You are on page 1of 41

Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be

shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated


from one physical server to another.

CLOUD COMPUTING

SEMINAR REPORT

Presented by:
HARSHITA PRAKASH
ROLL NO: 1250813027

Department of information technology

BABU BANARASI DAS ENGINEERING


COLLEGE LUCKNOW

Gautam Buddha Technical University

Session-2014-2015
1
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Babu Banarasi Das Educational Society Group Of


Institutions, Faculty Of Engineering
Constituent college of
GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Department of CSE
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this seminar entitled


CLOUD COMPUTING
(An Introduction to Cloud Technology)

was
presented by
ASHISH KUMAR VERMA

During the year 2014-2015 as a part of


curriculum and was found satisfied

(Mr. Shivendu Mishra)


Seminar Co-Ordinator

2
DEPARTMENT OF IT

(Mrs. Neeta Rastogi)


HOD( CSE)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound gratitude to Mrs. Neeta Rastogi(Professor & HOD),


Mr. Shivendu Mishra (Senior Lecturer), Mr. Shivendu Mishra (Seminar Coordinator) Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering for the valuable help
and guidance in the preparation of this report on Cloud Computing.
I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all Lab Assistents and all other staff
members of B.Tech, Computer Science and Engineering and Information
Technology Department.
Finally I would also wish to record my gratefulness to all my friends and
classmates for their help.

ASHISH KUMAR VERMA

3
DEPARTMENT OF IT

ABSTRACT
Innovation is necessary to ride the inevitable tide of change .Enterprises strive
to reduce computing costs. Many start by consolidating their IT operations and
later introducing virtualization technologies. Cloud computing takes these steps
to a new level and allows an organization to further reduce costs through
improved utilization, reduced administration and infrastructure costs, and faster
deployment cycles. The cloud is a next Generation platform that provides
dynamic
resource
pools,
virtualization,
and
high
availability.
Cloud computing describes both a platform and a type of application. A cloud
computing platform dynamically provisions, configures, reconfigures, and
deprovisions servers as needed. Cloud applications are applications that are
extended to be accessible through the Internet. These cloud applications use
large data centers and powerful servers that host Web applications and Web
services.
Cloud computing infrastructure accelerates and fosters the adoption of
innovations:
Enterprises are increasingly making innovation their highest priority. They
realize they need to seek new ideas and unlock new sources of value. Driven by
the pressure to cut costs and grow simultaneouslythey realize that its not
possible to succeed simply by doing the same things better. They know they
have to do new things that produce better results. Cloud computing enables
innovation. It alleviates the need of innovators to find resources to develop, test,
and make their innovations available to the user community. Innovators are free
to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing
resources that enable the innovation. Cloud computing helps leverage
innovation as early as possible to deliver business value to IBM and its
customers.
4
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Fostering innovation requires unprecedented flexibility and responsiveness. The


enterprise should provide an ecosystem where innovators are not hindered by
excessive processes, rules, and resource constraints. In this context, a cloud
computing service is a necessity. It comprises an automated framework that can
deliver standardized services quickly and cheaply.

Cloud computing infrastructure allows enterprises to achieve more efficient use


of

their

IT

hardware

and

software

investments:

Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization.


Pooling resources into large clouds drives down costs and increases utilization
by delivering resources only for as long as those resources are needed. Cloud
computing allows individuals, teams, and organizations to streamline
procurement processes and eliminate the need to duplicate certain computer
administrative skills related to setup, configuration, and support. This report
introduces the value of implementing cloud computing. The report defines
clouds, explains the business benefits of cloud computing, and outlines cloud
architecture and its major components. Readers will discover how a business
can use cloud computing to foster innovation and reduce IT costs.

5
DEPARTMENT OF IT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
3
ABSTRACT
4
LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 1:Introduction of cloud computing


1.1:

Page no.
Introduction of cloud computing..8
1.2: Computing on cloud 9
1.3: Defining the cloud .10
1.4: Characteristics of cloud computing .11
1.5: Attributes of cloud computing......13
1.6: Layers of cloud computing...14
1.7: Deployment model of cloud.17
1.8: Advantages of using cloud computing.19
1.9: Motivation towards cloud in recent time..20
1.10: Working of cloud computing22
1.11: Cloud architecture.23
1.13: Relation between cloud computing and utility computing25
1.14:Security of cloud computing.26
1.15: Summary...26

