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cc02/06 Part No. 1873

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The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

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All information in this document, as well as the software to which it pertains, is proprietary material of ERDAS, Inc., and is subject to a ERDAS license
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ERDAS. Specifications are subject to change without notice.

About This Manual


This Introduction to LPS exercise manual is an instructional document designed to be a part of the Intermediate level courses offered by ERDAS Education Services. At the Intermediate level, the courses offered consist of the IMAGINE VirtualGIS, Using Imagery to Update Your GIS, Cartography with
Map Composer, and the Introduction to the LPS course. All ERDAS education courses provide corresponding instructional documentation.

Trademarks
ERDAS IMAGINE, IMAGINE Essentials, IMAGINE Advantage, IMAGINE Professional, IMAGINE GLT, TopoMouse, and Stereo Analyst are registered
trademarks of ERDAS. LPS, IMAGINE VirtualGIS, and CellArray are trademarks of ERDAS. Geospatial Imaging Chain is a service mark of ERDAS, Inc.
Other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.

Acknowledgments
The QuickBird imagery and associated data provided in this Photogrammetry Course and Exercise Manual are courtesy of DigitalGlobe, Longmont, CO.
Any use or distribution of this data by others, or outside the realm of ERDAS Education Services, is strictly prohibited.

iv

Introduction to LPS

Table of Contents
Table of Contents .........................................................................1
Using This Manual .........................................................................3

Section 1: Creating a Block


Exercise 1: Raw Scanned Imagery .................................................... 11
Challenge 1: Scale Variation .......................................................... 19
Exercise 2: LPS Setup Wizard ......................................................... 25
Exercise 3: Imagery Requirements ................................................... 35
Exercise 4: Inside the Sensor .......................................................... 41
Exercise 5: The Sensor in Space ...................................................... 51
Exercise 6: Take Control ............................................................... 55
Exercise 7: Building the Relationship ................................................ 83
Exercise 8: The Triangulation Results ............................................... 91

Section 2: DTM Extraction


Exercise 1: In Search of Z.............................................................. 97
Exercise 2: Visualizing Your DEM .................................................... 109
Exercise 3: Statistical DTM Evaluation.............................................. 113
Exercise 4: Verifying Results ......................................................... 117

Section 3: Creating and Working with Ortho Images


Exercise 1: Orthorectification ....................................................... 125
Exercise 2: Working with DigitalGlobe Data ....................................... 129
Exercise 3: Mosaic Images ............................................................ 147
Exercise 4: Visualizing Your Images ................................................. 153

ERDAS Customer Education

Introduction to LPS

Section 4: LPS Terrain Editor


Exercise 1: Introduction............................................................... 161
Exercise 2: DTM Editing Tools ........................................................ 177
Exercise 3: Setting a Constant Elevation ........................................... 189

Appendix
Appendix A - Geometric Models in LPS ............................................. 197
Appendix B - Terrain Editor Operators ............................................. 201

Introduction to LPS

Table of Contents

Using This Manual


Introduction
This manual contains step-by-step instructions on how to perform certain processes. You should be aware
that each exercise provides a single path through ERDAS IMAGINE and LPS tools. In most cases, there
are various ways to maximize tool usage, depending on the individual project.
This exercise manual is provided to the student, along with all images and copies of the presentation slides
used by the instructor. This provides the capability for recreating the processes performed in class at a
later date, as well as the key points on any theory involved.

Exercise Conventions
Section Title
Page

States the objective of the exercises and lists the application tools to be utilized
within the various tasks.

Exercise Tasks

Each exercise is split into a set of tasks. After the course, these tasks will help you
locate within the manual where you performed a certain set of steps.

Questions

These appear in a larger font with both bold and italic attributes. The instructor
may quiz and/or review with you, following each exercise.

Class Notes

These pages follow the end of each exercise on which notes from your studies can
be made.

ERDAS Customer Education

Introduction to LPS

Notational Conventions
Bold Italicized
Text

Any text, which is bold, indicates a filename, or parameter to be changed or


selected.

Graphics

To help you locate icons and objects used in the exercises, the icons will be next to
the icon name in the text.

Insets

These italicized captions will appear in the outside margin of the page. They define
terms or explain theory behind the steps you are being asked to perform.

Diagrams

These are an optional means to direct you in the usage of some of the applications tools.

The following graphics are also used for particular purposes:


This is a note or a quick tip. It gives additional relevant information, or describes other ways of using the software.

