14
Chap. 1
Octave: When the upper limit of a frequency range is twice its lower
limit, the frequency span is said to be an octave. For example, each of the
frequency bands in Figure 1.32 represents an octave band.
PROBLEMS
11
12
13
A harmonic motion has a frequency of 10 cps and its maximum velocity is 4.57
m/s. Determine its amplitude, its period, and its maximum acceleration.
14
Find the sum of two harmonic motions of equal amplitude but of slightly
15
16
17
18
19
different frequencies. Discuss the beating phenomena that result from this sum.
A e1wr
as AL6.
by i rotates it by 90.
Determine the sum of two vectors 5ei'"/6 and 4eiw/3 and find the angle between
the resultant and the first vector.
Determine the Fourier series for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. Pl9.
1.0
7r
7r
2rr
3rr
w1
Figure Pl9.
110
shifted
111
Determine the Fourier series for the triangular wave shown in Fig. Pl11.
x( t)
1.0
rr
2rr
Figure Pl11.
3rr
Chap. 1
112
15
Problems
Determine the Fourier series for the sawtooth curve shown in Fig. Pl12. Express
the result of Prob. 112 in the exponential form of Eq. (1.24).
x(I)
1.0
 27'
w,
Figure Pl12.
113
Determine the rms value of a wave consisting of the positive portions of a sine
wave.
114
115
116
Determine the mean square value of the sawtooth wave of Prob. 112. Do this two
ways, from the squared curve and from the Fourier series.
Plot the frequency spectrum for the triangular wave of Prob. 111.
Determine the Fourier series of a series of rectangular pulses shown in Fig. Pl16.
Plot
c,
10
!.
2rrI
lkrrf
w,
Figure Pl16.
117
mechanism shown in Fig. Pl17, and determine the harmonic components and
their relative magnitudes. If r/I= } , what is the ratio of the second harmonic
compared to the first?
Figure Pl17.
118
I
Determine the mean square of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. Pl18 for
what would an rms voltmeter read?
k  0.10. If the amplitude is
A,
Figure Pl18.
Oscillatory Motion
16
119
120
121
122
Chap.1
Pl11.
0.5 Db. If a vibration of 2.5 mm rms
10
.c
"O
'
'
 10
20
100
1000
,_
10000
100000
Figure Pl22.
123
Using coordinate paper similar to that of Appendix A, outline the bounds for the
following vibration specifications. Max. acceleration = 2 g, max. displacement =
0.08 in, min. and max. frequencies: 1 Hz and 200 Hz.
38
Free Vibration
Chap. 2
PROBLEMS
21
A 0.453kg mass attached to a light spring elongates it 7.87 mm. Determine the
natural frequency of the system.
22
A springmass system
is added in series with the first spring, the natural frequency is lowered to
Determine
in terms of
k1
k2
23
k2
!/ 1.
vibrates with a natural period of 0.45 s. Determine the natural period when a
2.26kg mass is attached to the midpoint of the same spring with the upper and
lower ends fixed.
24
An unknown mass
m,
k N/m.
25 A mass m1 hangs from a spring k (N/m) and is in static equilibrium. A second
mass m2 drops through a height h and sticks to m1 without rebound, as shown
constant
m,
26
Figure P25.
k/m
The ratio
of a springmass system is given as 4.0. If the mass is deflected 2
cm down, measured from its equilibrium position, and given an upward velocity
of 8 cm/s, determine its amplitude and maximum acceleration.
27
geometric axis.
701b
Figure P27.
Chap. 2
28
Problems
39
E
"
"'
N
0
e.g.
Figure 1'28.
29
210
Figure 1'210.
211
Free Vibrati o n
40
Chap. 2
through a drop of mercury as it swings through the lowest point. (a) What should
be the length L of the pendulum? (b) If the platinum wire is in contact with the
mercury for 0.3175 cm of the swing, what must be the amplitude 6 to limit the
duration of contact to 0.01 s? (Assume that the velocity during contact is constant
and that the amplitude of oscillation is small.)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
60'"
"'
( "
' ,
m
508J:+J r0.317cm
Figure P2l 2.
213 A hydrometer float, shown in Fig. P213, is used to measure the specific gravity of
liquids. The mass of the float is 0.0372 kg, and the diameter of the cylindrical
section protruding above the surface is 0.0064 m. Determine the period of
vibration when the fioat is allowed to bob up and down in a fluid of specific
gravity 1.20.
Figure P213.
to float half out of water as shown
in Fig. P214. The center of gravity of the buoy is 8 in. below its geometric center,
Chap. 2
Problems
41
and the period of oscillation in rolling motion is 1.3 s. Determine the moment of
inertia of the buoy about its rotational axis.
8 in
..::.
.
Figure 1'214.
215 The oscillatory characteristics of ships in rolling motion depends on the position
of the metacenter M with respect to the center of gravity G. The metacenter M
represents the point of intersection of the line of action of the buoyant force and
the center line of the ship, and its distance h measured from G is the metacentric
M depends
hull and is independent of the angular inclination 6 of the ship for small values o f
2w
where J is the mass moment of inertia of the ship about its roll axis and W is the
weight of the ship. In general, the position of the roll axis is unknown and J is
obtained from the period of oscillation determined from a model test.
Figure 1'215.
'
f.o...j
216 A thin rectangular plate is bent into a semicircular cylinder as shown in Fig.
P216. Determine its period of oscillation if it is allowed to rock on a horizontal
surface.
Figure P216.
42
Free Vibration
Chap. 2
angular oscillations of the bar about the vertical axis 00, and determine its
period.
10
j
'4o'. L
Figure 1'217.
218 A uniform bar of length L is suspended in the horizontal position by two vertical
strings of equal length attached to the ends. If the period of oscillation in the
plane of the bar and strings is 11, and the period of oscillation about a vertical
t2,
219 A uniform bar of radius of gyration k about its center of gravity is suspended
horizontally by two vertical strings of length h, at distances a and b from the
mass center. Prove that the bar will oscillate about the vertical line through the
mass center, and determine the frequency of oscillation.
220 A steel shaft 50 in. long and 1} in. in diameter is used as a torsion spring for the
wheels of a light automobile as shown in Fig. P220. Determine the natural
frequency of the system if the weight of the wheel and tire assembly is 38 lb and
its radius of gyration about its axle is 9.0 in. Discuss the difference in the natural
frequency with the wheel locked and unlocked to the arm.
, ..
1;
Figure 1'220.
221 Using the energy method, show that the natural period of oscillation of the fluid
in a Utube manometer shown in Fig.
T 
where
I
P221
2'7
is
fli
Chap. 2
43
Problems
fZZi==zzz::q m
k
Figure P221.
Figure P222.
222 Figure P222 shows a simplified model of a singlestory building. The columns are
T.
Refer
223 Determine the effective mass of the columns of Prob. 222 assuming the deflection
to be
Ym( 1
'
.
k2
+a
()
"
cos
....
_j__
Figure P224.
225 A uniform cantilever beam of total mass ml has a concentrated mass
at its
assuming
the deflection to be that of a massless beam with a concentrated force at the end,
and write the equation for its fundamental frequency.
226 Determine the effective mass of the rocket engine shown in Fig. P226 to be
0 ,

b IF""rT"'
Figure P226.
227
Chap. 2
Free Vibration
44
P227
and calculate
228
Figure P227.
mcrr
and
k crr
mcff
P228
to a
kerr
,.,, J,
k,
Figure P228.
230
Figure P229.
P229.
J,
R
,,
m0
P230
in terms of .i:.
mo
k,
Figure P230.
J2
I
m2
k2
y,
Chap. 2
45
Problems
Z..31 Tachometers
small cantilever beams with weights attached at the ends. When the frequency of
vibration corresponds to the natural frequency of one of the reeds, it will vibrate,
thereby indicating the frequency. How large a weight must be placed on the end
of a reed made of spring steel 0.1016 cm thick, 0.635 cm wide, and 8.890 cm long
for a natural frequency of 20 cps?
232 A mass of 0.907 kg is attached to the end of a spring with a stiffness of 7.0 N/cm.
Determine the critical damping coefficient.
233 To calibrate a dasbpot, the velocity of the plunger was measured when a given
force was applied to it. If a !lb weight produced a constant velocity of 1.20 in./s,
determine the damping factor t when used with the system of Prob. 232.
x w,,/v0
as ordinate.
235 A vibrating system consisting of a mass of 2.267 kg and a spring of stiffness 17.5
N/cm is viscously damped such that the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes
is 1.00 and 0.98. Determine (a) the natural frequency of the damped system, {b)
the logarithmic decrement, (c) the damping factor, and (d) the damping coeffi
cient.
236 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 4.534 kg, a spring of stiffness 35.0 N/cm,
and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0.1243 N/cm/s. Find (a) the
damping factor,
(b)
consecutive amplitudes.
237 A vibrating system has the following constants: m = 17.5 kg, k = 70.0 N/cm,
and c = 0.70 N/cm/s. Determine (a) the damping factor, (b) the natural
frequency of damped oscillation, (c) the logarithmic decrement, and (d) the ratio
238 Set up the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. P238.
Determine the expression for (a) the critical damping coefficient, and
(b)
the
/,
"
c
a
Figure 1'238.
239 Write the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. P239 and
determine the natural frequency of damped oscillation and the critic al damping
coefficient.
Free Vibration
46
Chap. 2
a
k
c
%r,
Figure P239.
240 A springmass system with viscous damping is displaced from the equilibrium
ii

laj
Figure P241.
242 A thin plate of area A and weight W is attached to the end of a spring and is
allowed to oscillate in a viscous fluid as shown in Fig. P242. If r1 is the natural
period of undamped oscillation (that is, with the system oscillating in air), and T2
the damped period with the plate immersed in the fluid, show that
Figure P242.
243 A gun barrel weighing 1200 lb has a recoil spring of stiffness 20,000 lb/ft. If the
barrel recoils 4 ft on firing, determine (a) the initial recoil velocity of the barrel,
(b) the critical damping coefficient of a dashpot which is engaged at the end of the
recoil stroke, and (c) the time required for the barrel to return to a position 2 in.
from its initial position.
Chap. 2
Problems
47
Figure P244.
=4 mt.
c=
1.75 Ns/cm
lml@
kkg
350 N/cm
4.53
245 A shock absorber is to be designed so that its overshoot is 10% of the initial
displacement when released. Determine r,. If l is made equal to t li. what will be
the overshoot?
246 Determine the equation of motion for Probs. 238 and 239 using virtual work.
247 Determine the effective stiffness of the springs shown in Fig. P247.
Figure P247.
L at a
Figure P249.
Z..50
k2
Determine the effective stiffness of the torsional system shown in Fig. P250. The
two shafts in series have torsional stiffnesses of k1 and k2.
Figure P250.
Free Vibration
48
Chap. 2
P252.
0
. /
Figure P252.
Z..53
Determine the differential equation of motion for free vibration of the system
shown in Fig. P253, using virtual work.
m/ft
fT
g_1 I;
3
lt
._J_
F; Po
i f(I)

