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TECHNICAL CORRECTION

January 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and
Miscellaneous Steel Specification

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES


In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team
and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or
withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at
www.pip.org.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
November 1994
January 1999

Issued
Revision

Not printed with State funds

January 2000
January 2002

Technical Correction
Technical Correction

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and
Miscellaneous Steel Specification
Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................. 2

3. Definitions .................................... 4

5.4 High-Strength Bolt Assemblies.......... 7


5.5 Standard Bolt Assemblies ................. 7
5.6 Headed Studs.................................... 7
5.7 Welding Filler Metal ........................... 7
5.8 Crane Rails........................................ 8
5.9 Checkered-Floor Plate ...................... 8
5.10 Welded-Steel Bar Grating and
Grating Stair Treads .......................... 8
5.11 Steel Deck ......................................... 8
5.12 Steel Joists ........................................ 8

4. General ......................................... 5

6. Execution ..................................... 8

1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2


1.2 Scope................................................. 2

2. References.................................... 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices................ 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards.......... 2
2.3 Government Regulations................... 4

4.1 Quality Control................................... 5


4.2 Submittals .......................................... 5
4.3 Performance Requirements .............. 6

5. Products and Materials ............... 6

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Connections....................................... 8
Erection and Shop Drawings........... 13
Fabrication....................................... 14
Galvanizing...................................... 15
Handling, Shipping, and Delivery .... 16

5.1 Structural Shapes, Plates, and


Bars ................................................... 6
5.2 Pipe.................................................... 7
5.3 Structural Tubing ............................... 7

Process Industry Practices

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

1.

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

Introduction
1.1

Purpose
This Process Industry Practice (Practice) provides the structural steel fabricator with
a specification for fabrication of structural and miscellaneous steel.

1.2

Scope
This Practice describes the requirements for all material, connections, detailing,
fabrication, galvanizing, and delivery of structural and miscellaneous steel.
Any conflicts or inconsistencies between this Practice, design drawings, or other
contract documents shall be brought to the attention of the buyer for resolution.

2.

References
When adopted in this Practice or in the contract documents, the latest edition of the following
codes, standards, specifications, and references in effect on the date of contract award shall be
used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate.
2.1

Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP STS05130 - Erection of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

2.2

Industry Codes and Standards


American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD) of Simple Shear Connections
AISC Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
AISC Detailing for Steel Construction
AISC Engineering for Steel Construction: A Source Book on Connections
AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Simple Shear
Connections
AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings
AISC Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
AISC Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD)
AISC Manual of Steel Construction: Volume II Connections (ASD/LRFD)
AISC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and
Plastic Design
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A1 - Carbon Steel Tee Rails

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

ASTM A6/A6M - Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet
Piling
ASTM A36/A36M - Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A53 - Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and
Seamless
ASTM A106 - Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A108 - Steel Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard Quality
ASTM A123 - Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products
ASTM A143 - Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized
Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement
ASTM A153/A153M - Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware
ASTM A307 - Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength
ASTM A325 - Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum
Tensile Strength. AASHTO No. M164
ASTM A325M - High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints (Metric)
AASHTO M164M
ASTM A384 - Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip
Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies
ASTM A385 - Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip)
ASTM A490 - Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts, 150 ksi Minimum Tensile
Strength
ASTM A490M High-Strength Steel Bolts, Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for
Structural Steel Joints (Metric) AASHTO M253M
ASTM A500 - Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural
Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
ASTM A501 - Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural
Tubing
ASTM A563 - Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
ASTM A563M - Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric) AASHTO M291M
ASTM A569/A569M - Steel, Carbon (0.15 Maximum Percent), Hot-Rolled
Sheet and Strip, Commercial Quality
ASTM A572/A572M - High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium
Structural Steel
ASTM A759 - Carbon Steel Crane Rails
ASTM A780 - Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized
Coatings
ASTM A786/A786M - Rolled Steel Floor Plates
ASTM A992/A992M - Steel for Structural Shapes for Use in Building
Framing
ASTM B695 - Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel

