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Flushing procedures

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Flushing procedures
Sun, 2012-01-01 (All day)

During flushing procedures, fluid velocity is critical to successful removal of manufacturing and
installation debris from hydraulic systems.
Tolerances that exist in today's highpressure
hydraulic systems demand tight control of system
contamination. Contamination that is built into
systems during manufacture and assembly must be
removed before start-up to insure proper and
predictable system performance throughout its
service life.
A new or rebuilt hydraulic system should be flushed
before it becomes operational. The concept of
Fig. 1. Simplified sketch of experiment that
flushing is to loosen and remove contamination
Reynolds used to study and define the three
particles inside the system by forcing flushing fluid regimes of fluid flow.
through it at high velocity. In theory, this leaves the
inside walls of the fluid conductors at the same
cleanliness level as the new fluid that will be installed. Then, during normal operation, the system
will experience only externally and internally generated contamination that can be controlled with
Instructions for flushing usually specify a level of system cleanliness that must be achieved, and
sometimes a fluid velocity that must be maintained during the flushing procedure. Typical
instructions state that flushing must be accomplished at normal system fluid velocities for a certain
period of time with a certain level of filtration. More stringent specifications may call for a particular
fluid contamination level and require documentation by fluid-contamination analysis.
One shortcoming of all these flushing methods is that they are based on procedures to clean the fluid,
but ignore the interior cleanliness of the system. Even if the tubing and conductors have been
installed with the greatest of visual care, the human eye can only see particles that are larger than 40
m - well below the needs of even the crudest and most elementary hydraulic system.

How high a velocity?

The critical variable in flushing to achieve acceptable fluid and conductor cleanliness is fluid velocity.
Traditional flushing methods usually establish this velocity in one of two ways:
the velocity must be high enough to achieve a Reynolds Number (NR) of 3,000 or more, or
the velocity must meet or exceed the system fluid's normal operating velocity as designed.
Experience has shown that neither of these flushing velocities is sufficient to assure the cleanliness of
the ID of the system's conductors. A short review of basic fluid dynamics explains why.


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Dimensionless NRs are used (along with other factors) to classify fluid flow as either laminar,
turbulent, or somewhere in between, Figure 1. NR depends on the fluid's viscosity and velocity and
the ID of the pipe. The flow condition that exists when NR is less than 2,000 is termed laminar,
signifying orderly flow with parallel streamlines.1 When NR is greater than 3,000, the flow becomes
turbulent, defined as the condition when fluid streamlines are no longer orderly. Between Reynolds
Numbers of 2,000 and 3,000, flow exists in transition, sometimes called the critical zone.
The hydraulic fluid velocity required to achieve turbulent flow is well within the recommended fluid
velocity guidelines for hydraulic fluid conductors.2 This equation reinforces that statement:
NR = VD/v
V is the fluid velocity in ft/sec,
D is the ID of the fluid conductor in ft, and
v is the fluid kinematic viscosity in ft2/sec.

First example
Suppose that the NR is 3,000, the conductor is a 1-in. tube with a wall thickness of 0.049 in., and v is
1.288X10-4 ft2/sec. Calculated fluid velocity then is 5.14 ft/sec, which corresponds to a flow rate of
10.24 gpm.
Note that the viscosity (and therefore the Reynolds Number) of a typical hydraulic fluid is influenced
by temperature and pressure. That is, the hotter the oil, the higher the NR for the same fluid velocity
and pressure. The higher the pressure, the lower the NR for the same fluid velocity and temperature.
Thus, specifying that NR should be 3,000 is not a stringent requirement, but is well within the
normal operating fluid velocities of a system. By definition, turbulent flow has been created because
the fluid streamlines are no longer parallel, but sufficient fluid motion to clean the inside walls of the
conductors has not been generated.
Even at the recommended maximum fluid velocities and NRs for hydraulic-system working
conductors, fluid flow still is not turbulent enough to greatly affect contamination on conductor
walls. Boundary- layer fluid at the interior surfaces of the fluid conductor remains undisturbed.

Second example
The NR for flow at normal system velocities next can be calculated using the same conductor size and
kinematic viscosity as in the first example, but with the velocity increased to 20 ft/sec. This higher
velocity results in a Reynolds Number of 11,671, which corresponds to a flow rate of 39.8 gpm.
As NR increases, flow conditions go from laminar, through the critical zone, to turbulent. It has been
proven empirically that once NR exceeds 3,000, resistance to fluid flow is a combination of the effects
of turbulence and of viscous drag at the conductor wall. (This region of viscous drag at the conductor
wall is known as the viscous sub-layer.) There is a transition zone within the turbulent flow range
where flow resistance goes from being governed by turbulence effects to being governed by the
roughness of the inside wall of the conductor.
This is shown clearly when inspecting the Moody diagram,3 Figure 2, which graphically
demonstrates the relationship between Reynolds Number NR, friction factor f, and e, the roughness


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of the conductor's inside surface. Resistance to flow through a fluid conductor, represented by
friction factor f, is only affected by the surface roughness of the fluid conductor4 when NR is above
4,000. Thus, the majority of the resistance to flow is created by turbulence effects. Only when NR is
high enough so that surface projections of the conductor walls extend beyond the viscous sub-layer
does the surface come in contact with the turbulent flow and affect the pressure drop in the

Surface roughness

Fig. 2. Modified Moody diagram relates friction factor f, Reynolds Number NR, and conductor
surface roughness e.