k
/
Figure PZ53.
254 Tue system shown in Fig. P254 has two rigid uniform beams of length I and
mass per unit length m, hinged at the middle and resting on rollers at the test
stand. The hinge is restrained from rotation by a torsional spring K and supports
Chap. 2
Problems
49
J.l
I,m
K
/'.
'
IM I
>
,>k
I,m
.''
Figure Pl54.
2SS Two uniform stiff bars are hinged at the middle and constrained by a spring, as
shown in Fig. P255. Using virtual work, set up the equation of motion for its free
vibration.
Figure Pl55.
82
Chap. 3
PROBLEMS
31
32
If the system of Prob. 31 is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 cps, what
will be the percentage increase in the amplitude of forced vibration when the
dashpot is removed?
33
A weight attached to a spring of stiffness 525 N/m has a viscous damping device.
When the weight is displaced and released, the period of vibration is found to be
1.80 sec, and the ratio of consecutive amplitudes is 4.2 to 1.0. Determine the
amplitude and phase when a force F = 2 cos 31 acts on the system.
34
3S
36
37
Show that for the dampled springmass system, the peak amplitude
frequency ratio given by the expression
occurs
at a
For the system shown in Fig. P37, set up the equation of motion and solve for
the steadystate amplitude and phase angle by using complex algebra.
x2 X2sinwt
Figure P37.
38
Figure P38.
39
Problems
Chap. 3
83
0.0921
mm.
1200
angular position of the eccentrics at the instant the structure is moving upward
through its equilibrium position.
80
M
k_
2
Figure P39.
k
>>2
310 Solve Eq. 3.21 for the complex amplitude, i.e., let (mew2)sinwt  Fe;"' and
x = Xe;(..,141) = (Xei<l>)eiwt = Xei"'r.
1200
15
g and located
loose and flies off, determine the buildup of vibration if the natural frequency of
the system is
18 cps
with damping of r
 0.10.
Figure P3ll.
312 A solid disk of weight 10 lb is keyed to the center of a tin. steel shalt 2 ft
between bearings. Determine the lowest critical speed. (Assume shaft to be simply
supported at the bearings.)
313 Convert all units in Prob. 312 to the SI system and recalculate the lowest critical
speed.
314 The rotor of a turbine 13.6 kg in mass is supported at the midspan of a shalt with
bearings
84
Chap. 3
Figure P314.
315 For turbines operating above the critical speed, stops are provided to limit the
amplitude as it runs through the critical speed. In the turbine of Prob.
314, if
the clearance between the 2.54cm shaft and the stops is 0.0508 cm, and if the
eccentricity is 0.0212 cm, determine the time required for the shaft to hit the
stops. Assume that the critical speed is reached with zero amplitude.
Figure P316.
are compressed
Find the critical speed when the trailer is traveling over a road with a profile
approximated by a sine wave of amplitude 7.62 cm and wave length of
What will be the amplitude of vibration at
14.63 m.
tial equation of motion for small amplitude of oscillation, using the coordinates
shown. Determine the solution for x/x0 and show that when"'=
1
Figure P318.
.fi."'
the node
Chap. 3
Problems
85
is found at the midpoint of /. Show that in general the distance h from the mass
to the node is given by the relation h = I(wn/w) 2, where wn = g/ I .
,/
319 Derive Eqs. (3.58) and (3.59) for the amplitude and phase by letting y
and x  Xsin(wt  <I>) in the differential equation (3.51).
Y sin wt
323 If the machine of Prob. 322 is mounted on a large concrete block of mass 1136
kg and the stiffness of the springs or pads under the block is increased so that the
statical deflection is still 0.508 cm, what will be the dynamical amplitude?
Figure P324.
325 A sensitive instrument with mass 113 kg is to be installed at a location where the
acceleration i s 15.24 cm/s2 at a frequency of 20 Hz. It is proposed to mount the
instrument on a rubber pad with the following properties: k  2802 N/cm and
f = 0.10. What acceleration is transmitted to the instrument?
326 If the instrument of Prob. 325 can only tolerate an acceleration of 2.03 cm/s',
suggest a solution assuming that the same rubber pad is the only isolator
available. Give numerical values to substantiate your solution.
327 For the system shown in Fig. P327, verify that the transmissibility TR
m
Figure P327.
J:
_J_r
lx/yl is
86
Chap. 3
the same as that for force. Plot the transmissibility in decibels,20 log!TRI versus
w/w" between w/w"  1.5 0 to 10 with !;  0.02,0.04, ...,0.10.
328 Show that the energy dissipated per cycle for viscous friction can be expressed by
2!;{w/w")
7rf'o2
=
WJ k[ 1  (w/w")'] ' + (2!;{w/w")] 2
Show that for viscous damping,the loss factor 1J is independent of the amplitude
and proportional to the frequency.
330 Express the equation for the free vibration of a singleDOF system in terms of the
loss factor 1J at resonance.
331 Show that Tn/Td plotted against r is a quarter circle where
= damped natural
period and = undamped natural period.
332 For small damping,the energy dissipated per cycle divided by the peak potential
energy is equal to 28 and also to l/Q. [See Eq. (3.76).] For viscous damping
show that
329
Td
Tn
333
334
335
336
337
!'f
In general, the energy loss per cycle is a function of both amplitude and
frequency. State under what condition the logarithmic decrement 8 is indepen
dent of the,amplitude.
Coulomb damping between dry surfaces is a constant D always opposed to the
motion. Determine the equivalent viscous damping.
Using the result of Prob. 334, determine the amplitude of motion of a spring
mass system with Coulomb damping when excited by a harmonic force FQsinwt.
Under what condition can this motion be maintained?
Plot the results of Prob. 335 in the permissible range.
The shaft of a torsiograph, shown in Fig. P337, undergoes harmonic torsional
oscillation 90sinwt. Determine the expression for the relative amplitude of the
outer wheel with respect to (a) the shalt, (b) a fixed reference.
Figure PJ37.
338 A
339
Chap. 3
Problems
87
0.096
10
cps to
1000
cps.
to
maximum
0.60 in.
(a) This instrument was used to measure the vibration of a machine with a known
frequency of
30
cps. If a reading of
0.024
am plitude.
(b) Could this instrument be used to measure the vibration of a machine with
known frequency of
12
0.80
10
Hz and (b)
2000 Hz?
342 Using the equations of harmonic motion, obtain the relationship for the velocity
versus frequency applicable to the velocity pickup.
is the accuracy limit of the instrument, determine the upper frequency limit of the
instrument for lg excitation. What voltage would be generated at
5m
450
18
200
Hz?
50
output per g.
345 Specific damping capacity WJ/ U is defined as the energy loss per cycle Wd
divided by the peak potential energy U  !k X2 Show that this quantity is equal
to
wd
  4w!'
where
c/ccr
( w )
w.
w!'.
is
347 For a system with hysteresis damping, show that the structural damping factor
Show that
348 For viscous damping, the complex frequency response can be written as
1
H(r)2
(1  r ) + i{2!'r)
where
r
equation
x' +
which
ratio.
( ) ()
'
Y+ 4 r
'
 x + iy
leads to the
4 r
Chap. 4
Problems
111
h4
method is evident in the fact that by replacing the variable by a vector, the
same method is applicable to a system of differential equations. For example,
f(x t)
x y,
y
{J} {f(x, y, t) } F(x, y, t)
F (x y t)
=
and
or
(;}
and write
Thus the above vector equation is identical in form to the equation in one
variable and can be treated in the same manner.
R E FE R ENCE S
[1]
New
[21
[3]
[4]
[5]
Vols.
Inc.,
Rockville, Mary
1980.
PROBLEMS
41
t,
1an 1
42
Determine the peak displacement for the impulsively excited springmass system,
xv,,.,_/[;;
ft
= exp
j1 r'

tan
./1 r'
Transient Vibration
112
43
44
45
1,
Chap. 4
For the system of Prob. 43, show that the peak response is equal to
( 1. )mM
 1
+exp 
}l t2
is applied to an undamped
springmass system. Considering the pulse to be the sum of two step pulses, as
shown in Fig. P45, determine its response for l > lo by the superposition of the
undamped solutions.
10
.
Fo f
1+toj
46
Figure P45.
1
"0
'
l
J()sinw.(1  ) d
x(t)  x0cosw.t + w sinw.t +wn
m O
n
g(I), is related to
47
48
x(t)  J(O)g(t )
where
49
g(t)
fo'i()g(t  ) d
g( t)
as
In Sec. 4.3 the subsidiary equation for the viscously damped springmass system
was given by Eq. (a). Evaluate the second term due to initial conditions by the
inverse transforms.
410 Ao undamped springmass system is given a base excitation of y(t)  20(1  5t).
If the natural frequency of the system is wn = 1 0 s 1, determine the maximum
relative displacement.
+ stn2'1T
where
T =
2 '1T/ w.
I 1
'T
211
'T
sin 'IT
<
11
I  11
11
)l
>
11
Chap. 4
Problems
113
F
,, ,'
I
I
I
f
Figure P411.
l
,,
',
\
\
\
\
,_,
\\
\
\
I
I
I
,_,.
412 For the triangular pulse shown in Fig. P412 show that the response is
x
(
{  fiI
{ [
2FO
_t_  'sin2'"i
T
2'7'11
k 11
2Fo
= k 1
2F;,
k
 

2'7'11
'
[ . (t (I  )
2!T
+ 2.,,.1 2sm;;:1
2!T
2s mT
1
1l
2
Figure P412.
) . I ]} ,
 sm2w:;
211
2!T
 sin (1
T
 I1 )  sm2,,I'T ]}
.
I > 11
413 A springmass system slides down a smooth 30 inclined plane, as shown in Fig.
P413. Determine the time elapsed from first contact of the spring until it breaks
contact again.
Figure P413.
414 A 38.6lb weight is supported on several springs whose combined stiffness is 6.40
lb/in. If the system is lifted so that the bottom of the springs are just free and
114
Transient Vibration
released, determine the maximum displacement of
compression.
Chap.4
for maximum
415 A springmass system of Fig. P415 has a Coulomb damper, which exerts a
constant friction force /. For a base excitation, show that the solution is
1
f t,
1(1
v0
w nt 1
mv0
"''

co s
w"t )
sin w l
"
k'
Figure P415.
__
w , t1
(iA)
mv0
[ (
1+
By dividing by
with
f t1 /mv0
w, t1,
w1 t1
the quantity
as parameter.
ft
1 mv01
Zmax/v0t1
)]'
can
Fmu
to
be plotted as a function of
f + lkzmul
is
F_
t, "  f t1
""
"(w
mv +
nwo
function of
1.0.
J'(z_
Vot1 )
t1/mv0
to obtain