This is information relating to the application of the current


tools.

This is a reference. It provides additional theory or science


that will help in using the tools.

This is a warning. It cautions you regarding potential pitfalls


and how to avoid producing errors.

Introduction to LPS

Using This Manual

Mouse and Keyboard Conventions

ERDAS Customer Education

LMB

Left mouse button

MMB

Middle mouse button

RMB

Right mouse button

LMB + Shift

Hold down the Shift key plus left mouse button

Introduction to LPS

Windows Terminology

Title bar
Open file button

Radio button (enabled)


Radio button (disabled)
Text box with nudgers

Popup list

Checkbox (enabled)

Button (enabled)
Button (disabled)

Introduction to LPS

Using This Manual

The eWorkspace

ERDAS
Application
Menu
button

Hidden
panel

Quick
Access
Toolbar

Docked
panel

ERDAS Customer Education

Title bar

2D View

Active Layer type

Status Bar

Ribbon

Map View

Introduction to LPS

The Ribbon Explained


Unselected tab

Selected tab

Collapsed
Group

Group
Properties button

Introduction to LPS

Expanded
Group

Using This Manual

Section 1: Creating a Block

Section Objective
Students will use the ERDAS IMAGINE Viewer to study scanned images as well as examine the inherent
errors in raw imagery. This will help explain the need for orthorectification.
Subsequent exercises will guide you through the process of setting up LPS, entering information about the
sensor used, and adding control points.
Finally, the section will explain the triangulation process and how to evaluate the results of the process.

Tools Used
Viewer

Used to visualize imagery, zooming, inquiring and measuring features.

LPS Set Up
Wizard

Set up the basics parameters associated with a block.

Point
Measurement
Tool

Used to digitize and measure control and tie points on your imagery.

Triangulation
Report

View the statistics and residuals of a triangulation to evaluate accuracy and help
locate errors.

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Exercise 1: Raw Scanned Imagery


Objective:

Task 1: Setting
Session Preferences

To become familiar with the dataset and review the eWorkspace.

1. Start ERDAS IMAGINE.


The ERDAS IMAGINE eWorkspace opens.

2
4

5
7

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1) ERDAS Application
Menu button

Access to New, Open, Save, View, Print, Session,


Batch, Configuration, Preferences and Help.

2) Quick Access Menu

One-click access to commonly used functions.


Customizable.

3) Ribbon

Access to IMAGINE functions, collected in tabs and


groups

4) Title bar

Window Title, Window (Viewer) display icons: Minimize,


Maximize, Close

5) 2D View

Main Viewing space. Can add multiple views, Map


View, 3D View.

6) Contents Pane

Display and arrange all layers each View.

7) Shoebox

Organizes easily-accessed shortcuts to your data.

8) Status Bar

Cursor identification and image coordinates

2. From the eWorkspace, click the ERDAS Application button


.
From the menu, select Open > Raster Layer. The Select Layer to Add
dialog displays. This dialog is used throughout ERDAS IMAGINE.
3. From the ERDAS IMAGINE Main Menu select Session | Preferences. The Preference Editor displays.

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Section 1: Creating a Block

4. From the Category list, ensure that User Interface & Session is
selected. This displays the default preferences that are associated
with the data location and data properties.
5. As the Default Data Directory, type the path to where the course
data is located. (Your instructor will provide this information.)
6. As the Default Output Directory, type the path to where all outputs
generated in this course will be saved. (Your instructor will provide
this information.)
7. In the Category list, select Viewer, and the preferences for the
Viewer display.
8. Scroll down (vertical scroll bar on the right side) to the Clear Display,
Fit to Frame, and Background Transparent options.
By default, the Clear Display option is enabled and the Fit to Frame and Background Transparent options are disabled.
9. Enable the Fit to Frame and Background Transparent checkboxes
and disable the Clear Display checkbox to set these as new defaults
for the Raster Options dialog.

10. Click User Save and Close.

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Task 2: Display a
Raw Scanned Aerial
Photo

In this exercise we will be using the eWorkspace to view an image.

1. From the eWorkspace, click the ERDAS Application button


.
From the menu, select Open > Raster Layer. The Select Layer to Add
dialog displays.
2. In the Select Layer to Add, navigate to the LPS directory, and ensure
the Files of type is set to IMAGINE Image (*.img), then select the
file: 11_189.img
3. Before clicking Ok, click the Raster Options tab, ensure that the Fit
to Frame checkbox is enabled, and for the Layers to Colors, set
Red to 1, Green to 2 and Blue to 3, then click OK.