CHAPTER 2:
2.1:
2.2:
2.3:
2.4:
2.5:

SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS OF CLOUD

Introduction..27
Understanding Iaas.. 28
Exploring Paas. 29
Seeing Saas. 31
Summary ..32

CHAPTER 3: FUTURE SCOPE..33


CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION.....38
REFERENCES
39

6
DEPARTMENT OF IT

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Title

Fig. 1.1:

Structure of cloud

Fig. 1.2:

Cloud services on PDAs

Fig. 1.3:

Attributes of cloud services

Fig. 1.4:

Layers of cloud architecture

11

Fig. 1.5:

Deployment model of cloud

14

Fig 1.6:

Adoption model of cloud

14

Fig. 1.7:

Working of cloud

17

Fig.1.8:

Cloud vision

19

Fig.1.9.:

Future scope

34

7
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Page No.

Chapter- 1
Introduction to Cloud Computing
1.1 INTRODUCTION :

Figure 1.1 Cloud[1]

Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand


information technology services and products. To a large extent cloud
computing will be based on virtualized resources. The idea of cloud computing
is based on a very fundamental principal of `reusability of IT capabilities`. The
difference that cloud computing brings compared to traditional concepts of grid
computing,

distributed

computing,

utility

computing,

or

computing is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries.


According to the IEEE Computer Society Cloud Computing is:
8
DEPARTMENT OF IT

autonomic

"A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in


servers on the
Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include
desktops,
Entertainment centers, table computers, notebooks, wall
computers, handhelds, etc."

Though many cloud computing architectures and deployments are powered by


grids, based on autonomic characteristics and consumed on the basis of utilities
billing, the concept of a cloud is fairly distinct and complementary to the
concepts of grid, SaaS, Utility Computing etc. In theory, cloud computing
promises availability of all required hardware, software, platform, applications,
infrastructure and storage with an ownership of just an internet connection.
people can access the information that they need from any device with an
Internet connectionincluding mobile and handheld phonesrather than being
chained to the desktop. It also means lower costs, since there is no need to
install software or hardware.
Cloud computing used to posting and sharing photos on orkut, instant
messaging with friends maintaining and upgrading business technology.

9
DEPARTMENT OF IT

1.2 COMPUTING ON CLOUD:

Figure 1.2 Cloud Computing[2]

Cloud computing is a paradigm of distributed computing to provide the


customers on-demand, utility based computing services. Cloud users can
provide more reliable, available and updated services to their clients in turn.
Cloud itself consists of physical machines in the data centers of cloud providers.
Virtualization is provided on top of these physical machines. These virtual
machines are provided to the cloud users. Different cloud provider provides
cloud services of different abstraction level. E.g. Amazon EC2 enables the users
to handle very low level details where Google App-Engine provides a
development platform for the developers to develop their applications. So the
cloud services are divided into many types like Software as a Service, Platform
10
DEPARTMENT OF IT

as a Service or Infrastructure as a Service. These services are available over the


Internet in the whole world where the cloud acts as the single point of access for
serving all customers. Cloud computing architecture addresses diffculties of
large scale data processing.

1.3 DEFINING THE CLOUD:


The cloud

itself is a set of hardware, networks, storage,

services, and interfaces that enable the delivery of computing


as a service. Cloud services include the delivery of software,
infrastructure, and storage over the Internet (either as separate
components or a complete platform) based on user demand.
The world of the cloud has lots of participants:
The end user doesnt really have to know anything about
the

underlying

technology.

In

small

businesses,

for

example, the cloud provider becomes the de facto data


center.

In

larger

organizations,

the

IT

organization

oversees the inner workings of both internal resources and


external cloud resources.
Business management needs to take responsibility for
overall governance of data or services living in a cloud.
Cloud service providers must provide a predictable and
guaranteed

service

constituents.

11
DEPARTMENT OF IT

level

and

security

to

all

their

The cloud service provider is responsible for IT assets


and maintenance.

Fig.1.3 Structure of Cloud [3]

Cloud services like social networks (such as Face book or LinkedIn) and
collaboration tools (like video conferencing, document management, and
webinars) are changing the way people in businesses access, deliver, and
understand information. Cloud computing infrastructures make it easier for
companies to treat their computing

1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD COMPUTING:


Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Empowerment of

end-users

of

computing

resources

by

putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control,


as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for
example).
Agility improves

with

users'

ability

technological infrastructure resources.