Process Industry Practices

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

ASTM E376 - Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or


Eddy-Current (Electromagnetic) Test Methods
ASTM F436/F436M - Hardened Steel Washers AASHTO M293
ASTM F606/F606M - Standard Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical
Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, and
Rivets
ASTM F959/F959M - Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators
for Use with Structural Fasteners
American Welding Society (AWS)
AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code - Steel
AWS D1.3 - Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel
AWS QC1 - Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors
National Association of Architectural Metals Manufacturers (NAAMM)
NAAMM MBG 531 - Metal Bar Grating Manual
Steel Deck Institute (SDI)
SDI Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks and Roof Decks No. 30
Steel Joist Institute (SJI)
SJI Standard Specifications and Load Tables
2.3

Government Regulations
Requirements by state or local agencies that have jurisdiction where the structural
steel is to be erected shall apply.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910
OSHA 29 CFR Part 1926

3.

Definitions
buyer: The party that awards the contract to the fabricator. The buyer may be the owner or
the owners authorized agent.
contract documents: Any and all documents, including design drawings, that the buyer has
transmitted or otherwise communicated, either by incorporation or reference, and made part
of the legal contract agreement or purchase order between the buyer and the fabricator
engineer of record: The buyers authorized representative with overall authority and
responsibility for the structural design
fabricator: The party responsible for furnishing fabricated structural and miscellaneous steel
owner: The owner of the proposed structure

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

professional engineer: An engineer registered or licensed to practice engineering as defined


by the statutory laws of the locality in which the project is to be constructed

4.

General
4.1

Quality Control
4.1.1

Unless exempted by the buyer, the fabricator shall be certified for Complex
Steel Buildings (Cbd) by AISC.

4.1.2

The fabricator shall be solely responsible for quality control of all materials
and workmanship.

4.1.3

Each piece of mill material shall be legibly marked with the heat number,
size of section, length, and mill identification marks in accordance with
ASTM A6/A6M plus the fabrication mill order number. Alternate material
tracking procedures may be used when approved by the buyer.

4.1.4

The fabricator shall have a written material handling procedure, quality


control program, and inspection procedures document that shall provide
details of how compliance with the requirements in this Practice and the
design drawings shall be achieved.

4.1.5

The buyer has the right to inspect all materials and workmanship and shall
have unrestricted entry to the shop of the fabricator at all times while work is
being performed.

4.1.6

The buyer may reject improper, inferior, defective, or unsuitable materials


and workmanship. All materials and workmanship rejected shall be repaired
or replaced by the fabricator as directed by the buyer.

4.1.7

Welding procedures and individual welders shall be qualified in accordance


with the requirements of AWS D1.1.

4.1.8

Welding procedures previously qualified for the buyer may be used without
requalification. However, the buyer reserves the right to require
requalification of any questionable procedure before the start of fabrication.

4.1.9

The fabricators inspectors shall be qualified and certified as AWS Certified


Welding Inspectors in accordance with the provisions of AWS D1.1 or
AWS QC1, or shall be trained by and working under the supervision of an
AWS Certified Welding Inspector.

4.1.10 Certified mill test reports for each heat of structural steel and each lot of
high-strength bolts shall be available for review by the buyer.
4.1.11 The buyer may require a quantity of representative samples of bolt
assemblies that the fabricator shall supply to the buyer for testing. Testing in
accordance with ASTM F606/F606M will be at the buyers expense.
4.2

Submittals
4.2.1

Process Industry Practices

Unless indicated elsewhere in the contract documents, the fabricator shall


submit, as a minimum, the following documents to the buyer before the start
of fabrication:

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

a. One set of checked, reproducible erection and shop drawings


b. One set of sample engineering calculations for each type of the
fabricator-designed connection
c. Quality Control Program and Inspection Procedures
d. Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
e. Procedure Qualification Records (PQR)
f.