4. In the Attention dialog, disable the Always Ask checkbox and


click Yes.
We are calculating Pyramid Layers to facilitate quick viewing within IMAGINE. LPS pyramid layers are more complex
than IMAGINE pyramid layers, so we will ahve to recalculate them again later.

Task 3: Locating
and Identifying Features

In the next steps, you will identify a location on the image using the Inquire Cursor.

1. Right Mouse Button (RMB)


click on the image and from the
Quick View menu, select Inquire Cursor. This will start the Inquire
Cursor and display the Inquire Cursor dialog.
You may also select the Inquire Cursor by clicking on its
icon

from the Viewer toolbar.

2. Move the Inquire Cursor onto the image.

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Section 1: Creating a Block

3. In the Inquire Cursor dialog, click the pull-down arrow for Coordinate Type and select File.

What are the units of measurement the Coordinate Type-File is


using?

Where on the image is the origin of the file coordinate type?

4. Input the following X and Y coordinates, then press Enter:


X = 3579.80

Y= 2634.30

While viewing a feature, there are a number of tools that let you zoom in and out.
The tools used in this exercise are the Interactive Zoom In and the Interactive
Zoom Out.
5. Click the Interactive Zoom In icon

The pointer displays as a magnifying glass


tion it on the image.

as you posi-

The Interactive Zoom In icon


can be used to zoom in
2 times by left clicking on the image.
The Interactive Zoom Out icon
can be used to zoom
out 2 times by clicking on the image.

6. Hold down the Left Mouse Button (LMB)


and drag the mouse to
place a box around the feature identified above. When you release
the mouse button, the view will zoom in.
7. To move around the image, click the Roam Image icon
LMB
click and hold to drag the image.

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, then

Introduction to LPS

15

8. Take a minute to practice roaming around the image, looking at different features found in Denver.
9. Click Close in the Inquire Cursor dialog.
10. Close the Viewer without saving changes.

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Class Notes

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Introduction to LPS

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Challenge 1: Scale Variation


Objective:

To identify inconsistencies with are inherent in raw scanned imagery

Task 1: Scale
Calculation
Using Raw Imagery

On these raw images, it is difficult to see any scale variation. To help us check for
scale variations throughout the raw image, we will compare measurements at two
different photo locations.

Scale Variation:
occurs in all photography, due to objects
being closer to or further away from the
camera. The scale is
not constant across a
photo.

The first distance you will measure is the length of the field at the coordinates
listed previously.

Ground distances collected from other sources will be used to help us determine
photo scales.

1. In the eWorkspace, click the Open Layer icon


Access toolbar.

on the Quick

2. In the Select Layer to Add, navigate to the LPS directory, and ensure
the Files of type is set to IMAGINE Image (*.img), then select the
file: 11_189.img. The image may take a minute to load.
3. Use the Zoom and Roam tools so that you can see the length of the
field in your Viewer.
4. From the Home tab, Information group, click the Measure icon

The Measurement Tool displays.

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5. Leave the Measurement Units set to the default (Other), which represents pixels.

6. Use the Zoom tools to zoom into the bottom left end of the field.

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Section 1: Creating a Block

7. From the Measurement Tool dialog, click the Measure Lengths and
Angles icon
.
8. Place the cursor over this point and click to take the beginning measurement. You should now see a line extending from this point to your
cursor.
9. Roam to the other end of the field by moving your cursor outside the
Viewer. Continue roaming until you reach the identified location in the
images, then place the cursor over that point and double-click to take
your end measurement.
To scroll through the image horizontally, use Shift + Scrollwheel.
To scroll vertically through the image, use Ctrl + Scrollwheel.
10. Make a note of the distance displayed: ______________ pixels
To change pixel measurements into centimeters, we must
know the scanning resolution. These images were scanned
at 25 microns, meaning that each pixel is 25 microns
across. 10,000 microns equals 1 centimeter. Therefore,
there are 400 pixels in a centimeter.
11. Use the following equation to calculate the distance in centimeters:
__________

pixels

400

__________ centimeters

12. Then note your results:


Football field length is ______________ centimeters

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13. Click Zoom to Data Extent

The distance you will be measuring is defined by a line in


the image following. The line extends from the baseball
pitchers mound to the football 50 yard line.