12
DEPARTMENT OF IT

to

re-provision

Application programming interface (API) accessibility to


software that enables machines to interact with cloud software
in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction
between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems
typically use REST-based APIs.
Device and location independence enable users to access
systems using a web browser regardless of their location or
what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As
infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party)
and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from
anywhere.

Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool


of users thus allowing for:
Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real
estate, electricity,

etc.)

Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible loadlevels)
Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10
20% utilized
Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes
well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster
recovery.

13
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of


resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users
having to engineer for peak loads.
Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures
are constructed using web services as the system interface
Security could improve due to centralization of data. Security is often as
good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are
able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers
cannot afford.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not
need to be installed

on each user's computer.

1.5 ATTRIBUTES :
Service-oriented
Elastic
Shared
Metered by use
Outcome focused
Use Internet technologies

14
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Fig.1.4. Attributes Of Cloud Services[4]

1.6 Layers:
Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers, it
is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.

Figure 1.5. Layer of Cloud Architecture[5]

Client
Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as desktop
computers,laptops, tablets and smart phones. Some of these devices - cloud
clients - rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as
15
DEPARTMENT OF IT

to be essentially useless without it. Examples are thin clients and the browserbased Chromebook. Many cloud applications do not require specific software
on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud
application. Some cloud applications, however, support specific client software
dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop clients and most email
clients)

Application
Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as
a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application
on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.
A cloud application is software provided as a service. It consists of the
following: a package of interrelated tasks, the definition of these tasks, and the
configuration files, which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time.
Cloud tasks provide compute, storage, communication and management
capabilities. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines, and are
accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). Cloud
applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match
the workload demand. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on
different compute and storage usage, and tenancy metrics.
What makes a cloud application different from other applications is
its elasticity. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. This can be
achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the
changing work demand. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of
cloudapplication are determined at run-time. There is no need to stop the
running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information
in this file.[34]

16
DEPARTMENT OF IT

SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. A cloud application is a


service. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the
SOA meta-model. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. However,
SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. A cloud application is a
SOA application that runs under a specific environment, which is the cloud
computing environment (platform). This environment is characterized by
horizontal scalability, rapid provisioning, ease of access, and flexible prices.
While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process
management, cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are
environment specific, which makes it more a technical model.

Platform
Cloud platform services, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), deliver
a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud
infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of
applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the
underlying hardware and software layers. Cloud computing is becoming a major
change in the computing industry, and one of the most important parts of this
change is the shift of cloud platforms. Platforms let developers write certain
applications that can run in the cloud, or even use services provided by the
cloud. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the
on-demand platform, or Cloud 9. Regardless of the nomenclature, they all have
great potential in developing, and when development teams create applications
for the cloud, each must build its own cloud platform.

Infrastructure

17
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS),


deliver computer infrastructure typically a platform virtualization environment
as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than
purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients
instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill
such services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed
(and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.

Server
The

servers

layer

consists

of computer

hardware and/or computer

software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud
services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and
combined offerings.

1.7 Deployment models:

Fig.1.6. Deployment Model of Cloud[6]

Public cloud
18
DEPARTMENT OF IT

A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model, in which a
service provider makes resources, such as applications and storage, available to
the general public over the Internet. Public cloud services may be free or offered
on a pay-per-usage model.

Community cloud
Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a
specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction,
etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or
externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more
than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud
computing are realized.

Hybrid cloud
Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or
public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits
of multiple deployment models. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems
that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily
from one deployment system to another.

Private cloud
Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether
managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.
They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage
them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. essentially

19
DEPARTMENT OF IT

"[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing
concept".

Fig.1.7 Cloud Adoption Model [7]

1.8ADVANTAGES OF USING CLOUD:


The advantages for using cloud services can be of technical, architectural,
business.

1.8.1 Cloud Providers' point of view:


(a) Most of the data centers today are under utilized. They are mostly 15%
utilized. These data centers need spare capacity just to cope with the
huge spikes that sometimes get in the server usage. Large companies
having those data centers can easily rent those computing power to other
organizations and get profit out of it and also make the resources needed
for running data center (like power) utilized properly.
20
DEPARTMENT OF IT

(b) Companies having large data centers have already deployed the resources
and to provide cloud services they would need very little investment and
the cost would be incremental.

