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- Fluid Mechanics White Seventh ed Chapter 6 Summary
- Pipe Flow
- Fluid Flow in Packed Bed
- AADE-10-DF-HO-26
- CHAPTER 6 Flow in Pipes Final
- Turbulent pipe flow of power-law fluids
- Turbulent Pipe Flow
- Determination of Turbulent Pressure Loss of Non-Newtonian Oil Flow in Rough Pipes_-_A. P. Szilas-E. Bobok-L. Navratil1981
- fluid cleanliness
- Flow in Pipe - Bernoulli Equation
- 109
- Mep Hydronic Piping
- Chapter 03 - Flow in Pipes
- 07121-1603c-TH-Design Study Flapper Style SSSV XHPHT Applications-11!01!09 P
- handout.pdf
- Fluid Mechanics d203 Reseni
- Manual Fundamental Hydraulic Systms
- Theory Pipes
- Internal Flow
- Experimental Analysis of Pressure Drop in CTU

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Flushing procedures

Sun, 2012-01-01 (All day)

During flushing procedures, fluid velocity is critical to successful removal of manufacturing and

installation debris from hydraulic systems.

Tolerances that exist in today's highpressure

hydraulic systems demand tight control of system

contamination. Contamination that is built into

systems during manufacture and assembly must be

removed before start-up to insure proper and

predictable system performance throughout its

service life.

A new or rebuilt hydraulic system should be flushed

before it becomes operational. The concept of

Fig. 1. Simplified sketch of experiment that

flushing is to loosen and remove contamination

Reynolds used to study and define the three

particles inside the system by forcing flushing fluid regimes of fluid flow.

through it at high velocity. In theory, this leaves the

inside walls of the fluid conductors at the same

cleanliness level as the new fluid that will be installed. Then, during normal operation, the system

will experience only externally and internally generated contamination that can be controlled with

filtration.

Instructions for flushing usually specify a level of system cleanliness that must be achieved, and

sometimes a fluid velocity that must be maintained during the flushing procedure. Typical

instructions state that flushing must be accomplished at normal system fluid velocities for a certain

period of time with a certain level of filtration. More stringent specifications may call for a particular

fluid contamination level and require documentation by fluid-contamination analysis.

One shortcoming of all these flushing methods is that they are based on procedures to clean the fluid,

but ignore the interior cleanliness of the system. Even if the tubing and conductors have been

installed with the greatest of visual care, the human eye can only see particles that are larger than 40

m - well below the needs of even the crudest and most elementary hydraulic system.

The critical variable in flushing to achieve acceptable fluid and conductor cleanliness is fluid velocity.

Traditional flushing methods usually establish this velocity in one of two ways:

the velocity must be high enough to achieve a Reynolds Number (NR) of 3,000 or more, or

the velocity must meet or exceed the system fluid's normal operating velocity as designed.

Experience has shown that neither of these flushing velocities is sufficient to assure the cleanliness of

the ID of the system's conductors. A short review of basic fluid dynamics explains why.

http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/print/200/TechZone/HydraulicFluids/Article/False/6437/TechZone-HydraulicFluids

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Flushing procedures

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Dimensionless NRs are used (along with other factors) to classify fluid flow as either laminar,

turbulent, or somewhere in between, Figure 1. NR depends on the fluid's viscosity and velocity and

the ID of the pipe. The flow condition that exists when NR is less than 2,000 is termed laminar,

signifying orderly flow with parallel streamlines.1 When NR is greater than 3,000, the flow becomes

turbulent, defined as the condition when fluid streamlines are no longer orderly. Between Reynolds

Numbers of 2,000 and 3,000, flow exists in transition, sometimes called the critical zone.

The hydraulic fluid velocity required to achieve turbulent flow is well within the recommended fluid

velocity guidelines for hydraulic fluid conductors.2 This equation reinforces that statement:

NR = VD/v

where:

V is the fluid velocity in ft/sec,

D is the ID of the fluid conductor in ft, and

v is the fluid kinematic viscosity in ft2/sec.

First example

Suppose that the NR is 3,000, the conductor is a 1-in. tube with a wall thickness of 0.049 in., and v is

1.288X10-4 ft2/sec. Calculated fluid velocity then is 5.14 ft/sec, which corresponds to a flow rate of

10.24 gpm.