,, I
wnt1
418 Show that the response spectrum for the rectangular pulse of time duration
shown in Fig. P418 is given by
(X:,)
0 max
where
"'o
2 sin7.
2
<
0.50
> 0.50
10
Chap. 4
Problems
115
2.0
I/
Fol
t=.to+i
/
0.5
1.0
1....
1.0
......._
"
Fo
V\
f..1,j
4
'
'
Figure P41 9.
419 Shown in Fig. P419 is the response spectrum for the sine pulse. Show that for
small values of t1/'T the peak response occurs in the region t > t1. Determine
420 An undamped springmass system with w 16.l lb has a natural period of 0.5 s.
It is subjected to an impulse of 2.0 lb s, which has a triangular shape with time
duration of 0.40 s. Determine the maximum displaoement of the mass.
421 For a triangular pulse of duration t1, show that when t1/ r = t, the peak response
occurs at t = t1, which can be established from the equation
found by differentiating the equation for the displaoement for t > 11. The re
sponse spectrum for the triangular pulse is shown in Fig. P421.
Chap. 4
Transient Vibration
116
1.0
Fo . 
Figure P421.
422
If the natural period T of the oscillator is large compared to that of the pulse
duration t1, the maximum peak response will occur in the region t > t1. For the
undamped oscillator, the integrals written as
:[sinw.1J.1f()cosw.d  cosw.1J.1f()sinw.dl
this region /(1) 0. Thus by making
will not change for 1 11,
substitution
A cos <1>
J.1'!()cos"'d
i "'d
A sin <I> "' J.1'f( )sn
x
>
since
the
= "'
the response for t > t1 is a simple harmonic motion with amplitude A. Discuss
the nature of the response spectrum for this case.
423 An undamped springmass system, m, k, is given a force excitation F(t) as
shown Fig. P423. Show that for I <
kx(1) =
/n
n
FQ
,, to
and for t > t0
kx(I) _!_
=
(I
I] + cos "'(I
I
;;,
ni
10
l (w
_
w_
sni w 1)
F(I)
Fo
___ _
lo
Figure P423.
 10)
Chap. 4
424
117
Problems
wntl
wnt1 l+(wnt1)2
425
In P rob
Figure P424.
424
if
I >
w" z =
Vo
426
427
428
is
wntl
Determine the time response for Prob 410 using numerical integration.
Determine the time response for Prob. 420 using numerical integration.
Figure P428 shows the response spectra for the undamped springmass system
under two different base velocity excitations. Solve the problem for the base
106
42 .
10..06
60(15) .
0.0.24
0.0.0106
0.0.0042

soe0.101
'
 
x
Velocity excitation
... I_, _

     
 



 f""
"'
' 
 



4060
Figure P428.
'x
118
Transient Vibration
velocity excitation o f
.Y(t) = 60e010 1
Chap.4
spectra.
429 A springmass system with viscous damping is initially at rest with zero di place
ment. If the system is activated by a hannonic force of frequency w = wn = k/m,
determine the equation for its motion.
430 In Prob. 429 show that with small damping the amplitude will build up to a
1
value (1  e ) times the steadystate value in the time t  1//18. (8 logarithmic decrement).
431 Assume that a lightly damped system is driven by a force fQsinwnt where wn is
the natural frequency of the system. Determine the equation if the force is
1
suddenly removed. Show that the amplitude decays to a value . times the
initial value in the time
t  l//08.
434 Draw a ftow diagram for the damped system excited by base motion
initial conditions x(O)  X1 and x(O)
y(t)
with
 V1
435 Write a Fortran program for Prob. 434, where the base motion is a half sine
wave.
Plot the result and show that the peaks of the response will iocrease as straight
71'
2Jf
3w
71'
Figure P436.
437 For the central difference method, supply the first higherorder term left out io
the recurrence formula for
Xi
O(h2 ).
and determine
x,  1/h(x,  x,_1)
proximately 0( h).
440 Verify the correctness of the superimposed exact solution in Example 4.51.
441 Calculate the problem in Example 4.52 by using the RungeKutta method.
Chap. 4
Problems
119
)x
Figure P442.
144
Chap. 5
Fig. 5.73. The result can be presented as a plot of the peak values as a
function of I for any given , as shown in Fig. 5.74.
lo =
/2(l (2
+
(5 .76)
and that the peak amplitude for optimum damping is found at a frequency
equal to
"'"'
5.73
/2/(2
+ )
(5 .77)
I. Thus, by equating the equation for 1K80/MI for I = 0 and I = oo , Eq. 5.77
is found. The curve for optimum damping then must pass through P with a
2/(2
5.75,
which is a special case of the damped vibration absorber with the damper
spring equal to zero.
k
1..::nlI
Figure 5.75.
PROBLEMS
S.. l
Figure PSI.
S..2
Determine the normal modes and frequencies of the system shown in Fig.
when
1.
k
Figure PS2.
P52
Chap. 5
53
54
Problems
145
For the system of Prob. 52, determine the natural frequencies as a function of
n.
Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system shown in Fig.
P54.
Figure PS4.
S.. 5
/1
P55
for
212
Figure PS5.
S.. 6
55,
twoDOF system with only one natural frequency. Discuss the normal modes
of this system as well as a linear springmass system equivalent to it. Show that
the system can be treated as one of a single DOF by nsing the coordinate .p 
(8,
57
8,).
5 lbin.sec 2
1"
P57,
and
31b insec2
Figure PS7.
58
 

Figure PS8.
59
,.,;
;..:.:.:.::
(ti
oo
Assuming small amplitudes, set up the differential equations of motion for the
double pendulum using the coordinates shown in Fig.
146
Chap. 5
x1/x2
. x,
[ '2 0"'
Figure 1'59.
510 Set up the equations of motion of the double pendulum in terms of angles
82
81
and
T, as shown io
normal to the string, write the equations of motion expressed in matrix form.
Figure 1'511.
512 In Problem 511 if the two masses are made equal, show that normal mode
frequencies are
=
these normal modes.
/l
Jr
and
2 m , and
w2 = J3T/ml.
m2
514 A torsional system shown io Fig. P514 is composed of a shaft of stiffness K1, a
hub of radius r and moment of inertia J1 , four leaf springs of stiffness
and an
k2,
Figure 1'514.
Problems
Chap . 5
147
12 .
where
w1 1
and
w22
k lb
xx
termine the natural frequencies for the normal modes of vibration, and describe
how these motions may be started.
If
and
k=
2.0 lb
82 80 .
=
for a motion started with 81  0 and
motion as the amplitude approaches zero.
k
!
Figure PS15.
516 Determine the equations of motion for the system of Prob. 54 when the initial
conditions are
x1(0)
A,
x1 (0)
x 2 (0) = x 2 (0)
0.
517 The double pendulum of Prob. 59 is started with the followiog initial conditions:
x1 (0) = x2 (0) = X, x1 (0) = x2 (0) = 0. Determine the equations of motion.
518 The lower mass of Prob. 51 is given a sharp blow, imparting to it an initial
velocity
1 .0
1 (0)
x2 (0)
x2 ( t)
w1
x1(0) = 0, x2 (0) =
""
y2.61 8k/m
148
Chap. 5
520 Choose coordinates x for the displacement of c and 8 clockwise for the rotation
of the uniform bar shown in Fig. P520, and determine the natural frequencies
: k
Figure PS20.
S..21 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. P521, using
coordinates
x1
and
x2
at
and
2m.
ri
l
}{
m
2m
k
k
7::""7777'77:777/'7::777/?J:'7'.,
522 In Prob. 521, if the coordinates
will they result in?
Figure PS21.
at m and
523 Compare Probs. 59 and 510 in matrix form and indicate the type of coupling
present in each coordinate system.
S.. 24 The following information is given for a certain automobile shown in Fig. P524.
w  3500 lb
11  4.4 ft
12  5.6 ft
k1
 2000 lb/ft
k,  2400 lb/ft
r=
4 ft
Determine the normal modes of vibration and locate the node for each mode.
Figure PS24.
Chap. 5
Problems
149
/<
Figure PS25.
S.. 26 Determine the natural frequencies and normal modes of the system shown in Fig.
P526 when
When forced by F1 =
plot them against
ggm1m2
k1 =
3.86 lb
= 1.93 lb
20 lb/in.
k, = 10 lb/in.
w/w11.
Figure PS26.
S.. 27 A rotor is mounted in bearings that are free to move in a single plane, as shown in
and moment of
Fig. P527. The rotor is symmetrical about 0 with total mass
acts
inertia 10 about an axis perpendicular to the shaft. If a small unbalance
at an axial distance b from its center 0, determine the equations of motion for a
rotational speed
w.
Jo
0
m1 }m2
mr
Figure PS27.
528 A twostory bnilding is represented in Fig. P528 by a lumped mass system where
and k1 = i k2 . Show that its normal modes are
=
(  ) )  2
( )(2)
x,
x2
''
'
= 1,
150
Chap. 5
m,
Figure PS28.
529 In Prob. 528, if a force is applied to m1 to deflect it by unity and the system is
released from this position, determine the equation of motion of each mass by the
normal mode summation method.
530 In Prob. 529, determine the ratio of the maximum shear in the first and secood
stories.
in
in
the
Prob. 528 that an earthquake causes the ground to oscillate
horizontal direction according to the equation x g = X sin wt. Determine the
g
response of the building and plot it against w/w1
532 Assume
533 To simulate the effect of an earthquake on a rigid building, the base is assumed to
be connected to the ground through two springs; K, for the translational
stiffness, and K,. for the rotational stiffness. If the ground is now given a
harmonic motion
= Y0 sin wt, set up the equations of motion
terms of the
in
Figure PS33.
534 Solve the equations of Prob. 533 by letting
, ,
w,.2 = ,
K
Mp,.
Chap. 5
Problems
151
W1
wh
  0.734
  1 .14
21080
S35
I' I
I
( ::: i = 4
/1
/1
2
( p,l o )2= 1.3
1 _..,.,,/ I
Ot'','I /7!':.
o '2
.ort.734
1
2
3
4
I'
2.73
3_0 :.
i 1f v
1
I
:I I
A
Figure PS35.
>36 The expansion joints of a concrete highway are 45 ft apart. These joints cause a
series of impulses at equal intervals to affect cars traveling at a constant speed.
Determine the speeds at which pitching motion and upanddown motion are
most apt to arise for the automobile of Prob. 524.
S37 For the system shown in Fig. P537, W1  200 lb and the absorber weight
W,  50 lb. If W1 is excited by a 2 lbin. unbalance rotating at 1800 rpm,
determine the proper value of the absorber spring k2 What will be the amplitude
of w,?
0
1
Figure PS37.
2 k1
W2
. .
w,
1
2 .k1
.. .
Chap. 5
152
motion for the system, and discuss the response of the system to an oscillatory
torque.
Figure
PS39.
S40 The bifilartype pendulum shown in Fig. P540 is used as a centrifugal pendulum
to eliminate torsional oscillations. The Ushaped weight fits loosely and rolls on
d2
di.
With
d1
d2 Prove that
d2.
Usbaped weight does indeed move in a circular path of r di