14. Open the Inquire Cursor and navigate to following coordinates:


X= 5493

Y= - 6943

15. Zoom in on the pitchers mound on which the Inquire Cursor is


placed.

16. From the Measurement Tool dialog, click the Measure Lengths and
Angles icon
.

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

17. Place the cursor over the pitchers mound and click to take the beginning measurement.

18. RMB
click in the Viewer. This temporarily turns off the measurement that you are taking.
19. In the Inquire Cursor dialog, input the following coordinates:
X= 3576

Y= - 2677

20. Move the cursor back into the Viewer and the measurement will be on
again. Double-click on the 50 yard line of the football field.

What is the length you measured? ______________ centimeters

From these raw photo distances, the photo scale can be determined. Listed below
are the ground distances for the above features.
Football Field

91.44 meters

Pitcher's mound to 50 yard line

2608.10 meters

What are some sources where we can get ground distances?

21. Calculate the photo scale using the following equation:


Photo scale = (ground distance * 100) / photo distance
22. Record the scale for each of the measured distances:
Football Field

1: __________

Pitcher's mound to 50 yard line

1: __________

What causes the scale variations?

If there were no changes, what would this mean in reference to the


orientation of the airplane and the ground?

23. Close all open Viewers and tools without saving changes.

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24

Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Exercise 2: LPS Setup Wizard


Objective:

To open a new LPS project and input the setup parameters required by the Block
Properties Setup tool.
You will begin your work with a Setup Wizard that guides you through the process
of defining the project. The linear workflow helps to quickly select your camera or
sensor model, the projection, spheroid and datum, and the units.

Task 1: Defining a Project

1. From the Toolbox tab, click the LPS icon


LPS without a project loaded.

. This will launch

2. From the LPS menu, select File | New. The Create New Block File
dialog displays.
Alternatively, you can click the Create new block file
icon
.

3. Navigate to the Outputs directory and type denver_frame.blk as the


File name. Click OK.

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This dialog is used to select the model for use with your
block file images. The model defines the geometric properties associated with the sensor or camera.
All Geometric Models are listed and described in
Appendix A.

Task 2: Choosing a
Camera Model and
Map Projection

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Introduction to LPS

1. From the Model Setup dialog, select Frame Camera, then click OK.
The Block Property Setup box displays. From this, a reference system must be set. In a production environment it may take time to
research the reference system.

Section 1: Creating a Block

2. Click the Set button. The Projection Chooser dialog displays.


The Projection Chooser handles the selection of LPS's
standard projections, or creates a custom projection.
During this exercise a custom projection will be created,
and saved as a standard projection.
A few parameters must be set in order to define the Map Projection.
3. Display denver-5m-dem.img in a Viewer.
4. To obtain the projection, select the Home tab and then click the Layer
Info button

. The ImageInfo dialog displays.

5. Click the Projection tab.

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6. Fill in the following information:


Projection _______________
Spheroid ________________
Datum ___________________
Zone Number _____________
North or South ____________

It is important to enter the units correctly. Once the block


has been created there is no going back to change the
units. A new block would have to be created and valuable
time may be lost.
7. In the ImageInfo dialog, select File | Close, then close the Viewer.
8. In the Projection Chooser dialog, click the Custom tab, and in the
appropriate fields, input the parameters collected above, then click
Save.
The information does not have to be typed into the boxes.
You may choose the appropriate information from the pulldown menus.

Is the data North or South of the equator?

9. For the new Projection Name, type Denver and for the In Category,
select UTM WGS 84 North, then click OK.

By saving Denver to the Standard projection tab, the new


projection can be used at a later date.

What are some circumstances, which require you to create more than
one block for use in the same project?

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

10. Click the Standard tab, and in the UTM WGS 84 North category,
select Denver as your projection, then click OK. The projection information displays in the Block Property Setup.
11. Click the Next button.
12. For this exercise, set the Angle Units to Degrees.

Task 3: Setting
Frame-Specific
Information

The Rotation System and the Photo Direction must be set. Each image or photo is
defined in its relation to the ground, by 3 rotation angles (omega, phi, kappa).

In the most common rotation system, Omega is the primary axis. The primary axis
is the axis about which the first rotation occurs. Positive rotations occur clockwise
around the axes, as you look in a positive direction along the axis (e.g., looking
from 0 to X).
These photos of Denver use the Omega, Phi, Kappa Rotation System (Position and orientation of the sensor as it
existed when the image or photo was captured).