Note that the viscosity (and therefore the Reynolds Number) of a typical hydraulic fluid is influenced

by temperature and pressure. That is, the hotter the oil, the higher the NR for the same fluid velocity

and pressure. The higher the pressure, the lower the NR for the same fluid velocity and temperature.

Thus, specifying that NR should be 3,000 is not a stringent requirement, but is well within the

normal operating fluid velocities of a system. By definition, turbulent flow has been created because

the fluid streamlines are no longer parallel, but sufficient fluid motion to clean the inside walls of the

conductors has not been generated.

Even at the recommended maximum fluid velocities and NRs for hydraulic-system working

conductors, fluid flow still is not turbulent enough to greatly affect contamination on conductor

walls. Boundary- layer fluid at the interior surfaces of the fluid conductor remains undisturbed.

Second example

The NR for flow at normal system velocities next can be calculated using the same conductor size and

kinematic viscosity as in the first example, but with the velocity increased to 20 ft/sec. This higher

velocity results in a Reynolds Number of 11,671, which corresponds to a flow rate of 39.8 gpm.

As NR increases, flow conditions go from laminar, through the critical zone, to turbulent. It has been

proven empirically that once NR exceeds 3,000, resistance to fluid flow is a combination of the effects

of turbulence and of viscous drag at the conductor wall. (This region of viscous drag at the conductor

wall is known as the viscous sub-layer.) There is a transition zone within the turbulent flow range

where flow resistance goes from being governed by turbulence effects to being governed by the

roughness of the inside wall of the conductor.

This is shown clearly when inspecting the Moody diagram,3 Figure 2, which graphically

demonstrates the relationship between Reynolds Number NR, friction factor f, and e, the roughness

http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/print/200/TechZone/HydraulicFluids/Article/False/6437/TechZone-HydraulicFluids

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Flushing procedures

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of the conductor's inside surface. Resistance to flow through a fluid conductor, represented by

friction factor f, is only affected by the surface roughness of the fluid conductor4 when NR is above

4,000. Thus, the majority of the resistance to flow is created by turbulence effects. Only when NR is

high enough so that surface projections of the conductor walls extend beyond the viscous sub-layer

does the surface come in contact with the turbulent flow and affect the pressure drop in the

conductor.

Surface roughness

Fig. 2. Modified Moody diagram relates friction factor f, Reynolds Number NR, and conductor

surface roughness e.

For drawn tubing, average surface roughness e is 0.000005 ft. If the conductor is the same 1-in.

tubing with 0.049-in. wall thickness, ratio e/D will be 0.000067. The Moody diagram indicates that

for this conductor, NR must be at least 25,000 before the inside surface exposes its resistance to fluid

flow. To ensure the inside wall of the conductor will be cleaned, NR must be greater than 25,000. For

flow to be fully in the rough zone of turbulent flow, NR must be greater than 3.25X107. Using

1.288X10-4 ft2/sec, the same fluid kinematic viscosity as in the first example, a NR of 25,000

corresponds to a fluid velocity of 42.8 ft/sec, or a flow rate of 85 gpm - still easily attainable with

conventional hydraulic pumps.

Real-world systems

It can be argued that if the walls of a conductor are not greatly affected by normal system fluid

velocities, contaminants lodged there will have little chance of entering the fluid stream. This may be

partially true but the argument applies only to smooth, straight conductors at steady flows and

pressures. It is not representative of normal installations that combine straight runs, bends, and

numerous fittings where flow patterns are only predictable empirically, and where pressure

fluctuations and spikes are commonplace.

http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/print/200/TechZone/HydraulicFluids/Article/False/6437/TechZone-HydraulicFluids

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Flushing procedures

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Depending on the severity of service that the system will experience, pressure spikes will dislodge

contaminants held in the walls of the conductors and between fitting interfaces. In critical systems, 3

- to 25-m particles can impact system performance significantly. The only way to guarantee that

conductor contamination (that can be released at any time during operation) does not affect system

performance is to protect each component with a filter, an option so costly that it would not be used

in most systems. Although flushing hydraulic system conductors at the normal system operatingfluid

velocities can provide fluid velocities higher than flushing at a NR of 3,000, the inside wall of the

conductors still will not be cleaned.