Welder(s) qualification records

4.2.2

One set of reproducible final erection drawings, shop drawings, and field bolt
lists shall be sent to the persons responsible for managing construction at
their field office by next-day delivery before the shipment of steel. A
shipping list (including total weight of release and weight of shipment), a
bolt list, and one set of final erection drawings shall accompany the first
shipment of each release.

4.2.3

The fabricator shall submit, as a minimum, the following documents to the


buyer for record purposes:
a. One set of reproducible final erection and shop drawings
b. Records of quality control inspection test reports requested by the buyer
c. One set of final sample engineering calculations for each type of the
fabricator-designed connection sealed and signed by the responsible
professional engineer
d. Records of calibration or recalibration performed on the tools or
equipment used by the fabricator during the work, if requested by the
buyer

4.3

5.

Performance Requirements
4.3.1

All work covered by this Practice shall conform to the AISC Code of
Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges; either the AISC
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and
Plastic Design or the AISC LRFD Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings; applicable portions of OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910 and Part 1926;
and any other applicable federal, state, or local requirements.

4.3.2

If local specifications, codes, or standards exist for the materials, section


properties, design, and test methods covered by this Practice that yield
equivalent quality and performance, they may be substituted only with prior
written approval by the buyer.

Products and Materials


5.1

Structural Shapes, Plates, and Bars


Structural steel wide-flange shapes, including WT shapes, shall be in accordance with
ASTM A992/A992M, unless otherwise specified in the contract documents. All other

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

structural shapes, plates, and bars shall be in accordance with ASTMA36/A36M,


unless otherwise specified in the contract documents.
5.2

Pipe
ASTM A53 Type E or S, Grade B or ASTM A106 Grade B

5.3

Structural Tubing
ASTM A501 or ASTM A500 Grade B

5.4

5.5

5.6

High-Strength Bolt Assemblies

Bolt ASTM A325/A325M Type 1 or ASTM A490/A490M, if specified on the


design drawings

Washer ASTM F436/F436M

Direct tension indicator (DTI) washers ASTM F959/F959M, when specified


in the contract documents

Heavy hex nut ASTM A563/A563M Grade DH

Standard Bolt Assemblies

Bolt ASTM A307 Grade A heavy hex

Washer ASTM F436/F436M

Heavy hex nut ASTM A563/A563M Grade A

Headed Studs
ASTM A108 Grade 1010 through Grade 1020, AWS D1.1 Section 7, Type B

5.7

Welding Filler Metal


AWS D1.1, Section 3.3 (including Table 3.1), low hydrogen with an electrode
strength of 58-ksi (400-MPa) minimum yield strength and 70ksi (480MPa)
minimum tensile strength. (For example, use E70XX for SMAW, F7XX-EXXX for
SAW, ER70S-X for GMAW, and E7XT-X for FCAW.) However, E60XX electrodes
may be used for tack welding.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

5.8

5.9

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

Crane Rails

Rails 60 lb/yd to 84 lb/yd (30 kg/m to 42 kg/m) - ASTM A1

Rails 104 lb/yd to 175 lb/yd (52 kg/m to 88 kg/m) - ASTM A759

Checkered-Floor Plate
ASTM A786/A786M Pattern 4 or Pattern 5 and ASTM A36/A36M

5.10

Welded-Steel Bar Grating and Grating Stair Treads


ASTM A569/A569M, galvanized in accordance with ASTM A123 and
NAAMM MBG 531. Top surface of bearing bars shall be plain unless serrated is
specified. Grating stair treads shall have abrasive- or checkered-plate nosing.

5.11

Steel Deck
SDI Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks and Roof Decks No. 30

5.12

Steel Joists
SJI Standard Specifications and Load Tables

6.