In the Denver data, around which axes are the following rotations?
(Use On-Line Help as a reference)
Omega = ___________ axis
Phi = ___________ axis
Kappa = ___________ axis

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Which parts of the world use the following Rotation Systems?


Phi(+), Omega, Kappa __________________
Phi(-), Omega, Kappa ___________________

The Photo Direction must also be set. The Photo Direction


equals the Optical Axis of the Camera. The Optical Axis is a
straight line extending from the perspective center, through
the center of the lens to the ground. The perspective center
is the point in space where the image was exposed.
13. We will leave the Photo Direction as the default, Z-axis for normal
images.

For what type of photography would you set the Photo Direction to
the Y-axis?

The Import Exterior Orientation Parameters button allows


for the import of existing exterior orientation data, that are
provided by photogrammetric systems, such as analytical
stereo plotters, digital photogrammetric workstations, or
post-processed airborne GPS data recorded at the time of
image capture.
14. Using the following equation, calculate the flying height, then input
the result into the appropriate box in the Block Properties Setup.

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Flying Height (fh) = Focal Length (f) x Scale (h) / 1000

The photography for Denver was taken with a 153.475 mm


focal length camera and the photo scale in approximately
1:21,000.

Make sure all your parameters have been entered correctly


before you click OK. Once acknowledged, the block is
defined and only the flying height can later be altered (Edit |
Block Properties | Model-Specific). If changes thereafter,
are necessary, a new block will have to be defined.
15. Click OK to close the Block Property Setup dialog, which automatically opens the LPS dialog.
16. From the LPS menu, select File | Save. It is good practice to save
your block before continuing.

What are some of the parameters set during the Block setup?

17. After the Block has been saved, select File | Close.
The block you have just created is based on a Frame Camera Geometric Model.
The block can be reopened at a later time.

Task 4: SPOT Pushbroom


Geometric Model

For this next task, you will be creating another block but this time, it will be based
on a SPOT Pushbroom model.
1. Click the Create new block file icon

2. From the dialog that displays, click the Goto button, and navigate to
the Outputs directory.
3. For the block File name, type denver_spot, then press Enter.
Polynomial-based
Pushbroom: A sensor type which scans
an area along parallel
lines, perpendicular to
the direction of movement.

ERDAS Customer Education

4. Click OK and the Model Setup dialog displays. From the dialog,
select Polynomial-based Pushbroom from the Geometric Model
Category.
5. As the Geometric Model, select SPOT Pushbroom, then click OK.
6. Click Set. The Projection Chooser dialog displays.

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31

7. From the Standard tab, select the Denver projection you created
previously, then click OK.
8. Once the projection reference has been set, ensure that Meters has
been selected as the Horizontal Units.

What is the major difference you have noted between setting up a


Frame Camera and a Spot Geometric Model?

9. In the Block Properties Setup, click OK. The block is created and
the project is now listed in the LPS Project Manager.
10. To save the block, select File | Save, then from the LPS Block Tool,
select File | Close.

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Class Notes

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Introduction to LPS

Section 1: Creating a Block

Exercise 3: Imagery Requirements


Objective:

Review the imagery formats, which can be imported into LPS, and generate pyramid layers.
Our block has been setup and defined, the main LPS dialog displays, and the task
now, is to bring in the imagery. Before processing, we must understand the imagery requirements and limitations.

Task 1: Import
Files into the
Block

ERDAS Customer Education

The LPS Project Manager window is displayed but does not have a project loaded.

Introduction to LPS

35

1. Click the Open block file icon


plays

. The Block File Name dialog dis-

2. Click the Recent button and select denver_frame.blk, and then


click OK.
3. In the Block File Name dialog, click OK.
4. From the LPS icon panel, click the Add Frame to the List icon
The Image File Name dialog displays.

Dynamic Loadable
Library (DLL): Allows
non-native LPS files to
be read directly by the
application.

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Introduction to LPS

5. Use the Files of Type pull-down menu to look at the file types available for loading into LPS.

Section 1: Creating a Block

The list displays file formats, which use a DLL when being loaded for viewing by
LPS.

When inputting images, you have the option of inputting


one image at a time, or a number of images.