1.8.2Cloud Users' point of view:


(a) Cloud users need not to take care about the hardware and software they
use and also they don't have to be worried about maintenance. The users
are no longer tied to some one traditional system.
(b) Virtualization technology gives the illusion to the users that they are
having all the resources available.
(c) Cloud users can use the resources on demand basis and pay as much as
they use. So the users can plan well for reducing their usage to minimize
their expenditure.
(d) Scalability is one of the major advantages to cloud users. Scalability is
provided dynamically to the users. Users get as much resources as they
need. Thus this model perfectly fits in the management of rare spikes in
the demand.

1.9:Motivation towards Cloud in recent time:


Cloud computing is not a new idea but it is an evolution of some old paradigm
ofdistributed computing. The advent of the enthusiasm about cloud computing
inrecent past is due to some recent technology trend and business models

21
DEPARTMENT OF IT

1.9.1High demand of interactive applications :


Applications with real time response and with capability of providing
information either by other users or by nonhuman sensors gaining more and
more popularity today. These are generally attracted to cloud not only because
of high availability but also because these services are generally data intensive
and require analyzing data across different sources.

1.9.2. Parallel batch processing :


Cloud inherently supports batch-processing and analyzing tera-bytes of data
very effciently. Programming models like Google's map-reduce [18] and
Yahoo!'s open source counter part Hadoop can be used to do these hiding
operational complexity of parallel processing of hundreds of cloud computing
servers.

1.9.3. New trend in business world and scientic community:


In recent times the business enterprises are interested in discovering customers
needs, buying patterns, supply chains to take top management decisions. These
require analysis of very large amount of online data. This can be done with the
help of cloud very easily. Yahoo! Homepage is a very good example of such
thing. In the homepage they show the hottest news in the country. And
according to the users' interest they change the ads and other sections in the
page. Other than these many scientifc experiments need very time consuming
data processing jobs like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Those can be done by
cloud.

22
DEPARTMENT OF IT

1.9.4. Extensive desktop application:


Some desktop applications like Matlab, Mathematica are becoming so compute
intensive that a single desktop machine is no longer enough to run them. So
they are developed to be capable of using cloud computing to perform extensive
evaluations.

1.10 WORKING OF CLOUD COMPUTING:


Cloud Computing system can be divided it into two sections: the front end and
the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the
Internet. Thefront end is the side the computer user, or client, sees.The back
end is the "cloud" section of the system. On the back end there are various
computers,servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of
computing services.A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic
and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It followsa set of rules
called protocols
Servers and remote computers do most of the work and store the data

23
DEPARTMENT OF IT

. fig. 1.8 Working Of Cloud Computing[8]


.

1.11 CLOUD ARCHITECTURE:


The cloud providers actually have the physical data centers to provide
virtualizedservices to their users through Internet. The cloud providers often
provide separation between application and data. This scenario is shown in the
Figure 2. The underlying physical machines are generally organized in grids and
they are usually geographically distributed. Virtualization plays an important
role in the cloud scenario. The data center hosts provide the physical hardware
on which virtual machines resides. User potentially can use any OS supported
by the virtual machines used.
Operating systems are designed for specifc hardware and software. It results
in the lack of portability of operating system and software from one machine to
another machine which uses different instruction set architecture. The concept
ofvirtual machine solves this problem by acting as an interface between the
hardware and the operating system called as system VMs [21]. Another
category of virtual machine is called process virtual machine which acts as an
abstract layer between the operating system and applications. Virtualization can
be very roughly said to be as software translating the hardware instructions
generated by conventional software to the understandable format for the
physical hardware. Virtualization also includes the mapping of virtual resources
like registers and memory to real hardware resources. The underlying platform
in virtualization is generally referred to as host and the software that runs in the
VM environment is called as the guest.
The Figure 3 shows very basics of virtualization. Here the virtualization layer
covers the physical hardware. Operating System accesses physical hardware
through virtualization layer. Applications can issue instruction by using OS
24
DEPARTMENT OF IT

interface as well as directly using virtualizing layer interface. This design


enables the users to use applications not compatible with the operating system.
Virtualization enables the migration of the virtual image from one physical
machine to another and this feature is useful for cloud as by data locality lots of
optimization is possible and also this feature is helpful for taking back up in di
erent locations. This feature also enables the provider to shut down some of the
data centerphysical machines to reduce power consumption

.
Fig. 1.9: Virtualization Basic[9]

25
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Fig. 1.10 Layers of Cloud Computing[10]

