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# 1

Introduction
2
Objective
2
Equipment
3
Method
3
Results
7
Analysis and
Discussion
15
Conclusion
19
Appendix
A
20
References

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Eye Diagram
Introduction:
TIMS is a telecommunication modeling system and can model mathematical
equations

and

represents

block

diagrams

or

electrical

signals

representing

## telecommunication systems. Telecommunication instructional modeling system can

understand the concepts about telecommunication theory. All the universities of the
world used this for communication laboratory experiments. Eye diagram is a best
method for the evaluation of digital signals quickly and can build all the possible bit
sequence of 101 and 010. Another method called snap-shot which is used to view the
sequence as a single trace. The purpose of this experiment is the use of TIMS
(telecommunication modeling system) instead of eye diagram to examine data
transmission quality.
Objective:
The main objective of this experiment is to analyze the data transmission quality
using eye diagram in simulated channels with the help of telecommunication
Instructional Modelling System (TIMS). In this experiment, two types of circuits was set
and compared them. The one of them is the snap-shot model in which sequence is
observed as single trace with the use of 32 bit short sequence. Another model is formed
with 256 bit long sequence of messages signals and as a result we will get a sequence
in eye diagram. Both methods will start with frequency of 2 kHz to observe the output
diagram and increased the frequency to observe different results.

Equipment:
Equipment used in this experiment is listed below:

Sequence generator
TIMS rack
Audio oscillator
2 power cables, 5 signal cable
Base band channel filters
Oscilloscope

Method:
In this experiment, two methods are used to analyze the sequence of pulses.
1) Snap-shot
Experimental plan for snap-shot is shown below:

## Figure 1: Experimental plan for snap-shot method

We found the oscilloscope and TIMS modules: sequence generator, audio oscillator
and base band channel filter and picked up two power cables for TIM rack, five
signal cables and oscilloscope. Snap shot circuit diagram is shown below:

## Figure 2: Snap-shot Circuit

We found the on-board switch SW2 on sequence generator and set both of the

## toggles to switch OFF to generate a message signal of 32 bit sequence.

Plug the oscillator, sequence generator and the base band channel filter into the

## TIMS rack completely.

Two power cables are used to connect the oscilloscope and TIMS rack to power
sockets and five signal cables were used to complete the circuit diagram as shown

in figure 2.
Turned on the oscilloscope and TIMS rack
Oscilloscope is synchronized by using synchronizing signal.
By selecting filter 1, pressed the Autoset button and stable waveform displayed on
the oscilloscope quickly and adjusted the input data rate at 2 kbps by using rotary
knob and also adjusted the time base of the oscilloscope to show 10 to 20 pulses

## on each signal of the oscilloscope.

After that measured the maximum practical data rate through filter by changing

## frequency of the audio oscillator and recorded the waveform.

Now, increased the frequency via oscilloscope until too much distortion produces to

recover the original sequence, recorded waveform and the resulted data rate.
Then, selected the filters (2,3 and 4) one by one respectively and repeated the
steps again.
Channel 2: Butterworth filter, 7th order
Channel 3: Bessel filter, 7th order
Channel 4: Linear phase filter

2) Eye pattern
Experimental plan for eye-diagram is shown below:

## Figure 4: Eye diagram circuit

Adjusted both toggles of the on-board switch SW2 of sequence generator until a

## larger sequence is obtained to build a large amount of pattern.

Then changed the external trigger from the SYNC output of the sequence

## generator to the sequence the bit clock

Adjust the persistent time to 500 ms by using display menu on the oscilloscope

## and confirm that the oscilloscope is adjusted to DC pass.

Selected the channel filters 2, 3 and 4 one by one respectively and repeated the
steps again and increased the data rate from 2kbps until eye started to close and
determined waveform and maximum data rate and recorded values.

Results:
1) Snap-shot Method:
Maximum data rate and excessive data rate that we calculated is tabulated below:
Straight Through

Butterworth

Bessel

Linear

(Filter 1)
NA*

(Filter 2)
4 kbps

(Filter 3)
3.1 kbps

(Filter 4)
4.3 kbps

NA*

5 kbps

4.5 kbps

5 kbps

Filter Type
Maximum data rate
Data rate of
excessive
distortion

o From this table, it is conclude that no data rate of excessive distortion and maximum
data rate were recorded due to no distortion for the straight through filter. But we
only recorded distortion less waveform at the maximum data rate.
o For excessive distortion data rate, set the data rate at high level than the maximum
data rate to display and record the distortion waveforms for analysis.
Waveforms at maximum data rate with excessive distortion are shown below:

10

## Figure 9: Bessel filter with excessive distortion (4.5 kbps)

11

Figure 10: Linear phase filter at maximum data rate (4.3 kbps)

## Figure 11: Linear phase filter with excessive distortion (5 kbps)

2) Eye Pattern:

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Excessive data rate and maximum data rate for eye pattern method determined was
Straight Through

Butterworth

Bessel

Linear

Filter Type
(Filter 1)