6. From the Image File Name dialog, select 11_188.img, 11_189.img,


and 11_190.img. Click OK.
This is accomplished by selecting one image at a time or by
highlighting the first image, holding the SHIFT key and
clicking on the last image to add, then clicking OK to load
the data.
7. Update the Description column by giving 11_188.img the name
denver1. Give 11_189.img the name denver2 and 11_190.img the
name denver3.
If you are unable to see the full Description, place the
mouse cursor to the right of the word Description. The cursor changes to a dual-ended
arrow.

8. Take a look at the column headings and the contents of the columns.

Orthorectified
Digital Terrain Model
Exterior Orientation
Interior Orientation
Pyramid Layers

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What do the 'X's in the active column mean, and what processes are
associated with this column? (Hint: Use On-Line Help.)

The green color patches in the matrix cells indicate that the
feature has been created, or that the process has been run
and completed. Red indicates the step still needs to be
completed.
This visual guide can help you determine which steps have
been performed for each of the images in your Block File.

In what situation would the Online column be colored red?

Task 2: Creating
Pyramid Layers

Pyramid layers are copies of the original layer(s) that have been successively
reduced by a power of 2, and then resampled. The number of pyramid layers created will depend on the size of the image. A large image will produce more pyramid layers.
Pyramid layers are added as additional layers in the .img file. However, these layers cannot be accessed for display.
1. Click on any red-colored cell in the Pyr. column. The Compute Pyramid Layers dialog displays, from which you have the following three
options:

One Image Selected

All Selected Images

All Images Without Pyramids

2. Maintain the default of All Images Without Pyramids, then click OK.
The cells in the pyramid layers should turn green.
This will take some time depending on the number of
images in the list.

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What are the differences between ERDAS IMAGINEs pyramid layers


and LPS's pyramid layers?

3. In the LPS dialog, select File | Save to save your image list.
We have imported our imagery into an LPS block and created pyramid layers. We
must now give LPS the sensor information, and setup the camera, as well as the
image parameters.

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Introduction to LPS

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Exercise 4: Inside the Sensor


Objective:

Perform Interior Orientation by entering camera parameters and measuring the


Fiducial Marks.

Task 1: Defining the Sensor

At this point, the pyramid layers have been created for the images to be used; the
green color patch in the Pyr. column is a visual indication of this.
1. From the LPS menu, select Edit | Frame Editor, or click the Show
and Edit Frame Properties icon

The Frame Editor dialog displays with the information for the currently selected
image (i.e., the image with the caret symbol
next to it).
The Next and Previous buttons can be used to scroll
through all of your images and change parameters, without
having to return to the main Block Tool dialog.
2. To ensure the image you selected is the correct one, click on the
View Image button. A Viewer displays your image.
3. Once you have confirmed it is the correct image, close the open
Viewer.

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Photogrammetry is essentially the process of establishing a


relationship between the camera/sensor, the imagery, and
the ground.
To build this mathematical relationship, we must be able to
define points on the images, points on the ground, and the
location of the sensor.
To define the points on the images, we need to setup an
Image-Space Coordinate System (ISCS).
To do this we need information about the camera/sensor
itself.
ISCS: Many aspects of
aerial cameras are
accurately measured
in a laboratory. These
measurements should
be provided to you as
a report.

4. Click the New Camera button and the Camera Information dialog displays. In this case, the Camera Name refers to the aerial camera
type.
5. In the Camera Information dialog, click the Load button, locate and
select (highlight) the denver_frame.cam file, then click OK.
6. Review the information from the camera file, such as:
Focal Length
Principal Point xo
Principal Point yo

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Fiducials Marks:
marks within the camera body which are
transferred to the film
during exposure. The
locations of these
marks are measured in
a laboratory and then
placed into the calibration report.

7. Fiducial marks can be located and displayed in the imagery. Click the
Fiducials tab.
If you needed to change the Number of Fiducials you could make that change
under this tab.

Where on the image are the fiducials located?

8. Click the Radial Lens Distortion tab.

Lenses are never perfect. The Radial Lens Distortion


parameter will model any errors found in the lens by the laboratory technician. These errors can then be taken into
account during processing.
Although not a requirement, we can add the radial lens
distortion to help further define the camera. In this example, we will not be using any Lens Distortion Parameters.
If the Field Angles and Distortion are entered into the
CellArray, the Calculate Coeffs button would be clicked.
The three Konrad Distortion Coefficients would then be calculated. These are used to mathematically model the distortion in the lens.

Are the Distortion Coefficients editable?

9. Click OK. The camera information for the first image has been
entered.
10. Click Next to ensure that denver_frame is being used as the Sensor
Name for image 11_189.img, then repeat for the final image.