Execution
6.1

Connections
6.1.1

All connections shall be either engineer-designed, fabricator-selected, or


fabricator-designed. Unless otherwise noted on the contract documents, all
connections not fully detailed on the design drawings shall be fabricatorselected.

6.1.2

Engineer-Designed Connections
6.1.2.1 Engineer-designed connections will be fully designed and detailed
on the design drawings and shall be furnished as shown.
6.1.2.2 Engineer-designed connections shall be only those connections fully
detailed on the design drawings, showing all fastener sizes,
arrangement, dimensions, quantities and grades, and all connection
material and weld types, sizes, and lengths for each individual
member or part to be joined. The fabricator shall reflect this
information on shop drawings.
6.1.2.3 Any request to deviate from the specific details of any engineerdesigned connection by the fabricator must be in writing, with
written approval of the engineer of record. Approval of this submittal
constitutes acceptance by the engineer of record of design
responsibility for the structural adequacy of the changed detail.

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

6.1.3

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

Fabricator-Selected Connections
6.1.3.1 Fabricator-selected connections shall be those for which the engineer
of record has authority and responsibility for the design adequacy
and the fabricator has authority and responsibility for the detailing.
6.1.3.2 Fabricator-selected connections are usually simple connections
(shear only). The fabricator shall detail these connections by
selecting standard details from the accepted standards listed in
Section 2.2 and shall meet all other requirements in the contract
documents.
6.1.3.3 The approval by the engineer of record of shop drawings detailing
the fabricator-selected connections constitutes acceptance by the
engineer of record of design responsibility for the structural
adequacy, but not the detailing, of the approved the fabricatorselected connections.

6.1.4

Fabricator-Designed Connections
6.1.4.1 Fabricator-designed connections shall be designed and detailed by
the fabricator to carry all loads shown on the design drawings or as
provided in the contract documents.
6.1.4.2 The fabricator shall have a professional engineer design or supervise
the design of all fabricator-designed connections.
6.1.4.3 Fabricator-designed connections shall meet all requirements of the
contract documents. In all cases, the design shall consider the entire
joint (including beams, girders, columns, and bracing) and shall take
into account bolt shear, combined bolt tension and shear, prying
action, local bending, coped beam capacities, block shear, web
buckling, etc. The fabricator shall design and furnish stiffeners for
column webs, column flanges, and elements of other members
involved as required.
6.1.4.4 Sample engineering calculations for each type of the fabricatordesigned connection shall be sealed and signed by the responsible
professional engineer who designed or supervised the design of the
connections. Additionally, when required by the contract documents,
all shop drawings containing fabricator-designed connections shall
be sealed and signed by the responsible professional engineer.
6.1.4.5 Review of shop drawings detailing fabricator-designed connections
and engineering calculation sheets by the engineer of record does not
relieve the fabricator of responsibility for both the design adequacy
and detailing of connections designed by the fabricator.

6.1.5

Bolted Connections
6.1.5.1 Design, detailing, and fabrication of bolted connections shall be in
accordance with either the AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD) or
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method, as noted in the
contract documents.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