1.12 RELATION BETWEEN CLOUD COMPUTING AND


UTILITY COMPUTING
The cloud users enjoy utility computing model for interacting with cloud
serviceproviders. This Utility computing is essentially not same as cloud
computing. Utility computing is the aggregation of computing resources, such
as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public
utility like electricity, water or telephone network. This service might be
provided by a dedicated computer cluster specically built for the purpose of
being rented out, or even an under-utilized supercomputer. And cloud is one of
such option of providing utility computing to the users

1.13 SECURITY OF CLOUD COMPUTING:


26
DEPARTMENT OF IT

As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity, concerns are being


voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.
The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being
reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ
widely from those of traditional architectures.
The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may
be delaying its adoption. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due
in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external
management of security-based services. It is the very nature of cloud
computing-based services, private or public, that promote external management
of provided services. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service
providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure
services Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access, data
segregation, privacy, bug exploitation, recovery, accountability, malicious
insiders, management console security, account control, and multi-tenancy
issues. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary, from cryptography,
particularly public key infrastructure (PKI), to use of multiple cloud providers,
standardisation of APIs, and improving virtual machine support and legal
support.

1.14 Summary:
In this chapter we have talked about the cloud computing . The architecture of
the cloud computing i.e. Iaas, Paas and SaaS. The various types of cloud
computing and the characteristics of cloud computing.

27
DEPARTMENT OF IT

CHAPTER-2
SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS OF
CLOUD
2.1 INTRODUCTION:
The three cloud service delivery models are Infrastructure as a Service,
Platform as a Service and Software as a Service, and the purpose of each model
is as follows:
The Infrastructure as a Service layer offers storage and compute
Resources that developers and IT organizations use to deliver custom
Business solutions.

28
DEPARTMENT OF IT

The Platform as a Service layer offers development environments that IT


organizations can use to create cloud-ready business applications
.
The Software as a Service layer offers purpose-built business
applications.

Fig.2.1 Working Of Cloud[11]

2.2 Understanding Infrastructure as a Service


Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)is the delivery of computer
hardware (servers, networking technology, storage, and data center space) as a
service. It may also include the delivery of operating systems and virtualization
technology to manage the resources.
The IaaS customer rents computing resources instead of buying and installing
them in their own data center. The service is typically paid for on a usage basis.
The service may include dynamic scalingso that if the customer winds up
needing more resources than expected, he can get them immediately (probably
up to a given limit).

29
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Currently, the most high-profile IaaS operation is Amazons Elastic Compute


Cloud (Amazon EC2). It provides a Web interface that allows customers to
access virtual machines. EC2 offers scalability under the users control with the
user paying for resources by the hour. The use of the term elasticin the
naming of Amazons EC2 is significant. The elasticity refers to the ability that
EC2 users have to easily increase or decrease the infrastructure resources
assigned tomeet their needs. The user needs to initiate a request, so this service
provided isnt dynamically scalable. Users of EC2 can request the use of any
operating system as long as the developer does all the work. Amazon itself
supports a more limited number of operating systems (Linux, Solaris, and
Windows).

Benefits
Systems managed by SLA should equate to fewer breaches
Higher return on assets through higher utilization
Reduced cost driven by
Less hardware
Less floor space from smaller hardware footprint
Higher level of automation from fewer administrators
Lower power consumption
Able to match consumption to demand
Challenges

30
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Portability of applications
Maturity of systems management tools
Integration across the Cloud boundary
Extension of internal security models

2.3 Exploring Platform as a Service


With Platform as a Service (PaaS), the provider delivers more than
infrastructure.It delivers what you might call a solution stack an
integrated set of software that provides everything a developer needs to build an
application for both software development and runtime.
PaaS can be viewed as an evolution of Web hosting. In recent years, Webhosting
companies have provided fairly complete software stacks for developing Web
sites. PaaS takes this idea a step farther by providing lifecycle
management capabilities to manage all software development stages
from planning and design, to building and deployment, to testing and
maintenance.
The primary benefit of PaaS is having software development and deployment
capability based entirely in the cloud hence, no management or maintenance
efforts are required for the infrastructure. Every aspect of software
development,

from

the

design

stage

onward

(including

source-code

management, testing, and deployment) lives in the cloud. PaaS is inherently


multi-tenant and naturally supports the whole set of Web services standards and
is usually delivered with dynamic scaling. In reference to Platform as a Service,
dynamic scalingmeans that the software can be automatically scaled up or
down. Platform as a Service typically addresses the need to scale as well as the
need to separate concerns of access and data.