Task 2: Fiducial
Orientation and
Measuring Fiducials

LPS assumes the same camera collected all of the images, so you do not need to
input this information for each image. However, if the camera did change, we could
use the Next or Previous buttons to navigate to the desired image, and modify the
camera and fiducial information.
1. In the Frame Editor dialog, click the Interior Orientation tab. The
Film X and Y positions, which were entered by the camera file, are
displayed.

What values do the Image X and Image Y columns contain and why
are they initially empty?

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You will select the correct Fiducial Orientation. To determine the correct orientation, typically, you would locate the data strip. The Y-axis should lie parallel to this
strip. In the airphotos provided, the data strip has been removed. Your instructor
will indicate to you the orientation of the fiducials.

2. For this exercise, select the fourth icon


our images orientation.

. This icon best portrays

3. Now, use the Next and Previous buttons to set the Fiducial Orientation for the other two images. Then use the Previous button to return
to the first image.
Once the camera parameters have been entered, the
fiducial marks must be measured. Their measured pixel
location (c,r) is compared to their calibrated coordinates
(mm). This allows the position of the principal point of each
image to be calculated, which then becomes the origin of
the image coordinate system.
The pixel coordinates and the calibrated coordinates are
used to calculate transformation coefficients. Any pixel
coordinate can then be transformed into image coordinates.

During scanning, how important is it to keep the scan orientation


constant?

4. Under the View Fiducial Locator heading, click the Open Viewer
icon
. A Main View opens on top of the Frame Editor dialog.
5. To prevent an unwanted measurement from being taken, click the
Select Image Fiducial icon
.

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A Main View, an Over View, and a Detail View display. You will use these views to
measure the fiducials.
Any of the three views can be used for measuring the fiducials; however, it is advisable to measure in the Detail View.
Before measuring the fiducials, verify the positioning of the
Link Cursor, as different Fiducial Orientation buttons are
selected.

The Link Cursor in the Main View identifies the approximate


area of the fiducial. This area is magnified in the Detail
View.

6. Take a minute to select each of the Fiducial Orientation buttons and


note the location, (i.e. which corner), of the Link Cursor in the Over
View. When finished, return to the correct orientation.

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7. Click and drag in the center of the Link Cursor in the Main View, and
move it over the top of the first fiducial mark.

What effect does this change have on the Detail View?

Some fiducial centers may be difficult to see. Adjustments may be made using the
brightness and contrast sliding bar.
8. Place the cursor over the Detail View, RMB click, and select Set Resampling Method. The default resampling method Nearest Neighbor
displays in the Set Resampling Method dialog.
9. Click OK. The image becomes pixelated.
10. RMB click on the Detail View, select Set Resampling Method then
use the pull-down menu to choose Bilinear Interpolation.
11. Repeat this process but for the Resampling Method, choose Cubic
Convolution.

Which resampling method best displays the fiducial center?

Once you can accurately identify the center of the fiducial, you are ready to take a
measurement.
12. Click the Place Image Fiducial icon
. This changes your cursor
into a crosshair when placed over any one of the Viewers.
13. Take your first measurement by clicking over the fiducial center in the
Detail View.
The fiducial point is measured in Image pixel coordinates,
and the Frame Editor CellArray is automatically updated.
The display automatically updates and moves to the next
fiducial since the Set Automatic Move icon
is enabled.
If the Set Automatic Center icon
is enabled, then the
fiducial that you digitize will snap to the fiducial center if it is
within two pixels.
14. Repeat the previous steps to measure the second fiducial mark.
15. When these first two fiducials have been measured, click the Auto
Locate button. The Automatic Interior Orientation window displays,
which will be used to locate the remaining fiducial marks.
16. Click the Current Frame radio button, and then click Run.

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17. When finished, click Accept then Close.


Your Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), in pixels and
microns, is displayed above the Solve button on the Interior
Orientation tab of the Frame Editor.
RMSE - After each measurement, each fiducial's file coordinates (r,c pixels) are transformed into image coordinates
(millimeters). These new coordinates are then retransformed back into file coordinates (r,c pixels).
The variation (residual) between the initial file coordinates
and the retransformed coordinates, are indications of the
closeness-of-fit of the two coordinate sets.

What could cause a higher than expected RMS error?

What is a good RMSE?

