their course in health and social care setting.
Competition: Sometime, especially in case of an insufficient supply of anything even services
that users desire, the competition starts among users.
Conflict: Sometime people instead of competing for the services or the objects starts competition
with the person make them rival so it results in conflict among them.
Co-operation: many users in are practice work together to look after each other, and not to solely
depends on carer.

Intermixing: Different people spend time and mix with communities that have different values
and beliefs. People with different cultures, religions, values, social class backgrounds etc,
influenced ones values and beliefs.

3.3 Effectiveness of inter-professional working

Interprofessional care is the provision of health services to patients by few healthcare providers
who work together to provide quality care in healthcare settings.
This point need no prove that this kind of care offers many benefits like an enhanced health care
provision, improved healthcare outcomes especially in case of poly pharmacy and multiple
disease conditions. There is negligible chance of conflict and competition, as everyone performs
their roles and properly using clinical resources. Others include easier recruitment of caregivers
and lower staff turnover rates. Inter professional care, is the provision of complete health
services to patients by multiple health caregivers who work together to deliver quality care. It
can be implemented to assist in health care system renewal and improved sustainability.
A research in Health care systems indicates that interprofessional care can provide many
benefits, including improved patient care and safety, enhanced provider satisfaction and better
organizational efficiency. It can also contribute in innovation and sustainability. Interprofessional
care benefits arises due to research include that the communication increases while medical
errors decreases. According to research study in emergency department, medical error reduced
from 30.9 to 4.4%. If there is less communication and coordination, it will results in extra
medical testing and increasing costs. Another research study indicates that, if there is a team of
professionals in large hospitals the chances of unexpected cardiac emergencies can be reduced up
to 50% (Ontario, 2007).
Explain own role, responsibilities, accountabilities and duties in the context of
working with those within and outside the health and social care

There many roles and responsibilities of a worker regarding to the employer and the people or
client during working in health and social care setup. There are different kind of persons with
different preferences, choices and nature with which you have to coordinate with. There are
individuals care and support plans, which help you a lot in dealing with such kind of situations
and individuals. Therefore it is essential to read, understand and follow those care and support
When I talk about my role, it is also depend on key principles and ethical practice. Always
respect and prioritize public trust and confidence and accountable for the quality of work.
Always be responsible for maintaining standards and improve knowledge and skills. Support
them during their course, and guide them to live open and independent. In order to provide
quality care listening is the key, which helps to understand them
These are some of the worker responsibilities towards individuals you support:
Their rights and interests should be protected.

Build trust and maintain their confidence

They should keep away from any kind of damage and harm.
Their behavior does not harm anyone.
These are some of the ways that you can maintain professional boundaries including you should
be reliable and do not make inappropriate relationships with others, protect and promote the
people around you. Always be honest and trustable. You should always follow the written
policies and procedures and cooperate with the people around you. Do not discriminate against
anyone and maintain clear and accurate records. Always try to improve your knowledge and
skills. In case of any concern you should report them to higher authorities.
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4.2 Own contribution to the development and

implementation of policy.
In the development of health and social care organizational policy following contents are
Scope Context and Policy Statement
Process for development
Implementation Plan
Monitoring and review
A complete policy proposal plan has been submitted along with the Policy Protocols, Guidance
and Procedures Document

Scope Context and Policy Statement

It includes what kind of agencies, services and peoples included in the documentation. and the
services and other legal contents which should be mentioned in the document. There must be a
clear statement regarding to policy, its protocols, procedures and guidelines.

Process for Development

In the process of policy development there will be some identified resources that must be
included like national audit report, inquires, acts, local requirements and in case of incident what
steps and measures should be taken.

An implementation plan is attached when policies are submitted. This should improve
consideration of need for how aims and objectives will be achieved, what will be the learning
and development plans and Proposal, how the documents are used, how to monitor and review
the policies and finally the performance standards.

Implementation Plan for this Policy

How this policy will be implemented and who will take the lead responsibility of it. What will be
the development and learning opportunities.
Make recommendations to develop own contributions to meeting good practice

Social workers should perform and manage their tasks with responsibility and full attention.
They should always show positive attitude and professional behavior towards their work. It is
necessary to continuously enhance social work skills and this can be done by continuing
professional development programs. Health and Social care workers should aware of the body
language of the client and able to identify the situations and client condition.
Health and Social care workers should have strong and useful contacts within the field. Social
worker should encourage users to make their own system of support, and guide them to help
themselves and others when necessary. Health and Social care workers should make flexible and
trustworthy relations with the users, families and with the colleagues. Health care setups should
provide such environment to the workers where they can express constructive and innovative
ideas to help others. (Cavallari, 2003).
Health service providers are accountable to both the criminal and civil courts to
ensure that their activities conform to legal requirements. In addition, employees
are accountable to their employer to follow their contract of duty. Registered
practitioners are also accountable to regulatory bodies in terms of standards of
practice and patient care.

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