the
,.,.. .'\
I
I
\
'._.. /
.
'
L@_,_@J
R+
f
Figure P540.
S41
d2
of the pins?
4.0 in.
and
d1 = t
S42 A jig used to size coal contains a screen that reciprocates with a frequency of 600
cpm. The jig weighs 500 lb and bas a fundamental frequency of 400 cpm. If an
Chap. 5
Problems
153
543 In a certain refrigeration plant a section of pipe carrying the refrigerant vibrated
the disk and case is filled with a silicone oil of coefficient of viscosity . The
damping action results from any relative motion between the two. Derive an
equation for the damping torque exerted by the disk on the case due to a relative
velocity of w.
h
Figure PS44.
S45 For the Houdaille viscous damper with mass ratio = 0.25, determine the
optimum damping r. and the frequency at which the damper is most effective.
546 If the damping for the viscous damper of Prob. 545 is equal to
f = 0.10,
S48 Derive the equations of motion for the two masses in Fig. 5.75 and follow the
parallel development of the uutuued torsional vibration damper problem.
S49 Draw the ftow diagram and develop the Fortran program for the computation of
3m
is excited by a
the response of the system shown in Prob. 54 when the mass
rectangular pulse of magnitude 100 lb and duration
sec.
6w.jm/k
= 4 X 103 lb/in.,
=
X 103
lb /in., m1 = m 2 = 100. Develop the ftow diagram and the Fortran program for
the case where the ground is given a displacement = lO"sin 'Tri for 4 s.
k1
k2 6
154
Chap. 5
S51 Figure P551 shows a degenerate 3 DFS. Its characteristic equation yields one
zero root and two elastic vibration frequencies. Discuss the physical significance
of the fact that three coordinates are required but only two natural frequencies
are obtained.
Figure P551.
S52 The two uniform rigid bars shown
in
different masses. Detennine the equations of motion and the natural frequencies
and mode shapes using matrix methods.
'
m,
k1
m2
,"'t
'>
'>1< 2
>
l.
_ l.
LJ
Figure P552,
S53 Show that the normal modes of the system of Prob. 551 are orthogonal
S54 For the system shown in Fig. P554 choose coordinates x1 and x2 at the ends of
the bar and determine the type of coupling this introduces.
;f :: ::j::
,,,,,
,,,,,, ,,,
Figure PS54.
S55 Using the method of Laplace transforms, solve analytically the problem solved by
the digital computer in Sec. 5.4 and show that the solution is
X0m
Yorn
13,01(1
16.08(1
COS
COS
w11)
L90(1
w11) + 6J4(1
COS
w21)
COS
w2 1)
S56 Consider the free vibration of any two degrees of freedom system with arbitrary
initial conditions, and show by examination of the subsidiary equations of
Laplace transforms that the solution is the sum of normal modes.
S57 Detennine by the method of Laplace transformation the solution to the forced
vibration problem shown
in Fig.
and 2 (0),
F sinwt
Figure P557,
180
The displacement
X;
 Pq
Chap. 6
to be
Thus the time solution for any floor is composed of the normal modes used.
From the numerical information supplied on the normal modes, we now de
tennine the numerical values for the first equation, which can be rewritten as

L m<1>,
_.
, u ( t)
._, m<I>,
{fn r,
ij1 + 0.299
Thus given the values for
k/m and
r,,
ilo(I).
PROBLEMS
61
}+x1
62
in Fig. P6l.
}+x2
O#t!l
Figure P61.
Prove that the influence coefficients of the junction in a direction making an angle
and equal to
l/l.5k.
k
Figure P62.
63
0.25/
and
0.6/.
I is loaded
Chap. 6
181
Problems
Detennine the flexibility matrix for the cantilever beam shown in Fig. P64 and
calculate the stiffness matrix from its inverse.
13)
121
(I)
(4)
Figure P64.
6S
Detennine the influence coefficients for the triple pendulum shown in Fig. P65.
e,
Figure P65.
66
Determine the stiffness matrix for the system shown in Fig. P66 and establish the
flexibility matrix by its inverse.
Kz
Figure P66.
67
J,
Determine the flexibility matrix for the uniform beam of Fig. P67 by using the
areamoment method.
(I)
/,
(2 )
Figure P67.
68
Detennine the flexibility matrix for the fourstory building of Fig. 6.22 and
invert it to arrive at the stiffness matrix given in the text.
182
69
Chap. 6
k2
m,
ko
m2
rx,
::i,,
kn
k.

r,.
},.
:t,.
Figure P69.
610 Compare the stiffness of the framed building with rigid ftoor beam versns that
with flexible ftoor beam. Assume all length and EI to be eqnal. If the ftoor mass is
pinned at the corners as shown in Fig. P610(b), what is the ratio of the two
natural frequencies?
F
   ' .____
,,
 1
.
F  I1
. 
_
_
t
(a)
 
 
  
 
  
,
J
(b}
611 The rectangular frame of Fig. P611 is fixed in the ground. Determine the stiffness
matrix for the force system shown.
F,
I,, EI,
1, EI1
;;:;:;,<
Figure P611.
: I
I
I
F for
F  L     ,
I
I
I
I
j'.'.
Figure P612.
613 Using the cantilever beam of Fig. P613, demonstrate that the reciprocity theorem
holds for moment loads as well as forces.
Figure P613.
Chap. 6
183
Problems
614
Verify each of the results given in Table 6.31 by the areamoment method and
superposition.
615
Using the adjoint matrix, detennine the normal modes of the springmass system
shown in Fig. P615.
;::
3m
m
Figure P615.
616
For the system shown in Fig. P616, write the equations of motion in matrix form
and detennine the normal modes from the adjoint matrix.
Figure P616.
617
in Fig.
or
P will
>
;k
k ;
.
.>
Figure P617.
618
Detennine the flexibility matrix for the springmass system of three DOF shown
in Fig. P618 and write its equation of motion
in matrix
k,
m2
k,
Figure P618.
:.;:f m3
I..
form.
184
619
equations.
k
h,
620
Determine
Figure P619.
for the double pendulum with coordinates 81 and 82. Show that
621
Chap. 6
If i n Prob. 611 masses and mass moment of inertia m1, 11 and m 2 , 12 are
attached to the comers so that they rotate as well as translate, determine the
equations of motion and find the natural frequencies and mode shapes.
622
623
Repeat the procedure of Prob. 621 with the frame of Fig. P612.
If the lower end of the frame of Prob. 612 is rigidly fixed to the ground, the
rotation of the comers will differ. Determine its stiffness matrix and determine its
matrix equation of motion for m; , at the comers.
624 Determine the damping matrix for the system presented in Fig.
P624
and show
Figure P624.
625
626
Using the modal matrix P, reduce the system of Prob. 624 to one which is
coupled only by damping and solve by the Laplace transform method.
Consider the viscoelastically damped system of Fig. P626. The system differs
from the viscously damped system by the addition of the spring k1, which
introduces one more coordinate x1 to the system: The equations of motion for the
system in inertial coordinates x and x1 are
m'i
kx
(x
0 c( x  xi) 
xi )
+ F
k, x,
k
Figure P626.
Chap. 6
6rl
Problems
185
Show, by comparing the viscoelastic system of Fig. P626 to the viscously damped
system, that the equivalent viscous damping and the equivalent stiffness are
Ceq
= 1+():2
k + (k, + k)( 1f)
2
1 + (:)
7
=0
'
628
X/K
629
Kcp5
premultiply first by
KM 1
w;M<Ps
that
0,
show
for h
630
l, 2,
. . . , n,
where
h = 1,2,
631
...
Evaluate the numerical coefficients for the equations of motion for the second and
632
If the acceleration u(t) of the ground in Example 6.91 is a single sine pulse of
a0
in
t1
f..
Figure P632.
633

,,
T1
1
The normal modes of the double pendulum of Prob. 59 are given as
= {f = {f
'1>1 = { 8821 } = {0.1.70007 } 2 = { 8182 }(2) = { 0.1.70007 }
w1
o.164
{!)
w2
LS5o
.p
Properties
186
of Vibrating Systems
Chap. 6
If the lower mass is given an impulse f'o8(t), determine the response in terms of
the normal modes.
634 The normal modes of the three mass torsional system of Fig. P66 are given for
11  J2  13 and K1  K2  K3 .
{ }
0.328
<P1 
0.591
>, 
'
0.737
>.,  1.555,
<P, 
,;  o.198,
Jw
0.591
 0.737
0.328
<P2
:>. 3
'
0.737
0.328
 0 . 591
3.247
Determine the equations of motion if a torque M(t) is applied to the free end. If
M(t)  M0u(t) where u(t) is a unit step function, determine the time solution
and the maximum response of the end mass from the shock spectrum.
635 Using two normal modes, set up the equations of motion for the fivestory
building whose foundation stiffness in translation and rotation are k1 and
K,  oo (see Fig. P635).
I
m
121
/o.
I/ ,
'
kr
K,
'
.'
"
Figure P635.
636 The lateral and torsional oscillations of the system shown in Fig. P636 will have
equal natural frequencies for a specific value of a/L. Determine this value and
assuming that there is an eccentricity e of mass equal to me, determine the
equations of motion.
 0 1