6.1.5.2 Connection design shall conform to the following standards:


a. AISC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or
A490 Bolts
b. AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD) or AISC Manual of
Steel Construction (LRFD)
c. AISC Manual of Steel Construction: Volume II, (ASD/LRFD)
d. AISC Detailing for Steel Construction
6.1.5.3 The minimum design capacity of all bolted, or mixed bolted and
welded, framed-beam connections shall be the member end reaction
shown on the design drawings. When the member end reaction is not
shown, the minimum design capacity shall be one-half of the total
uniform load capacity as shown in the Allowable Uniform Load
Tables in Part 2 of the AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD) for
the given beam size, span, and grade of material, unless otherwise
specified in the contract documents.
6.1.5.4 ASTM A325/A325M high-strength bolts, 3/4 inch (20 mm) in
diameter, shall be used in all bolted structural connections, unless
otherwise noted in the contract documents. However, larger
ASTM A325/A325M bolts may be used when required to meet
connection capacity requirements.
6.1.5.5 ASTM A307 bolts, 5/8 inch (16 mm) or smaller diameter, are
permitted for ladder, stair tread, purlin, girt, door frame, and handrail
connections. ASTM A307 bolts larger than 5/8 inch (16 mm) shall not
be used.
6.1.5.6 The minimum number of bolts in a framed-beam connection shall be
two.
6.1.5.7 High-strength bolted connections shall be bearing type with threads
included in the shear plane (type A325-N). Slip-critical type (type
A325-SC) shall be used when noted in the contract documents.
6.1.5.8 All boltholes shall be standard holes with a diameter of 1/16inch
(1mm) larger than the nominal bolt diameter, unless otherwise
specified on the design drawings or noted in the following
subsections.
6.1.5.9 For framed-beam bearing connections, horizontal short-slotted holes
may be used in the outstanding leg of clip angles when approved by
the engineer of record.
6.1.5.10 For framed-beam slip-critical connections, oversized or horizontal
short-slotted holes may be used in the outstanding leg of clip angles
when approved by the engineer of record.
6.1.5.11 For slotted holes, the long direction of the slot shall be perpendicular
to the load direction, unless otherwise approved by the engineer of
record. All slotted or oversized hole dimensions shall be per Table 1
of the AISC ASD Specification for Structural Joints Using

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts or AISC LRFD Specification for


Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts.
6.1.5.12 Hardened washers shall be provided under all bolt heads and/or nuts
adjacent to any ply with oversized or slotted holes. For standard
holes, a minimum of one hardened washer shall be supplied with
each bolt.
6.1.5.13 If used, direct tension indicator washers shall conform to
ASTM F959/F959M and shall be installed according to the
manufacturers published specifications.
6.1.5.14 A minimum of 5% extra quantities of each bolt size and length,
including nuts and washers, shall be furnished by the fabricator for
field erection.
6.1.5.15 Mechanically galvanized bolts or nuts shall not be interchanged with
hot-dipped galvanized nuts or bolts, respectively.
6.1.5.16 All column splices shall be field-bolted and shall conform to AISC
Detailing for Steel Construction, Appendix C.
6.1.5.17 All nuts for high-strength bolts shall be wax-dipped to reduce torque
during installation.
6.1.5.18 Each bolt component shall be clearly marked with the
manufacturers identification.
6.1.5.19 As required by OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart R, when two structural
members on opposite sides of a column web, or a beam web over a
column, are connected sharing common connection holes, the
fabricator shall provide a means of supporting one member while
erecting the other member. Unless the means of support is indicated
in the contract documents, the fabricator may provide one additional
row of bolts in the member to be erected first, an erection seat for the
member to be erected first, or other suitable means. Unless additional
loading is indicated, the erection seat shall be sized and attached to
the column or supporting beam web with sufficient bolts to support
the dead weight of the member. See the OSHA document for
additional information.
6.1.6

Welded Connections
6.1.6.1 Design, detailing, and fabrication of welded connections shall be in
accordance with either the AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD) or
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method, as noted in the
contract documents.
6.1.6.2 ASD-based welded connection design shall conform to AWS D1.1,
AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD), AISC Manual of Steel
Construction: Volume II Connections (ASD/LRFD), and AISC
Detailing for Steel Construction.
6.1.6.3 LRFD-based welded connection design shall conform to AWS D1.1,
AISC Manual of Steel Construction (LRFD), and AISC Detailing for
Steel Construction.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