(Filter 2)

(Filter 3)

(Filter 4)

Data rate of

NA*

4 kbps

3.2 kbps

4 kbps

excessive

NA*

4.5 kbps

4 kbps

4.5 kbps

distortion

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14

15

## Figure 17: Linear phase filter at maximum data rate (4 kbps)

Figure 18: Linear phase filter with excessive distortion (4.5 kbps)

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## Figure 19: Sample eye diagram

It is concluded that
o The steeper the slope, the less sensitivity to timing errors
o The thicker the band, the more noise will produce and the less attenuation or
losses will produce.
o The band will be thicker for more timing jitter.
o The timing rate at which the signal can be sampled successfully called sample
timing range.
o The instant at which the eye vertical height is maximum called best sample time
o The reference voltage level to judge logic 0 and 1 called threshold voltage. Above
the threshold, the pulse voltage is 1 and is 0 for below than threshold.
o The distance of signal voltage and threshold voltage at sampling time is called
Noise margin.
Effect of bandwidth on maximum data rate and its relationship is shown
below:

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## It is concluded that the minimum bandwidth requirement can be expressed as:

Bmin = 1/T = 1/2Tp =

1/2 C. Its mean that the data rate should be half if minimum

bandwidth is required
From table 1 and 2, we compared the maximum date rate of snap shot
method with eye diagram
Straight Through

Butterworth

Bessel

Linear

(Filter 1)
NA*

(Filter 2)
4 kbps

(Filter 3)
3.1 kbps

(Filter 4)
4.3 kbps

NA*

4 kbps

3.2 kbps

4 kbps

Filter Type
Maximum data rate
Data rate of
excessive
distortion

From this table, concluded that the results are vary close for both methods but it
is very difficult to get accurate results from snap shot method because eye diagram is
very accurate method and its value will be taken as final value. Signals obtained from
eye diagram are more accurate than snap shot method and can be sampled. There are
different noise margins but the largest noise margin is best. So, the best sample time is
at a point when height of eye will be large.
Limited Bandwidth:
It is concluded that high frequencies above the channel width will not be able to

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pass and will results round effect on pulse edge and the pulse width will be spread out
to adjacent symbol and will interfere with each other due to ISI. It affects both the signal
amplitude and timing and this is one of the causes of the jitter.

Timing Jitter:
`

It is divided into two categories, deterministic and random. Random jitter is due to

flicker noise, thermal noise, short noise and other factors. Deterministic jitter also has
three types, duty cycle, and periodic jitter and inter symbol interface. Duty
Cycle Distortion (DCD) is produced because of adjusting incorrect threshold voltage,
asymmetric rising and falling edge rate is also the reason for it.
Losses:
Losses in transmission are inevitable and have three types of losses in
transmission line, conductor loss, dielectric loss and radiation loss. Transmission line
losses are non-linear and varies with frequency of the signal. Losses can reduce the
amplitude of the signal and non-linear losses can produce amplitude distortion.
Phase Delay:
Phase delay is known as the phase of the signal through transmission channel.
Different phase delay will produce due to different frequency components and can be
found in frequency response phase. The derivative of phase delay is known as group
delay and is a very important parameter in signal analysis. There is constant group delay
in linear phase frequency and have negative effects on waveform.

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Conclusion:
It is concluded that higher frequency means wider bandwidth and has main
contribution in high data rate. Higher roll-off-rate can increase more ISI and constantly time
delay leads to less distortion. Less attenuation will produce for more flat amplitude
frequency.
It is also concluded that in transmitting a digital signal without ISI through channel of
bandwidth B, the maximum symbol rate required is 2B. But for read transmission channel
with different characteristics, the value of max data rate can be different of the theoretical
value. We can take any approximate value of the theoretical value.
It is concluded that snap shot method is suitable for single parameter measurements
and assessments while eye diagram is the study of digital signal. Eye diagram is the best
method to analyze the causes of signal impairments and is more suitable, efficient and
accurate method. Signal should be sampled at right time with right value in digital
transmission.

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It is also concluded that the interference can be of limited bandwidth, noise, time
jitter, phase delay and losses. These factors can decrease noise margin and sample timing
range of the signal. Due to which, probability of bit error will be increased and will place a
limit on the max data rate that can be used.

Appendix(A):

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## Figure 21: Frequency response of Bessel 7th order LPF

References:

Blake, R. (2002). Electronic communication systems. New York, the United States

of America: Delmar.
Beasley, J. S., & Miller, G. M. (2008). Modern electronic communication. New

## Jersey, the United States of America: Pearson Education.

Smith, J. O. (2007). Linear-phase filters. Retrieved

May

5,

2011,

fromhttps://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters06/Linear_Phase_Filters_Symmetric_Im

pulse.html
Li, M. P. (2007). Jitter, noise, and signal integrity at high-speed. Boston, the United

## States of America: Pearson Education.

Williams, B, & Taylor, F. J. (2006). Electronic filter design handbook. New York, the