L,
Figure P636.
Chap. 6
Problems
187
637 Assume that a threestory building with rigid floor girders has Rayleigh damping.
If the modal dampings for the first and second modes are
and
respectively, determine the modal damping for the third mode.
638 The normal modes of a threeDOF system with m 1 = m 2 m3 and k1 = k 2 = k3
are given as
0.05% 0.13%,
x, =
{0.0.579137} ,
0.328
638
x, =
{ 0.0.352891}
0.737
x, =
{ 0.0.733728}
0.591
{ 0.0.150020}
0.205
and released. Determine how much of each mode will be present in the free
vibration.
640 In general, the free vibration of an undamped system can be represented by the
modal sum
6.13
y, 8, and
the loads
p
{y8 } [a2111 a"]{
}
22
=
Figure P641.
642 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the 3DOF system of Fig.
terms of stiffness. Transform it
symmetric.
to
P618
in
Chap. 7
207
Problems
Q 2 8q2
8 q,
8 q,
+
F
 2 ( /  a) 1 M,11
:. Q2 = [  F2 ( /  a) + M2 ) 7
It should be noted that the dimension of Q1 and Q 2 is that of a force.
Example
7.45
y ( x , t) = L 'P; ( x ) q; ( t )
i 1
Determine the generalized force Q;.
Figure 7.42.
Solution:
to
8W =
this displacement is
11 Fj c1
;1 (
8q;
'P;( xJ 8 q1
l'j 'P; ( x1 )
l
J
) ;1
=
Q; 8 q;
Q; = L F)'P;( xJ
1 1
PROBLEMS
71
P71
Lagrange's Equation
208
2/
2/
I
72
73
Chap. 7
Figure P71.
Choose the generalized coordinates q; for the previous problem and express the
u;
,,
Figure P73.
74
Determine the equilibrium position of the two uuiform bars shown in Fig. P74
Figure P74.
75
m,
76
f
2
I
I
19
f
2
Figure P75.
The four masses on the string in Fig. P76 are displaced by a horizontal force
Determine its equilibrium position by using virtual work.
F.
Chap. 7
Problems
209
e, ...
' t
m
Figure P76.
77 A mass m

r0
attached to a pin
and slider as shown in Fig. P77. There is coulomb friction with coefficient .
between the massless slider and the rod. Determine its equilibrium position
virtual work.
by
Figure P7
78
7.
m1
and
m2
...,,;;;' /
l
Figure P78.
79
A rigid uniform
shown in Fig. P79. Determine its equilibrium position by virtual work. The
unstretched length of the spring is
h/4.
Figure P79.
710
Determine the equation of motion for small oscillation about the equilibrium
position in Prob. 79.
711
The carpenter's square of Prob. 73 is displaced slightly from its equilibrium
position and released. Determine its equation of oscillation.
712 Determine the equation of motion and the natural frequency of oscillation about
its equilibrium position for the system in Prob. 75.
Lagrange's Equation
210
Chap. 7
713 In Prob. 78, m1 is given a small displacement and released. Determine the
equation of oscillation for the system.
714 For the system of Fig. P714, determine the equilibrium position and its equation
of vibration about it. Spring force 0 when 9 0.

715 Write Lagrange's equations of motion for the system shown in Fig. P715.
Figure P715.
k  El
beam
EI _ N
/4
/3 '
El
of Fig.
P?16:
.!_
ml _ N
..3 .!'!__
5
m/
Using the modes <j>1  x/l and .p2  sin( wx//), determine the equation of
motion by Lagrange's method, and determine the first two natural frequencies
and mode shapes.
K
'
?/
Figure P716.
717 Using Lagrange's method, determine the equations for the small oscillation of the
bars shown in Fig. P7l 7.
f
2
f
2
Figure P717.
Chap. 7
Problems
211
718 The rigid bar linkages of Example 7.11 are loaded by springs and masses as
shown in Fig. P718. Write Lagrange's equations of motion.
Figure P718.
719 Equal masses are placed at the nodes of the frame of Example 7.12 as shown in
Fig. P719. Determine the stiffness matrix and the matrix equation of motion.
(Let
/2  /1.)
f2
Figure P719.
/.
m, J
720 Deternrine the stiffness matrix for the frame shown in Fig. P720.
Figure P720.
""m"
721 The frame of Prob. 720 is loaded by springs and masses as shown in Fig. P721.
Determine the equations of motion and the normal modes of the system.
m1 J,.
Figure P721.
"
Lagrange's Equati on
212
722
rt
723
Chap. 7
f,
i=p==='E7'12=;fu
R2 ,
Figure P722.
With loads m , J placed as shown in Fig. P?23, set up the equations of motion.
Figure P723.
724
For the extension of the double pendulum to the dynamic problem, the actual
algebra can become long and tedious. Instead, draw
shown. By taking each
89
in the components of
o,
Eii
_:
11
 r as
Figure P724.
in
Fig.
228
Chap. 8
These must now add to satisfy the actual boundary conditions at the terminal
end, which for a cantilever free end
"'
"'
M
v
are
y
= CN + aDN
0
0
a = 
MNC
MND

PROBLEMS
81
Find the wave velocity along a rope whose mass is 0.372 kg/m when stretched to
a tension of 444 N.
82 Derive the equation for the natural frequencies of a uniform cord of length I fixed
at the two ends. The cord is stretched to a tension T and its mass per unit length
lS p.
83 A cord of length I aod mass per unit length p is under tension T with the left end
fixed aod the right end attached to a springmass system as shown in Fig. P83.
Determine the equation for the natural frequencies.
k
Figure PH3.
84
A harmonic vibration has an amplitude that varies as a cosine function along the
a cos kx sin
wt
Problems
frequency
anot
h
er
harmoni
c
vi
b
rat
i
o
n
of
Show
that
and
equal
ampl
i
t
u
de
same
i
f
difirsstplavicedbration,
in spacethephase
and
t
i
m
e
a
quart
e
r
wave
l
e
ngt
h
i
s
added
t
h
e
phase
by
resul
t
a
nt
vi
b
rat
i
o
n
wi
l
represent
a
t
r
avel
i
n
g
wave
wi
t
h
a
propagation
vel
o
ci
t
y
equal
t
o
w/k.
al
o
ng
m'
a
st
e
el
bar.
The
modul
u
s
of
ty of perlongiunitudit nvolal uwaves
Fielanstdicthe3ity velandocimass
me
of
st
e
el
are
200
10
/
and
7810
.
kg/m
P86
Shown
in
Fi
g
.
i
s
a
fl
e
xibl
e
cabl
e
support
e
d
at
t
h
e
upper
end
and
free
tmotion
o oscilliates under the influence of gravity. Show that the equation of lateral
g( x + ix_)
Chap. 8
229
to
85
86
a'y
at'
thin
a'y
9 N
ax
ax'
.I II
I .
T + dT
,y
T
l
lncanProb.reduced
86, assumea Bessel
a solu'tsiodinffinerenttheial equation
Y(x) cos wt and show that Y(x)
2d Y(2 ) 1 dY(x) ( =
+ Y z)
ttz z +
with solution ( ) ( ) ( )
Y z 2 J0 2z orY x J0 (2w{i)
4w
a
bl
e
byparticul
a changear isatn vari
x/g.
z
consi
s
t
s
of
t
w
o
equal
masses
m
each,
connect
e
d
by
a
cabl
e
e
l
i
t
e
densi
t
y
as
shown
i
n
Fi
g
.
P88
.
The
assembl
y
rot
a
t
e
s
i
n
ofspacelengthwith2/angul
and amass
sp
w0.
Show
t
h
at
i
f
r
t
h
e
vari
a
tion
i
n
t
h
e
cabl
e
t
e
nsi
o
n
i
s
eed
neglected, the differential equation= of lateral motion of the cable is
2
5
)
ax m w 1 (
Figure PH6.
87
be
form y
to
88
dz
p,
a'y
Figure PH8.
a'y
a1 2
"'o Y
230
Chap. 8
"'  2
89
810
WO '
uniform bar of length I is fixed at one end and free at the other end. Show that
the equencies of normal longitudinal vibrations are J  (n + !) c/2 /, where
E/p is the velocity of longitudinal waves in the bar, and n  0, 1, 2, . . . .
c A uniform rod of length I and crosssectional area A is fixed at the upper end
and is loaded with a weight W on the other end. Show that the natural
frequencies are determined from the equation
{f tan wt{f  Ag
wt
811
Show that the fundamental frequency for the system of Prob. 810 can be
expressed in the form
where
k
AE
M = end mass
 I
k
Reducing the above system to a spring and an end mass equal to M + t M,00 ,
determine an appropriate equation for the fundamental frequency. Show that the
ratio of the approximate to the exact frequency as found above is
812
Figure PH12.
813 The
at'
a'u
 AE
au
 aat
ax '
p
1 p ( x)f ( t )
Chap. 8
231
Problems
/G/p
x.
815 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of torsional oscillations of a
uniform rod of length
817 A uniform bar has these specifications: length /, mass density per unit volume
p,
and torsional stiffness lpG where lp is the polar moment o f inertia of the cross
section and G the shear modulus. The end x = 0 is fastened to a torsional spring
of stiffness K lb in./rad, while the end I is fixed as shown in Fig. PS17.
Determine the transcendental equation from which natural frequencies can be
0 and K
oo.
1,
x
Figure PS17.
818 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of a freefree bar in lateral
vibration.
819 Determine the node position for the fundamental mode of the freefree beam by
Rayleigh's method, assuming the curve to be y  sin(7rx//)
momentum to zero, determine
b.
b.
By equating the
to find
w1
820 A concrete test beam 2 X 2 X 1 2 in., supported at two points 0.224/ from the
1690 cp&
I clamped
at both
ends.
822 Determine the natural frequencies of a uniform beam of length /, clamped at one
end and pinned at the other end.
concentrated weight Wo at the other end. State the boundary conditions and
determine the frequency equation.
232
Chap. 8
824 The pinned end of a pinnedfree beam is given a harmonic motion of amplitude
Yo perpendicular to the beam. Show that the boundary conditions result in the
equation
sinh /31 cos /31  cosh /31 sin {31
Yo
sinh {31  sin {31
y1