For drawn tubing, average surface roughness e is 0.000005 ft. If the conductor is the same 1-in.
tubing with 0.049-in. wall thickness, ratio e/D will be 0.000067. The Moody diagram indicates that
for this conductor, NR must be at least 25,000 before the inside surface exposes its resistance to fluid
flow. To ensure the inside wall of the conductor will be cleaned, NR must be greater than 25,000. For
flow to be fully in the rough zone of turbulent flow, NR must be greater than 3.25X107. Using
1.288X10-4 ft2/sec, the same fluid kinematic viscosity as in the first example, a NR of 25,000
corresponds to a fluid velocity of 42.8 ft/sec, or a flow rate of 85 gpm - still easily attainable with
conventional hydraulic pumps.

Real-world systems
It can be argued that if the walls of a conductor are not greatly affected by normal system fluid
velocities, contaminants lodged there will have little chance of entering the fluid stream. This may be
partially true but the argument applies only to smooth, straight conductors at steady flows and
pressures. It is not representative of normal installations that combine straight runs, bends, and
numerous fittings where flow patterns are only predictable empirically, and where pressure
fluctuations and spikes are commonplace.


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Depending on the severity of service that the system will experience, pressure spikes will dislodge
contaminants held in the walls of the conductors and between fitting interfaces. In critical systems, 3
- to 25-m particles can impact system performance significantly. The only way to guarantee that
conductor contamination (that can be released at any time during operation) does not affect system
performance is to protect each component with a filter, an option so costly that it would not be used
in most systems. Although flushing hydraulic system conductors at the normal system operatingfluid
velocities can provide fluid velocities higher than flushing at a NR of 3,000, the inside wall of the
conductors still will not be cleaned.

High-velocity/high-pressure flushing
Flows that produce NRs .25,000 are needed to ensure that conductor walls are exposed to turbulent
flow. Because system conductors may consist of pipe, tube, and/or hose and associated fittings, the
specification of a contractual number for NR is difficult and still does not guarantee that conductors
will be cleaned. The best one can do is establish conditions that will maximize NR. These conditions
are: the highest possible velocity at the lowest possible fluid viscosity. Limiting factors are the
conductor's pressure rating and the fluid's maximum operating temperature.
When flushing a system, the valving and actuators must be "jumpered" for safety reasons so the only
resistance to fluid flow is the pressure drop in the conductors and fittings. When flow becomes
turbulent, the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity. Extrapolating this
relationship to its maximum, the highest possible velocity occurs when the pressure drop in the
conductor generated by fluid flow is equal to the maximum test pressure of the conductor. Flushing a
system at these high flows and pressures has the added advantage of expanding and contracting the
conductors and fittings as the pressure fluctuates while inducing highly turbulent flow. This
optimizes the flushing action.
By equating the pressure drop in a conductor to the maximum pressure rating of that conductor, the
maximum fluid velocity possible, along with the corresponding NR, can be calculated. The
temperature of the fluid directly affects its viscosity and is the other variable that can control NR.
Flushing pressure also affects viscosity, but this is hard to quantify because pressure in the pipe
being flushed will vary from maximum at the pumping source to atmospheric at the conductor
The equation used to calculate head loss in the turbulent zone is:
hl = fLV2/2D ,
hl stands for head loss,
f is the friction factor found in the Moody diagram,
L is the conductor length in ft,
V is the fluid velocity, and
D is the conductor's ID in in.
This equation will calculate the maximum velocities and NRs that can be achieved for any given
maximum flushing pressure.
Determining f for pipe flow requires iterative calculations using the Moody diagram. Given the
pressure rating, ID, length, and relative roughness of the conductor, assume an f and then calculate


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the fluid velocity. next calculate NR and determine a new f from the Moody diagram. Repeat the
calculation until f converges.

The table above contains velocities and NRs that have been calculated for 200 feet of Schedule-80
pipe using the maximum test pressure for the pipe and a surface roughness of 0.00015 ft for wrought
iron pipe. These calculations did not take into account the pressure drop produced by the various
fittings normally used, so the values for the attainable fluid velocities and NRs are optimistically
high. Also, special fluids with lower viscosities or flushing at higher temperatures to reduce the fluid
viscosity can increase NR.
The values determined for maximum flushing velocity and flow rate indicate that some of these
conditions - mainly for lines with inside diameters smaller than 3/4 in. - can be satisfied using
conventional high-pressure pumps of appropriate flow capacity, although it may be difficult to
induce the pressure fluctuations needed to dislodge contaminants. For systems with larger
conductors, special methods must be used to achieve the necessary pressures, fluid velocities, and
NRs to properly flush the lines.

Clean hose prevents contamination troubles

Research has proven that clean oil and a
clean hydraulic system are the keys to longer
system life and less downtime. However,
clean oil can be contaminated by particles left
behind from the cutting, crimping, bending,
and flaring process, creating a real problem.
Attempts have been made to solve this
problem by using chemicals, high pressure
flushing, and pull through techniques with
marginal results.
A relatively new cleaning technique offers an effective and practical alternative to these procedures
by using sponge-like projectiles that are shot through hose and tubing assemblies by a blast of
compressed air. Equipment for this procedure is much more affordable than that for high-velocity
flushing. Perhaps more importantly, though, it cleans assemblies much more effectively than
compressed air alone and in a fraction of the time it takes for high-velocity flushing.
Launchers fire the projectile (which is sized 20% to 30% larger than the I.D. of the hose, tube or
pipe), stripping out the internal contamination as it travels through couplings and around bends forcing the contamination out in front of it.


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Once the hose assembly has been cleaned, be sure to install protective caps or plugs at both ends to
prevent contamination from entering the assembly. These should not be removed until the hose
assembly is being installed on the equipment.

- T. B. Hardison, "Fluid Mechanics for Technicians," Reston Publishing, 1977.

- Vickers Inc., "Vickers Industrial Hydraulic Manual," 1989, page C-16.

& 4 - Vennard & Street, "Elementary Fluid Mechanics," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982, page 381.

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