31
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Benefits
Pay-as-you-go for development, test, and production environments
Enables developers to focus on application code
Instant global platform
Elimination of H/W dependencies and capacity concerns
Inherent scalability
Simplified deployment model

Challenges
Governance
Tie-in to the vendor
Extension of the security model to the provider
Connectivity
Reliance on 3rd party SLAs

2.4 Seeing Software as a Service:


One of the first implementations of cloud services was Software as a
Service(SaaS) business applications that are hosted by the provider and
deliveredas a service.SaaS has its roots in an early kind of hosting operation
carried out by Application Service Providers (ASPs).The ASP
business grew up soon afterthe Internet began to mushroom, with some
companies offering to securely,privately host applications. Hosting of supply
chain applications and customer relationship management
(CRM)applications was particularly prominent,although some ASPs simply
specialized in running email. Prior to theadvent of this type of service,
companies often spent huge amounts of moneyimplementing and customizing
32
DEPARTMENT OF IT

these applications to satisfy internal businessrequirements. Many of these


products werent only difficult to implement buthard to learn and use. However,
the most successful vendors were those whorecognized that an application
delivered as a service with a monthly fee basedon the number of users had to be
easy to use and easy to stay with.CRM is one of the most common categories of
Software as a Service; the most prominent vendor in this category is
Salesforce.com,

Benefits
Speed
Reduced up-front cost, potential for reduced lifetime cost
Transfer of some/all support obligations
Elimination of licensing risk
Elimination of version compatibility
Reduced hardware footprint
Challenges
Extension of the security model to the provider (data privacy and
ownership)
Governance and billing management
Synchronization of client and vendor migrations
Integrated end-user support
Scalability

2.5 Summary:
33
DEPARTMENT OF IT

In this section we have describe the various service model of the


cloud computing. The benefits and challenges of service model of the
cloud computing has been explain in this chapter.

CHAPTER-3
FUTURE SCOPE OF
CLOUDCOMPUTING
3.1 INTRODUCTION:
As new offerings like Amazon's CloudFront, Microsoft's Azure, Hosting.com's
CloudNine and VMware's vCloud are rolled out week in, week out, the
worldwide

cloud

computing

momentum

continues

to

grow.

Here, SYS-CON's Cloud Computing Journal surveys a globe-girdling network


34
DEPARTMENT OF IT

of leading infrastructure experts, IT industry executives and technology


commentators for their views on The Shape of Cloud Computing To Come.
Contributors include Salesforce.com's Peter Coffee, Geve Perry of GigaSpaces,
Ben Rushlo from Keynote Systems, Cloud Computing Journal editor-in-chief
Alan Williamson, Enomaly founder Reuven Cohen, open source entrepreneur
Krishnan Subramanian and Markus Klems of the FZI Research Center for
Information Technology in Germany.

Fig.3.1. Future Scope[12]

35
DEPARTMENT OF IT

PETER COFFEE
Director, Platform Research - Salesforce.com

Peter Coffee was Technology Editor for industry journals PC Week and eWEEK
from 1989 through 2007, after spending the prior decade in project management
at Exxon and in PC planning and AI applications research at The Aerospace
Corporation. He is the author of "How to Program Java" and "Peter Coffee
Teaches PCs"; he served as a member of the X3J13 standards committee for
ANSI Common Lisp.

EXPANSION OF CLOUD TECHNOLOGY WILL BRING A


MAJOR CHANGE IN THE GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONAL
PATTERN, MAJOR CHANGES LIKE1.. Trend of Large Vendors Entering Cloud Computing Will
Accelerate:
Amazon, Google, CA, Microsoft and IBM have all announced various
initiatives in cloud computing. In 2009 this trend will accelerate with more
coming from these vendors as well as VMWare, Citrix, Sun, HP, Cisco, Intuit,
Symantec, Yahoo (if they remain independent) and others.
2. All Major IDEs Will Offer Cloud Deployment Options:

36
DEPARTMENT OF IT

Similar offerings to that of pioneering Aptana Cloud, as well as the announced


but not yet available Visual Studio cloud offering, will be made by all major
IDEs, with plug-ins for multiple cloud providers, including Amazon Web
Services, GoGrid, Joyent, AppNexus, Flexiscale, Google App Engine and
others.