which for y0
+
0, reduces to
825 A simply supported beam has an overhang of length 12, as shown in Fig. PS25. If
the end of the overhang is free, show that boundary conditions require the
deflection equation for each span to be
</>1
</>2
where
=
x
c(
{
Figure PS25.
831 When shear and rotary inertia are included, show that the differential equation of
the beam may be expressed by the first order matrix equation
.,,
d y
dx
M
v
El
w2J
>'m
.,,
1
kAG
1
M
v
Chap. 9
251
Problems
,
First mode
Second mode
First and second mode shapes.
Figure 9.S..2.
Using these numerical results, we find the two natural frequencies of the
system from the characteristic equation of Eq. (9.512)
"'
1 .172
"'2
3.198
;g;
;g
Figure 9.52 shows the mode shapes corresponding to the above frequen
cies. Since Eq. (9.512) enables the solution of the eigenvectors only in terms
of an arbitrary reference, q6 can be solved with q1
are then found from Eq. (9.59), and the mode shapes are obtained from Eqs.
PROBLEMS
9 1
Show that the dynamic load factor for a suddenly applied constant force reaches
a maximum value of 2.0.
92
If a suddenly applied constant force is applied to a system for which the damping
factor of the ith mode is t =
approximately by the equation
c/ccr'
D.' =
'
e fwil cos w . t
93
94
'
wf  (/J,i) '(EI/Ml')
M0
y ( x t)
where
equation.
95
'Pi( a )
_ P01El3 ";'
and
'"'
(/J,i)
acting at
( fJ,I)
x  a,
P95
as E: +
p(x) is
the
252
6(x
x = a
K;
d ; ( x)
I q>dx
a)
6(x
zZ
x
"
'
96
Chap. 9
P95.
force
uniform
y( x
t)
K; 'l'; ( x )
' D;
( J3J)
. x
.
x
Slll 3"'7
Slll '"/
D1(t  ,4'D3 (t)
,,
( 3 ")
x
Slll 5 '"/
4 D5 ( t)
7r
5
( )
P96.
97
Figure
coupl
e
of
moment
M0 is applied at the center of the beam of Prob. 96, as
shown in Fig. P9 Show that the deflection at any point is given by the equation
7.
Y ( x ' t)
EI
( J3J)
x
Slll "'/
::;.of(t)
.
6
 (6")'
P97.
98
D6 ( t)
Figure
si
m
pl
y
support
e
d
beam
has
suddenl
y
appl
i
e
d
to
it
the
l
o
ad
di
s
t
r
i
b
ut
i
o
n
shown in Fig. P98, where the time variation is a step function. Determine the
A
uniform
Figure
P98.
Chap. 9
Problems
253
response y (x, t) in terms of the normal modes of the beam. Indicate what modes
are absent and write down the first two existing modes.
99
 0.
0 and fixed at x
A slender rod of length /, free at x
nally by a timevarying force concentrated at the end x
are equally excited (i.e., that the modeparticipation factor is independent of the
mode number), the complete solution being
2 F(, /
u( x , t)  AE
{ ( ;)
cos
'
D 1 ( t) +
99 is concentrated
at
in the solution.
cos
( 3;)'
 1/3,
D3 ( 1) +
910,
912 Consider a uniform beam of mass M and length I supported on equal springs of
total stiffness k, as shown in Fig. P91 2a. Assume the deflection to be
and choose
q;i1
x
and
I
= sin .,,
q;i2
1.0.
M, l
!F=====!,
IO'c.,,.,,..,,CTrrrrr.....,.,r.rTTI.,,, I000
5F+tt+tt+l>I 500
0.2
0.1
0.05
.., 
'0,,,@
<)..
zod
2.00
v
.o/
;;.V:Jof+.1
A++150
t.O!o++< 11 ,co\e)
I
110 ''!...
0.5
I/.
..
I()()
o_......
/4+tti 2.0
"
,.,oo
I0
'O
0.021:2
++t+f4
0.01..,_+c''"''===+c''='='
5
10 20
0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2
50 100
 ( w11 )2
R  Wo2
Figure P912.
First
254
Chap. 9
ql
where
+ + W211Q1 =
4 ..
" q2
'TT
2
W2 = W22
2
Let
y(x, t)
(b
+ sin "t ) q
/( R  1)2 +
"2  8
32
.,
'IT
2 + R }
{
/
)
=
=
l)
+
(
R
(
R
1
8
Qi
2
11
"'
R=( )
"'22
q2
A
913 A
( R + 1)
32
"
'11 2
P0f(t)
Figure 1'913.
()
W1
Ml' )
( ) ( '1T4EJ
= 1 + 1. 5
M
;A.
1 1zj
3
Figure 1'915.
Chap. 9
255
Problems
where
"'EI
w21 =
M/3

916 Write the equations for the twomode approximation of Prob. 915.
917 Repeat Prob. 916, using the mode acceleration method.
to any point
of a beam,
both the constrainedmode and the modeacceleration methods result in the same
equation when only one mode is used, this equation being
919 The beam shown in Fig. P919 has a spring of rotational stiffness K lb in./rad at
the left end. Using two modes in Eq. (9.38), determine the fundamental frequency
of the system as a function of
K/Mwl
where
w1
Figure P919.
920 If both ends of the beam of Fig. P919 are restrained by springs of stiffness K,
determine the fundamental frequency. As
K approaches infinity,
M0
M0
and
the equations of motion and establish the natural frequency of the symmetric
mode. Use first cantilever mode for the wing.
Figure 1'921.
922 For the system of Prob. 921, determine the antisymmetric mode by using the
rotation of the fuselage as one of the generalized coordinates.
923 If wing tip tanks of mass M1 are added to the system of Prob. 921, determine the
new frequency.
924 Using the method of constrained modes, show that the effect of adding a mass m1
with moment of inertia 11 to a point
frequency w1 to
x1
256
M{  M1 1 +
rp1
x)
,
Chap. 9
j rpj2 ( x)}
1
P925
by the
Figure 1'925.
926 A rod of circular crosssection is bent at right angles in a horizontal plane as
shown in Fig. P926. Using component mode synthesis, set up the equations
for
the vibration perpendicular to the plane of the rod. Note that member 1 is in
flexure and torsion. Assume its bending only in the vertical plane.
Figure P921i.
Chap. 10
Problems
287
PROBLEMS
101
Determine the two natural frequencies in axial vibration for the uniform rod,
fixed at one end and free at the other end, using two elements with the
intermediate station at 1/3 from the fixed end. Compare results with those when
the station is chosen at midlength. What conclusion do you come to regarding
choice of station location?
102
2EA2 and m1
longitudinal vibration.
Figure PI02.
103
Pl02,
1
Set up the equation for the freefree vibration of a uniform rod of length / , using
three axial elements of length I/3 each.
104
Assuming linear variation for the twist of a uniform shaft, determine the finite
element stiffness and mass matrices for the torsional problem. The problem is
105
Using two equal elements, determine the first two natural frequencies of a
106
Using two uniform sections in torsional vibration, describe its finite element
relationship to the 2 DOF lumped mass torsional system.
107
Fig.
PIO 7 shows a conical tube of constant thickness fixed at the large end and
free at the other end. Using one element, determine the equation for its
longitudinal vibration.
R/2
Figure PIO 7.
108
109
PlO 7
PIO 7
in torsional vibration
Pl010
matrix.
2
so
Figure PI010.
288
Chap. 1 0
1011 For the pinned square truss of Fig. Pl011, determine the element stiffness
matrices in global coordinates and indicate how they are assembled for the
entire structure.
1012 For the pinned truss of Fig. Pl012, there are just three orientations of the
elements. Determine the stiffness matrix for each orientation and indicate how
each element matrix is assembled in the global system.
lP,
P,i>Q
Figure Pl012.
P,
1013 Using two elements determine the deflection and slope at midspan of a uniform
beam, fixed at both ends, when loaded as shown in Fig. Pl013.
,...___
1/2
..__
_
_
1/2 
Figure Pl013.
1014 Determine the consistent mass for the beam of Problem 1013 and calculate its
natural frequencies.
1015 Determine the free vibration equation for the beam of Fig. Pl015.
ET . m
,
,
ET . m
,
,
1
11
__,___ I, ____.j
Figure Pl015.
Problems
Chap. to
289
I
21
Figure Pl016.
Pl0.17
45
Figure PI017.
1018 Determine the deflection and slope at the load for the following frames.
Consider the comers to be rigid.
lp
e_.+M,
i
.!:__ c_
__,
_
_
Ic I
k
a
a
Id I
IbI
IaI
IeI
Figure Pl018.
,,
45
It I
290
Chap. 1 0
1/2
1/2
...tt
;._'A'\ K
k
(a I
( bl
Figure PI019.
1020 Using two elements, determine the equivalent junction loads for the distributed
forces. In Fig.
T
!?,
l_
'1
>
1/2
t(a I
1/2
j\!P
1 1/4 1
_J
midspan.
1
1/2
1112
( bI
Figure PI020.
1021 Set up the two element equations for the system of Fig.
Pl021
in terms of the
j
.
k>
.
EI, m , (,
1/2
I
'
1;2
,k
,
PlQ.21,
Figure PI021.
1023 Using the digital computer, solve the 4 x 4 beam problem in Example
For those using Fortran, the subroutine
NROOT is
10.51.
A]
0,
the
References
Chap. 1 0
291
a full matrix,
M,
</l<t>
REFERENCES
1 1]
John Wiley
121
COOK, R. D.
New York:
Sons, 1974.
GALLAGHER, R. H.
13)
141
YANG, T. Y.,
New York: Halsted Press Book, John Wiley & Sons, 1975.
Element Method.
Finite Element Structural Analysis.
Hall, Inc., 1986.
The Finite
314
"'1
0.2094
0.4576
Chap. 1 1
1'
/'
"'  1 .IXXJO
2
P R O B LEMS
Write the kinetic and potential energy expressions for the system of Fig. P111
and determine the equation for w2 by equating the two energies. Letting
x /x1
Pick off the maximum and minimum values of w2
n , plot w2 versus
2
and the corresponding values of
and show that they represent the two natural
modes of the system.
111
n.
;;}W.i
3k
2m
n,
2k
II.Ml
Figure p 111.
112
I 1 4 1 I
113
Figure Pll2.
Estimate the fundamental frequency of the lumped mass cantilever beam shown
in Fig. P113.
k :
1.5 M1
M1 kg
jEI=constont
Figure Pll3.
114
Chap. 1 1
Problems
315
influence coefficient
Premultiplying by
X'M
x  aMX
w2aMX
X'MX  w2 X'MaMX
X'MX
w  X'MaMX
=
we obtain
' 
Solve for
w1
116
y( x)
3/( )'
117
Using
the
deflection
Hint:
determine
EI2  4El1.
fundamental
E/2  E/1
and (b) if
Figure Pll7.
118
y( x )
119
 Ym" 4t (  )
1
A uniform cantilever beam of mass m per unit length has its free end pinned to
two springs of stiffness
w1
m,I
EI
Figure Pll9.
1110 A uniform beam of mass M and stiffness K 
El/13,
Ym"
 sin( wx//) + b,
L,M
Figure Pl l10.
lb/in. Using
show that the
316
Chap. 1 1
 2k
By  show that the lowest frequency results when
 ( : i ;[ ; ( : i r ;:
Assuming a static deflection curve
aw'/a b
0,
1111
t
h
e
l
o
west
determi
n
e
nat
u
ral
of
const
a
nt
frequency
of
a
si
m
pl
y
support
e
d
beam
and a mass distribution of
EI
1112
byUsitnhge Dunkerl
Rayleighey'mets equat
hod. ion, determine the fundamental frequency of the three
mass cantilever beam shown Fig. Pll12.
in
_,L,__,oL"'O"L o
1113
Figure Pll12.
of
frequency
t
h
e
beam
Usishownng Dunkerl
e
y'
s
equat
i
o
n,
determi
n
e
t
h
e
fundament
a
l
in Fig. Pll13.
w,  2w
W2  4W,
,,
..
'
W3