6.1.6.4 The minimum design capacity of all welded framed-beam


connections shall be the member end reaction shown on the design
drawings. When the member end reaction is not shown, the
minimum design capacity shall be one-half of the total uniform load
capacity as shown in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables in Part 2
of the AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD) for the given beam
size, span, and grade of material, unless otherwise specified in the
contract documents.
6.1.6.5 The minimum fillet weld size is 3/16 inch (5 mm) for structural
welds. Seal welds may be 1/8-inch (3-mm) minimum fillet weld.
6.1.6.6 Welds shall be continuous, unless otherwise approved by the
engineer of record.
6.1.6.7 The fabricator shall design and install erection clips for field-welded
connections.
6.1.6.8 The fabricator shall remove all run-off bars and extension tabs.
6.1.7

Shop and Field Connections


6.1.7.1 All field connections shall be bolted and all shop connections shall
be either bolted or welded, unless otherwise shown on the design
drawings.
6.1.7.2 To ensure electrical continuity when shop-applying nonconductive
coatings (i.e., epoxies), all contact surfaces shall be masked, unless
otherwise noted in the contract documents. All locations of no-paint
or areas requiring full masking or strip masking shall be noted on the
shop drawings.

6.1.8

Bracing Connections
6.1.8.1 Unless otherwise noted on the design drawings, connections for
preassembled bracing and truss members shall be designed for the
forces shown on the design drawings; however, not less than 50% of
the allowable tension capacity of the member or 6 kips, whichever is
greater. The allowable tension capacity shall be calculated using the
gross cross section of the member. A minimum of two bolts per
connection is required.
6.1.8.2 All cross bracing shall be bolted at intersections with a one-bolt
minimum for angles and a two-bolts minimum for tees.
6.1.8.3 All heavy bracing connections, including gusset plates, shall be
designed according to either the AISC Manual of Steel Construction:
Volume II Connections (ASD/LRFD), Chapter 7 or the AISC Manual
of Steel Construction (LRFD), as applicable.
6.1.8.4 All gusset and stiffener plates shall be of 3/8-inch (10-mm) minimum
thickness.
6.1.8.5 All vertical bracing and knee bracing shall have gusset plates on
column centerlines, unless otherwise noted on the design drawings.

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

6.1.8.6 Unless otherwise noted on the design drawings, the following


working points shall be used:
a. For vertical bracing at the intersection of a column, beam, and
brace, the gusset plate shall be connected to both the beam and
column. The work point shall be the point at which the beam
and the column centerlines intersect.
b. For the connection of K-braces to nominal beams 10 inches
(250 mm) or smaller, the working point shall be the intersection
of the horizontal centerline of the beam and the centerline of the
bay.
c. For the connection of K-braces to nominal beams 12 inches
(300 mm) or larger, the working point shall be the intersection
of a horizontal line 5-inches (125-mm) below the top flange
when the brace is above the beam, or 5-inches (125-mm) above
the bottom flange when the brace is below the beam and the
centerline of the bay.
6.1.9

Connections for Concrete Fireproofed Members


6.1.9.1 Connections for members fireproofed with concrete shall be detailed
to minimize blockouts in shop-applied fireproofing.
6.1.9.2 Gusset plates for vertical or horizontal bracing members and singleplate shear connections for beams shall extend outside fireproofing
for a sufficient length to make the connection with the fireproofing in
place.
6.1.9.3 Handrails shall not be connected to fireproofed columns.

6.2

Erection and Shop Drawings


6.2.1

Shop drawings and erection drawings shall be prepared in accordance with


the AISC documents listed in this Practice.

6.2.2

Erection drawings shall reference the corresponding design drawings; shop


drawings shall reference the corresponding erection drawings.

6.2.3

Shop drawings shall clearly show the specification and grade of steel to be
used.

6.2.4

Erection and shop drawings shall be grouped in sets and identified separately
for each building, structure, or yard area.

6.2.5

Erection drawings shall clearly show the mark number and position for each
member.

6.2.6

The buyers purchase order number shall be shown on all erection and shop
drawings.

6.2.7

Shop drawings shall state the welding electrode to be used.

6.2.8

Surface preparation and shop-applied coatings, including areas to be masked,


shall be noted on the shop drawings.