High-velocity/high-pressure flushing

Flows that produce NRs .25,000 are needed to ensure that conductor walls are exposed to turbulent

flow. Because system conductors may consist of pipe, tube, and/or hose and associated fittings, the

specification of a contractual number for NR is difficult and still does not guarantee that conductors

will be cleaned. The best one can do is establish conditions that will maximize NR. These conditions

are: the highest possible velocity at the lowest possible fluid viscosity. Limiting factors are the

conductor's pressure rating and the fluid's maximum operating temperature.

When flushing a system, the valving and actuators must be "jumpered" for safety reasons so the only

resistance to fluid flow is the pressure drop in the conductors and fittings. When flow becomes

turbulent, the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity. Extrapolating this

relationship to its maximum, the highest possible velocity occurs when the pressure drop in the

conductor generated by fluid flow is equal to the maximum test pressure of the conductor. Flushing a

system at these high flows and pressures has the added advantage of expanding and contracting the

conductors and fittings as the pressure fluctuates while inducing highly turbulent flow. This

optimizes the flushing action.

By equating the pressure drop in a conductor to the maximum pressure rating of that conductor, the

maximum fluid velocity possible, along with the corresponding NR, can be calculated. The

temperature of the fluid directly affects its viscosity and is the other variable that can control NR.

Flushing pressure also affects viscosity, but this is hard to quantify because pressure in the pipe

being flushed will vary from maximum at the pumping source to atmospheric at the conductor

outlet.

The equation used to calculate head loss in the turbulent zone is:

hl = fLV2/2D ,

where:

hl stands for head loss,

f is the friction factor found in the Moody diagram,

L is the conductor length in ft,

V is the fluid velocity, and

D is the conductor's ID in in.

This equation will calculate the maximum velocities and NRs that can be achieved for any given

maximum flushing pressure.

Determining f for pipe flow requires iterative calculations using the Moody diagram. Given the

pressure rating, ID, length, and relative roughness of the conductor, assume an f and then calculate

19/03/2013

Flushing procedures

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the fluid velocity. next calculate NR and determine a new f from the Moody diagram. Repeat the

calculation until f converges.

The table above contains velocities and NRs that have been calculated for 200 feet of Schedule-80

pipe using the maximum test pressure for the pipe and a surface roughness of 0.00015 ft for wrought

iron pipe. These calculations did not take into account the pressure drop produced by the various

fittings normally used, so the values for the attainable fluid velocities and NRs are optimistically

high. Also, special fluids with lower viscosities or flushing at higher temperatures to reduce the fluid

viscosity can increase NR.

The values determined for maximum flushing velocity and flow rate indicate that some of these

conditions - mainly for lines with inside diameters smaller than 3/4 in. - can be satisfied using

conventional high-pressure pumps of appropriate flow capacity, although it may be difficult to

induce the pressure fluctuations needed to dislodge contaminants. For systems with larger

conductors, special methods must be used to achieve the necessary pressures, fluid velocities, and

NRs to properly flush the lines.

Research has proven that clean oil and a

clean hydraulic system are the keys to longer

system life and less downtime. However,

clean oil can be contaminated by particles left

behind from the cutting, crimping, bending,

and flaring process, creating a real problem.

Attempts have been made to solve this

problem by using chemicals, high pressure

flushing, and pull through techniques with

marginal results.

A relatively new cleaning technique offers an effective and practical alternative to these procedures

by using sponge-like projectiles that are shot through hose and tubing assemblies by a blast of

compressed air. Equipment for this procedure is much more affordable than that for high-velocity

flushing. Perhaps more importantly, though, it cleans assemblies much more effectively than

compressed air alone and in a fraction of the time it takes for high-velocity flushing.

Launchers fire the projectile (which is sized 20% to 30% larger than the I.D. of the hose, tube or

pipe), stripping out the internal contamination as it travels through couplings and around bends forcing the contamination out in front of it.

19/03/2013

Flushing procedures

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Once the hose assembly has been cleaned, be sure to install protective caps or plugs at both ends to

prevent contamination from entering the assembly. These should not be removed until the hose

assembly is being installed on the equipment.

& 4 - Vennard & Street, "Elementary Fluid Mechanics," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982, page 381.

Source URL:

http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/HydraulicFluids/Article/False/6437/TechZoneHydraulicFluids

19/03/2013

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