3. Platform-as-a-Service Will Take Its First Steps into the


Mainstream:
In 2009, developers will start seeing web-based development and deployment
platforms as a viable option for application development. Platforms such as
Heroku, aimed at Ruby-on-Rails, will be in a particularly strong position to take
advantage of this trend, but others as well. PaaS offering such as Force.com,
Morph Labs, Bungee Connect the GigaSpaces Cloud Framework and others
will mature and see initial adoption in the enterprise. Read more in the Thoughts
on PaaS post.

4. A Next-Generation of Middleware for the Cloud Will Rise in


Dominance Over Traditional J2EE Application Servers:
Both start-ups and enterprises will come to realize in 2009 that the middleware
products they have been using in dedicated physical server environments just
dont cut in the clouds. The promise of the clouds utility model (pay-per-use)
cannot be taken advantage of without application platform that enable the
application to both grow and shrink based on Service-Level Agreements
(SLAs). Therefore, a new generation of application servers, such as GigaSpaces
XAP and Appistry, will grow in popularity among the mainstream of cloud
users.

37
DEPARTMENT OF IT

5. System Administration & Configuration and Network


Management Will Become a Field Bursting with Innovation:
After years of stagnation, system administration, configuration and network
management will thrive with innovation. New standards will emerge and
people will come up with new forms of innovation in the field. Open source
projects such as Puppet will experience incredible momentum. In a sense, for
cloud computing to succeed, system administration needs to be eliminated. Or
more accurately, automated and simplified, which creates tremendous
potential.

Two technology giants -- IBM and Google -- have partnered in a program


designed to promote research in the field of parallel computing, otherwise
known as "cloud computing." Parallel computing is a method for completing
large computing tasks faster by spreading the work over many interconnected
machines. Programming such tasks, however, is a very complicated process.
Cloud computing refers a paradigm shift to overall IT solutions while raising
the accessibility, scalability and effectiveness through its enabling technologies.
However, migrated cloud platforms and services cost benefits as well as
performances are neither clear nor summarized.
Globalization and the recessionary economic times have not only raised the bar
of a better IT delivery models but also have given access to technology enabled
services via internet. Cloud computing has vast potential in terms of lean Retail
methodologies that can minimize the operational cost by using the third party
based IT capabilities, as a service. It will not only increase the ROI but will also
help in lowering the total cost of ownership.
38
DEPARTMENT OF IT

CHAPTER-4
CONCLUSION
Cloud computing is still a very young and dynamic field characterized by a
buzzingindustry. Virtually every organization in the industry and even parts of
the publicsector are taking on cloud computing today, either as a provider or as
a consumer.Primarily US-based companies, such as Amazon, Google, or
Microsoft are currentlyshaping the cloud services market. But many smaller
companies also showa lot of commitment in this field. There is no doubt that
cloud computing isa disruptive technology which has the potential to change
our understanding ofhow to provision and leverage IT services in a fundamental
and sustainable way.

39
DEPARTMENT OF IT

REFERENCES:
[1].

Software as a service, Wikipedia,


<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_as_a_service>,17/APR/2013

[2] . Welcome to the Data Cloud, Semantic Web blog, ZDnet,


<http://blogs.zdnet.com/semanticweb/?p=205>,17/APR/2013
[3] Any any old data, Paul Walks blog
<http://blog.paulwalk.net/2008/10/07/any-any-any-olddata/>,17/APR/2013
[4]

Hand, Eric. Head in the Clouds. ,Nature.,17/APR/2013

[5]. Pollette, Chris. How the GoogleApple Cloud Computer Will Work.
Howstuffworks.com.
<http://computer.howstuffworks.com/google-apple-cloud-computer.htm>.
17/APR/2013
[6] 6 Rubel, Steve. The MacBook Air is the Biggest Test Yet for Cloud
Computing. MicroPersuasion.
40
DEPARTMENT OF IT

<http://www.micropersuasion.com/2008/01/the-macbookair.html>.17/APR/2013

[7] Springer.Cloud.Computing.Web17/APR/2013
Based.Dynamic.IT.Services.Jul.2011.ebookmf.com17/APR/2013
[8] Executive's Guide to Cloud Computing17/APR/2013
[9] RESTful Web Services - O'Reilly
[10] Cloud Computing Implementation, Management, and Security

41
DEPARTMENT OF IT