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

6.2.9

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

The fabricator shall provide a bolt list and a list of other fasteners showing
the number, grade, size, and length of field bolts and other fasteners for each
connection. These lists may be shown on either the shop drawings or separate
sheets.

6.2.10 In the event that drawing revisions are necessary, the fabricator shall clearly
flag onto the shop drawings all changes showing the latest revisions.
6.3

Fabrication
6.3.1

All fabrication shall be in accordance with the AISC Code of Standard


Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges and either the AISC Specification
for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design or
the AISC LRFD Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, as applicable,
subject to modification by the contract documents, state or local laws, and
building codes.

6.3.2

All welding shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1.

6.3.3

Shop splices, substitutions of member sizes, or changes in details or


dimensions shall not be permitted without written authorization from the
engineer of record.

6.3.4

All beams, except cantilevers, shall be fabricated with natural mill camber in
the up position.

6.3.5

All re-entrant corners shall be shaped, notched-free, to a radius.

6.3.6

The fabricator, when performing shop assembly work, shall not exceed the
tolerances specified in AISC Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings
and Bridges, Section 7.11.

6.3.7

All pieces shall be clearly marked with a permanent identifying erection


mark number. The fabricator shall obtain approval for the method and
location of marking from the buyer.

6.3.8

Before surface preparation, the fabricator shall remove all sharp corners,
burrs (including bolthole burrs), weld spatter, slag, weld flux, loose mill
scale, and other foreign matter.

6.3.9

Platforms, stairways, and handrails shall be shop-assembled in the largest


units suitable for handling and shipping. Ladder cages shall be shopassembled on ladders.

6.3.10 The method for fastening grating shall be as specified on the design
drawings. A minimum of two fasteners per panel shall be used at each
support, with a minimum of four fasteners per panel. The fabricator shall
supply the fasteners, including 5% extra to cover losses.
6.3.11 Grating/checkered-plate openings dimensioned on the design drawings shall
be cut and banded in the shop as shown on the design drawing.
Undimensioned grating/checkered-plate openings will be cut in the field by
others.
6.3.12 Joints perpendicular to the span of grating and checkered-plate flooring shall
occur only over support members.

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

6.3.13 Checkered plate shall have 1/2-inch (12-mm) diameter drain holes provided
for each 20 square feet (2 square meters) of area, with a minimum of one
hole per panel.
6.4

Galvanizing
6.4.1

All materials, except ASTM A490 bolts, ASTM A490M bolts, and crane rails,
shall be galvanized, unless otherwise noted in the contract documents.

6.4.2

Galvanizing of steel shapes, plates, and hardware shall be in accordance with


the following ASTM specifications:
a. Steel shapes and plates - ASTM A123
b. ASTM A325/A325M bolts and corresponding nuts and washers
ASTM B695 (or ASTM A153/A153M, when approved by the buyer)
c. ASTM A36/A36M threaded bar or ASTM A307 bolts and corresponding
nuts and washers - ASTM A153/A153M or ASTM B695

6.4.3

General Fabrication
6.4.3.1 It shall be the fabricators responsibility to safeguard against
embrittlement and warpage per ASTM A143 and ASTM A384.
Fabrication details shall meet the requirements of ASTM A385 to
allow for the creation of high-quality zinc coatings.
6.4.3.2 Whenever practical, cutting, drilling, and welding shall be performed
before galvanizing. The fabricator shall remove weld slag before
galvanizing.
6.4.3.3 The edges of tightly contacting surfaces shall be completely seal
welded.
6.4.3.4 Vent holes shall be provided for piping or tubular assemblies as
required by ASTM A385.
6.4.3.5 Potential problems that require a modification in design shall be
brought to the attention of the buyer by the fabricator before
proceeding.