.,,
Figure Pll13.
1114
g tip of aalfigbendi
Adeflloeadctioofn of100 lb iatn. Ifthethwie nfundament
hter nplgafrequency
ne producedof tahecorrespondi
n
g
same wing is
0.78
Chap. 1 1
Problems
317
1115 A given beam was vibrated by an eccentric mass shaker of mass 5.44 kg at the
midspan, and resonance was found at 435 cps. With an additional mass of 4.52
kg, the resonant frequency was lowered to 398 cps. Determine the natural
frequency of the beam.
1116 Using the RayleighRitz method and assuming modes x/I and sin( wx//);
determine the two natural frequencies and modes of a uniform beam pinned at
at the left end.
the right end and attached to a spring of stiffness
l,EI, m
k
Figure Pll16.
1117 For the wedgeshaped plate of Example 11.31, determine the first two natural
frequencies and mode shapes for bending vibration by using the Ritz deflection
function y = C1x 2 + C2x3.
1118 Using the RayleighRitz method, determine the first two natural frequencies and
mode shapes for the longitudinal vibration of a uniform rod with a spring of
attached to the free end as shown in Fig. Pll18. Use the first two
stiffness
normal modes of the fixedfree rod in longitudinal motion.
k0
Figure Pll18.
1119 Repeat Prob. 1118 but this time the spring is replaced by a mass
in Fig. Pll19.
Figure Pll19.
m0, as shown
==0 mo
:,J'==='"',:,
A:,
;;;r
1120 For the simply supported variable mass beam of Prob. 1111, assume the
deflection to be made up of the first two modes of the uniform beam and solve
for the two natural frequencies and mode shapes by the RayleighRitz method.
1121 A uniform rod hangs freely from a hinge at the top. Using the three modes
</>1  x/I, </>2  sin(wx//), and .p3  sin(2 wx//) determine the characteristic
equation by using the RayleighRitz method.
1122 Using matrix iteration, determine the three natural frequencies and modes for
the cantilever beam of Prob. 1112.
1123 Determine the influence coefficients for the threemass system of Fig. Pll23,
and calculate the principal modes by matrix iteration.
318
Chap. 1 1
4k
4::
x,
2k
4:2
Figure
Pll23.
1124 Using matrix iteration, determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of
the torsional system of Fig. Pll24.
J
1125 In Fig. Pll25 four masses
K c
Figure
Pll24.
the tension to be constant, determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes
by matrix iteration.
Figure
Pll25.
Problems
Chap. 1 2
343
w4
"'
f::::t:::::."'"
t!fi
which lead to
"' 1 =
"'
.
1T
2 V(7<
m sin 2(2N + 1)
2 V(k
31T
m sin 2(2N + 1)
.
(k (2N  1)1'
2
'N = V m SIB 2(2N + 1)
.
Figure
12.102
when N
4.
other dynamical systems where repeating sections are present. The natural
frequencies are always given by Eq.
PROBLEMS
121
122
Write a computer program for your programmable calculator for the torsional
system given in Sec. 12.1 . Fill in the actual algebraic operations performed in the
program steps.
Using Holzer's method, determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of
the torsional system of Fig. P122 when J = 1.0 kg m' and K = 0.20 x 10 6
Nm/rad.
(1)
(2)
(3)
2J
Figure Pll2
344
123
Using Holzer's method, determine the first two natural frequencies and mode
shapes of the torsional system shown in Fig. P123 with the following values of J
and K.
J,  J,  J,  1.13 kg m2
'
 2.26 kg m2
K1  K2 K3
K,
J,
124
Chap. 1 2
0.169 Nm/rad X 10 6
 0.226 Nm/rad
x 106
Ka
Ja
Figure Pll3.
Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the threestory building
of Fig. Pl24 by using Holzer's method for all m,  m and all k,  k.
m1
k,
*2
*
,,
"/n
125
r/
Figure Pll4.
k,  2 k.
126
Compare the equations of motion for the linear springmass system versus
torsional system with same mass and stiffness distribution. Show that they are
similar.
127 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the springmass system
of Fig. P12 7 by the Holzer method when all masses are equal and all stiffnesses
are equal.
128
Figure Pll7.
symmetric and antisymmetric torsional oscillations of the wings, and plot the
torsional mode corresponding to each.
Chap. 12
345
Problems
n
50
138
145
181
260
140,000
2
3
4
5
6
tx
K lb. in./rad.
15
30
22
36
120
=CD
HJ"
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I 4
I
3
I
I
2
I
Figure Pll8.
129
M/m
Figure Pll9.
t
)'1 M
rl m
1210 Using Myklestad's method, determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes
of the twolumpedmass cantilever beam of Fig. P1210. Compare with previous
results by using influence coefficients.
Figire Pll10.
m
0
m
0
1211 Determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes of the threemass
cantilever of Fig. P1211
Figure Pll11.
o,<>,....,
1212 Using Myklestad's method, determine the boundary equations for the simply
supported beam of Fig. P1212.
Figure Pl212.
1213 The beam of Fig. P1213 has been previously solved by the method of matrix
iteration. Check that the boundary condition of zero deflection at the left end is
satisfied for these natural frequencies when Myklestad's method is used. That is,
346
Chap. 1 2
check the deflection for change in sign when frequencies above and below the
natural frequecy are used.
500kg
f
()
100kg
.1...
.!...
Figure 1213.
j
Figure 1214.
1214 Determine the flexuretorsion vibration for the system shown in Fig. P1214.
1215 Shown in Fig. P1215 is a linear system with damping between mass 1 and 2.
Carry out a computer analysis for numerical values assigned by the instructor,
and determine the amplitude and phase of each mass at a specified frequency.
Figure Pl215.
1216 A torsional system with a torsional damper is shown in Fig. Pl216. Determine
the torquefrequency curve for the system.
g, =
104
J2 = 100
Figure Pll16.
Chap. 1 2
Problems
347
1217 Determine the equivalent torsional system for the geared system shown in Fig.
P12l 7 and find its natural frequency.
3" dia.
611 dia.
Figure Pll17.
2
J1 = 10 lbin .sec
1218 If the small and large gears of Prob. 1217 have the inertias J'  2, J"  6,
determine the equivalent single shaft system and establish the natural frequen
cies.
1219 Determine the two lowest natural frequencies of the torsional system shown
Fig. Pl219 for the following values of J, K, and n
K1  2
J1  15 lb in. s2
12  10 lb in. s2
J3  18 lb in. s2
J4
K2
K3
6 lb in. s2
106 lb in./rad
1 .6 X 106 lb in.jrad
1 X 106 lb in./rad
K4  4 x 106 lb in.jrad
in
4 to 1 .
K,
Figure Pll19.
1220 Reduce the torsional system of the automobile shown in Fig. P1220(a) to the
equivalent torsional system shown in Fig. P1220(b). The necessary information
is given as follows:
0000
Ko
"
(a)
(b)
Figure Pll20.
348
Chap. 12
ll in.
in.
1222 Determine the equations of motion for the torsional system shown in Fig.
P1222, and
arrange
them into the matrix iteration form. Solve for the principal
modes of oscillation.
50J
Gear ratio
= 5 to t
3
J
4J
2
J
Figure Pll22.
1223 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam of length I and mass m at the
end, and show that the natural frequency equation is directly obtained.
1224 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam with two equal masses spaced
equally a distance /. Show that the boundary conditions of zero slope and
deflection lead to the equation
EI.
where K  I/
Obtain the frequency equation from the above relationship and determine the
two natural frequencies.
1225 Using the matrix formulation, establish the boundary conditions for the symmet
ric and antisymmetric bending modes for the system shown
40m
Figure Pll25.
1226 Set up the difference equations for the torsional system shown in Fig. P1226.
Determine the boundary equations and solve for the natural frequencies.
Chap.
12
Problems
349
1227 Set up the difference equations for N equal masses on a string with tension T, as
shown in Fig. P1227. Determine the boundary equations and the natural
frequencies.
m
Figure Pl227.
1228 Write the difference equations for the springmass system shown in Fig. P1228
Figure Pl229.
to
a heavy flywheel, as
shown in Fig. P1230, show that the boundary conditions lead to the equation
Ka 2K
Figure Pl230.
:. J sin' )
Figure Pl231.
1231 If the top story of a building is restrained by a spring of stiffness KN, as shown
350
Chap 1 2
m
k
ti==!
0 ....,,,7m.rtrr
Figure Pll32.
tD
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
: F::::::,,,,N
0
Figure Pll33.
1234 Draw a flow diagram for Prob. 123 and write the Fortran program.
1235 The natural frequencies and normal modes presented for the 10DOF system of
/ln
Random Vibrations
384
Chap. 1 3
REFERENCES
(11 BENDAT, J. S. Principles and Applications of Random Noise Theory. New York:
1958.
John Wiley & Sons,
(21 BENDAT, J. S., and PIERSOL, G. Measurement and Analysis of Random Data.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1966.
(31 BLACKMAN, R. B., and 'fvKEY, J. W. The Measurement of Power Spectra. New
York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1958.
(4] CLARKSON, B. L. "The Effect of Jet Noise on Aircraft Structures." Aeronautical
Quarterly , Vol. 10, Part 2, May 1959.
H. The Elements of Probability Theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
(51 CRAMER,
1955.
Inc.,
(61 CRANDALL, S. H. Random Vibration. Cambridge, Mass.: The Technology Press
of M.l.T., 1948.
(71 CRANDALL, S. H. Random Vibration, Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: The Technology
Press of M.I.T., 1963.
(81 RICE, S. 0. Mathematica/ Analysis of Random Noise. New York: Dover Publica
tions, Inc., 1954.
(91 ROBSON, J. D. Random Vibration. Edinburgh University Press, 1964.
(101 THOMSON, w. T., and BARTON, M. v. "The Response of Mechanical Systems to
Random Excitation." Appl. Mech., June 1957, pp. 24851.
Inc.,
A.
J.
PROBLEMS
131
132
133
134
135
Give examples of random data and indicate classifications for each example.
Discuss the differences between nonstationary, stationary, and ergodic data.
Discuss what we mean by the expected value. What is the expected number of
heads when 8 coins are thrown 100 times; 1000 times? What is the probability
for tails?
Throw a coin 50 times, recording 1 for head and 0 for tail. Determine the
probability of obtaining heads by dividing the cumulative heads by the number
of throws and plot this number as a function of the number of throws. The curve
should approach 0.5.
For the series of triangular waves shown in Fig. P135, determine the mean and
the mean square values.
Ol'"'''"o..L"",
Figure PIJ5.
Chap.
13
136
385
Problems
137
138
139
E ( x" ) = J_ x"p ( x ) dx =
{ .
3.5. .
(  l)o"
n
for
for
odd
n even
1310 Derive the equations for the cumulative probability and the probability density
functions of the sine wave. Plot these results.
1311 What would the cumulative probability and the probability density curves look
like for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. P13ll.
Figure
P1311.
nn nn
JA D
0 OlJlJLI
1312 Determine the autocorrelation of a cosine wave x(t) = A cos t, and plot it
against
1313 Determine the autocorrelation of the rectangular wave shown in Fig. P1326.
1314 Determine the autocorrelation of the rectangular pulse and plot it against
1315 Determine the autocorrelation of the binary sequence shown in Fig. Pl315.
Suggestion: Trace the above wave on transparent graph paper and shift it
T.
T.
through
T.
n
0
LJl
5 6
Figure
Pl315.
n.,.._
10 1 1 12
1316 Determine the autocorrelation of the triangular wave shown in Fig. P1316.
Figure
Pl316.
Random Vibrations
388
Chap. 1 3
1317 Figure Pl317 shows the acceleration spectral density plot of a random vibra2
tion. Approximate the area by a rectangle and determine the rms value in m/s .
  r .P... f \ ,a'""'
0.20
550
Hz
Figure Pl317.
rms
g2/Hz
2 1       
1 1, '
I
I
L1000
2000
100
Figure Pl318.
1319 The power spectral density plot of a random vibration is shown in Fig. Pl319.
The slopes represent a 6db/octave. Replot the result on a linear scale and
estimate the rms value.
1.0
0
.25
    ,.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I   ,       ,
'
I
O. I O LOO
5l
0
I
I
00
0,00,..,
Hz.
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Figure Pl319.
Chap.
13
387
Problems
1320 Determine the spectral density function for the waves in Fig. P1320.
Fo
tsJslsr
(b)
F0
(d)
(c)
Figure Pl320.
1321
1322
J( t) = Re L Cn einwot
00
n0
!( t)
I: c.e;""0'
00
n
 oo
1324 Determine the Fourier series for the saw tooth wave shown in Fig. Pl324 and
plot its spectral density.
Figure P1324.
1
1325 Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the wave shown in Fig.
Pl325, and plot its spectral density.
Figure P1325.
388
1326
Random Vibrations
Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the rectangular wave
shown in Fig.
A
"
in terms of Q =
tt.
1/ {i.
Figure
wn
100
[l
and Q.
d
"
 4t
2
 2] ' + [2t]
for
mX +
1330
PIJ..26.
1329
2TT
The sharpness of the frequency response curve near resonance is often expressed
to a value
1328
spectral density.
1327
Chap. 1 3
k (l + iy) x  F( t)
t  0.10 is
F( t)
F (0.5w t  81) + F
.
cos
s( w. t  82 )
co
F (2 w t  83)
cos
y2  ( 1 .74 + 25 .0
1331
1332
l ( Fk )'
0.110) 2
( F )'
13.43 k
acceleration
A large hydraulic press stamping out metal parts is operating under a series of
40 kg and its
1 1
1 TI
= 4 sec
Figure
PIJ..32.
Chap. 1 3
1333
Problems
389
1
f"
Eq. (13.810)
)']d{ +
2 !!"
into
Eq. (13.86)
)'
where
2
Y
35
f,
Sx (f" ) k"2
1"' ..,
a() ]!.Jn ) )
2
+
i
(
( !i
f," "
""2"'
"' 2,':2 : = Sx ( f " ) k 2 4!

1
Eq. (13.811). Derive a similar equation for the mean square value of
the relative motion z of a singleDOF system excited by the base motion, in
terms of the spectral density S, (/+) of the base acceleration. (See Sec. 3.5.) If the
which is
1334
3.5
z 2?
..
+ iwc y
+ iwc
x= k
 mw2
1335
2
2
the computer evaluation of X .
Establish a
A radar dish with a mass of 60 kg is subject to wind loads with the spectral
density shown in Fig. Pl335. The dishsupport system has a natural frequency
of 4 Hz. Determine the mean square response and the probability of the dish
0.132
m. Assume
S(w)
r = 0.05.
N2
Hz
25
Hz
Figure Pl335.
1336
A jet engine with a mass of 272 kg is tested on a stand, which results in a natural
frequency of
26
Fig.
Pl336.
Hz. The spectral density of the jet force under test is shown in
0.012
m. Assume
r = 0.10.
Chap. 1 3
Random Vibrations
390
S(f)
4 x l06
0
15
10
100
Hz
Figure PIJ36.
1337 An
excitation
F(t)
Determine
a.
106 N2/Hz.
a mass of 1500 kg.
1338
f  0.03
 30
rad/s and
0.037
m.
x(t)
 fo00J(t  )h() d
where
1339
Jim 2
r oo
"'
T F(iw)F*(iw)
show that
1340
P1340.
I (ti
,....., r
1341
Figure PlJ40.
f00 l/(1) l d1
 oo
Hint:
Examine
Chap. 1 3
1342
Problems
391
SFx(w) 
Jim
r oo
Jim
r oo
2 1 T F*(FH)  SFH
"'
and
show that
and
1343
The differential equation for the longitudinal motion of a uniform slender rod is
2
2 a u
2
a
2
a u
2
a1
  c x
Show that for an arbitrary axial force at the end
free, the Laplace transform of the response is

1344
1345
where
{
}
u(x, s)  sAE(lcF(s)
 e"Uld)
1343
F( t)  F0e;"',
cos[(wi/c)(x//  1)]
( x ' ) cl\,e;"' wAE
sin(wl/c)
 1)] Fo e;"'
a(x, t)  sin[(wi/c)(x//
A
wl/c)
e 
e (s/c)( x  1 ) + e  ( s/c)(x  1)
and
(f/')
x
show that
sin(
a
S( w)
is the stress.
With
as the spectral density of the excitation stress at
mean square stress in Prob.
is
1343
a 2,, c 1s( w.)
2
'<"'
.._
"
n !T
. 2
sm
n ,, 1
where structural damping is assumed. The normal modes of the problem are
1346
Fr
x(t X(f)  FT(x(I)].
Fr
1347
1348
c = J AmE
X(f)
Determine the
of
FT[x(t)*y(t)]
where
X( / ) Y( / )
Using the derivative theorem, show that the Fr of the derivative of a rectangular
Chap.
[7}
[8)
[9)
[10]
[ll)
14
Problems
413
Inc., 1962.
RAUSCHER, M.
Appl. Mech.
Nonlinear Vibrations.
PROBLEMS
141
142
T.
Figure P142.
143
h,
Figure P143.
144
_I
Determine the differential equation of motion for the springmass system with
the discontinuous stiffness resulting from the free gaps of Fig P144.
414
+j
Nonlinear Vibrations
Chap. 1 4
t:!JJ/:/91;
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Figure P144.
14S
P145.
Figure P14S.
146
147
Plot the phase plane trajectory for the undamped springmass system including
the potential energy curve
the plot.
From the plot of
U(x)
U(x).
vs.
(Remember
dx
/2[ E  U( x)]
x(O)
1410
equation
'  4Jo
149
146,
of Prob.
r'
148
x(O)
A
Determine
yx
x=
cos 'Tri
sin
2'1Tt
Determine the phase plane equation for the damped springmass system
X+
2fwnX
w;x = 0
v = y/wn
and
and
as coordinates.
Chap. 1 4
1411
Problems
415
If the potential energy of a simple pendulum is given with the positive sign
U( 8)
cos 8
determine which of the singular points are stable or unstable and explain their
physical implications. Compare the phase plane with Fig.
1412
E  6, 7, 8, 10, 12,
1413
U(x)
8
14.42.
x  5x  y
y  2x + 2y
1414
14lS
1416
1417
1418
A1 E
A 21J
equation in the
u, v
plane becomes
dv
{Ju + av
du
au  {Jv
p cos
1417 becomes
and
p sin
1419
in the
e(a/fJ)fJ
Pl419. Determine the form of the phase plane equation and the corresponding
trajectories in the E11plane.
Figure P1419.
Nonlinear Vibrations
416
1420
Chap. 1 4
plane.
Figure P!420.
1421
x2 + 2xy + 3y2
x, y
is
dy x  y
dx  x + 3y
coordinates. Determine the rotation of the semimajor axis and plot one of
1422
1423
the ellipses.
Show that the isoclines of the linear differential equation of second order are
straight lines.
;t  xy(y  2)
1424
Replacing x by
With
y
y(dy/dx),
0 when
where
1427
x,
.x3
y2 + w;x 2 + !x 4
2E
1425
1426
+ w;x +
(A
Jo
dx
.,12[ E  U( x)]
like?
dy/dx
x

x(l
0,  1 and
 x') + x
+ l.
The equation for the free oscillation of a damped system with hardening spring
is given as
mX
+ ex + kx +
x3
Chap. 1 4
1428
417
Problems
The following numerical values are given for the equation in Prob.
k
25 '
w"2  m 
1429
1430
1431
_}!_
m
 2fw,  2.0,
m
 4.0,
1427
5
x(O)
 0.
Plot the phase plane trajectory for the simple pendulum with the initial condi
tions
anc
8(0)  60
11 (0)  0.
w,;x
+ C sgn( x )
0
sgn(X)
1432
1433
that of
3.60
2
 0.10 lb s in.  1 , I'  0.20. Using the phase plane, plot the trajectory
 0.
Consider the motion of a simple pendulum with viscous damping and determine
the singular points. With the aid of Fig. 14.42, and the knowledge that the
trajectories must spiral into the origin, sketch some approximate trajectories.
1434
8  }8 3
1435
1436
w.
replaced by
From the perturbation method, what is the equation for the period of the simple
pendulum as a function of the amplitude?
For a given system the numerical values of
x + 0.15.X + lOx +
Plot A versus
1437
1438
for
w2
from
x3  5 cos( wt + </>)
</> versus w
assuming a value of
for Prob.
and solving
1436.
w2Yo
 cos2wt
1
 YI'
sm 8  0
y0 cos 2wf
,e
Figure P1438.
Nonlinear Vibrations
418
1439
Chap. 1 4
For a given value of g/l, determine the frequencies of the excitation for which
the simple pendulum of Prob. 1438 with a stiff arm I will be stable in the
inverted position.
1440 Determine the perturbation solution for the system shown in Fig.
to a Mathieu equation. Use initial conditions x(O)
1441
1442
1441,
= 1.0,
If + 0.30 11 +
1443
= 0, x(O) = A .
Figure P1440.
P1440 leading
sin8
central
1440
60, 11 (0) = 0.