6.4.4

Galvanizing of Steel Hardware


6.4.4.1 Nuts shall be tapped oversize in accordance with
ASTM A563/A563M.
6.4.4.2 Nut threads shall be retapped after hot-dip galvanizing to provide a
proper fit.
6.4.4.3 Direct tension indicators, if used, shall be mechanically galvanized
by the manufacturer according to the requirements of Class 50 of
ASTM B695.

6.4.5

Inspection of Galvanized Steel


The buyer reserves the right to inspect and reject all galvanized steel in
accordance with ASTM A123 and ASTM E376.

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PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

6.4.6

TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

Repair of Galvanized Steel


6.4.6.1 Any damage to galvanizing shall be repaired in accordance with
ASTM A780.
6.4.6.2 Before repair of damaged galvanized coating, the exposed substrate
metal shall be cleaned to bright metal and free of all visual rust, oil,
or grease. Any nonadhering galvanizing shall be removed to the
extent that the surrounding galvanizing is integral and adherent.
6.4.6.3 When surface defects exceed 2% of a members area, the defects
shall be repaired by redipping the member in the zinc bath.
6.4.6.4 Cold repair using an organic zinc-rich coating is allowed if the total
damaged area is less than 1% of the total coated area of the member
being repaired and no single repair is greater than 2 square inches
(1,300 mm2) or 12inches (300mm) long. The dry film thickness
shall be 2 mils to 3 mils (0.05 mm to 0.08 mm) and contain a
minimum of 65% zinc dust by weight.
6.4.6.5 Hot repairs shall be made in the shop if any of the following
conditions exist:
a. Total damaged area is greater than 1%, but less than 2%, of the
total coated area of the member being repaired
b. Any single repair is at least 2 square inches (1,300 mm2) in area
c. Any single repair is 12inches (300mm) long or more
6.4.6.6 Hot repairs shall be made using zinc alloy rod or powder
manufactured for the repair of galvanized steel.
6.4.6.7 Flux, heavy ash, or heavy dross inclusions shall be removed by
brushing, grinding, or filing as required.
6.4.6.8 Galvanized steel that has been rejected shall be stripped,
regalvanized, and submitted again for inspection.
6.4.6.9 Correction of excessive warpage (that exceeds ASTM A6/A6M
criteria) shall be by press straightening when possible. The
application of localized heating to straighten must be approved by
the engineer of record.
6.4.6.10 If galvanized tension control bolts are used, all bare steel surfaces
(i.e., bolt ends) shall be repair galvanized per this section.

6.5

Handling, Shipping, and Delivery


6.5.1

Handling and Shipping


6.5.1.1 Delivery of steel shall be made in the order needed for erection. The
delivery sequence for the fabricated steel, unless otherwise noted in
the contract documents or arranged by the buyer, shall be as follows:
loose base plates, steel embedded in concrete, erection bolts, first-tier
columns and framing for all its levels (including stairs and handrail),
second-tier columns and its framing, etc.

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION
January 2002

PIP STS05120
Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Specification

6.5.1.2 All bolts, washers, and nuts shall be packaged and delivered in rigid
(not cardboard), weatherproof containers.
6.5.1.3 Railcars and/or trucks shall be loaded and cribbed so that others can
readily unload them. Load in such a manner that continuous drainage
will occur.
6.5.1.4 The fabricator shall ensure that all steel and its coatings are protected
from any damage caused by handling, storage, or shipping before
receipt by the buyer.
6.5.1.5 The fabricator shall ensure that adequate protection is provided for
threads on sag rods and any other threaded components to prevent
damage during shipping and handling.
6.5.2

Delivery
6.5.2.1 The fabricator is responsible for delivering all materials and
documentation to the job site in good condition. All materials and
documentation will be inspected immediately upon receipt by the
buyer to determine that all items included in the Bill of Materials
have been supplied, to assure that all documentation has been
received, and to check for any damage.
6.5.2.2 The buyer reserves the right to reject all damaged or below-quality
material or documentation.

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