Any RMSE values larger than 0.5 pixels, or ones which are
half the scanning resolution of the image, infer systematic
and/or measurement errors. Check for film deformation,
poor scanning quality, mis-measured points, and incorrect
calibration.
Based on your RMSE, you may want to re-measure some
of the fiducials. Frequently, the first few measurements are
not as accurate as the latter measurements.
18. Click in the row for the Point # you wish to view. Click the Select
Image icon
if you need to reposition the mark.
19. When you are satisfied with the fiducial measurements in the first
image, click the Auto Locate button again, then click the Unsolved
Frames radio button.
20. Click Run, and when complete, click Accept then click Close, and
inspect the fiducial measurements for the last two frames, just as you
did the first.

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21. Once you have finished, click OK in the Frame Camera Frame Editor
dialog.
You will notice that the Int. column has turned green; indicating that you are finished defining the interior orientation of the camera.
22. From the LPS Project Manager menu, select File | Save, or click the
Save Block Information icon
.

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Exercise 5: The Sensor in Space


Objective:

To input the position and orientation of the sensor (Exterior Orientation).

Task 1: Examine
Parameters for
Exterior Orientation

You should have your LPS Project Manager open, and it should contain three
images, each of which now has the Int. column as green.
1. Open the Frame Editor
You will see six columns.

and click the Exterior Information tab.

The first three columns define the perspective center coordinates, while the next
three represent the rotational angles of this perspective center, and hence, the
image.

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Exterior orientation defines the position and orientation


associated with an image.
To build the relationship between Image and Object space,
the software needs to determine the rotational differences
between the two coordinate systems.
Xo, Yo, and Zo define the location of the perspective center.
Phi (), Omega (), and Kappa () define the rotation of
this perspective center.
As part of its calculations Leica Photogrammetry Suite can
determine these six (6) values for each image.
The Std. (standard deviation) row represents the reliability
you place on the Values. The lower the Std. the more reliable your coordinate information.

2. Confirm that the Status row is Unknown for all six elements.

Initial: This status indicates the exterior orientation value is


an approximation to the actual value, and will be modified
during triangulation.
Fixed: The value will not be modified during triangulation.
Unknown: This status assumes you have no information
about the camera's exterior orientation parameters.
3. LPS will compute:
Omega () - a rotation around the ______ axis
Phi () - a rotation around the __________ axis
Kappa () - a rotation around the _______ axis

Can we get the Perspective Center coordinates from the images?

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4. Click OK in the Frame Editor.

Be aware that measurements and parameters input are not


saved into the Block by clicking OK.

Once the exterior parameters are input, LPS uses these


values to establish the positional and rotational relationship
between the image space coordinate system and the
ground space coordinate system.
We are now ready to input control points that form the basis of the mathematical
calculations used to tie the image to the ground.
5. In the Project Manager, click the Save icon

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Exercise 6: Take Control


Objective:

Task 1: The
Point Measurement Tool

You will become familiar with some of the tools used to input and collect ground
control points (GCPs). After measuring the fiducials of each image in your block,
you are ready to measure the position of points on the ground.

1. From the LPS menu, click the Point Measurement icon

2. Ensure that the Classic Point Measurement Tool radio button is


selected.
3. Click OK. The Point Measurement dialog displays, which is divided
into sections as labeled on the following page.

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Left View Group

Over View

Detail View

Right View Group

Detail View

Tools Group

Over View

Common
Tools

Left View
Tools

Main View

Main View
Right View
Tools

Reference
Sources

Reference (Ground) Coordinates

File (Image) Coordinates

Point Measurement Group

To build the relationship between the ground and images,


we need to share some values measured in each space
coordinate system (Object & Image).
For the ground or object space, we measure GCPs using a
coordinate system (X,Y,Z). These same points are then
measured on the images (x,y). These two sets of numbers
are then used to start to build this relationship.
In the Right View and the Left View of the Point Measurement dialog, there are
options to change or specify the image displayed.

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4. Ensure that image 11_188 is in the Left View and image 11_189 is in
the Right View.

If you had a large block of images, you would use these


menus to 'scroll' through the images as you measure the
GCPs.
Each image has its own brightness and contrast tools. This
tool can be useful when viewing, identifying, and measuring
GCPs.
5. Adjust the brightness, then click Apply and review the modifications
in the Viewer.

6. Click the Reset button to return the image to its original appearance.
At the bottom of the Point Measurement dialog, there are
two CellArrays. Both are empty until points are input. The
Reference CellArray (left), is where ground coordinates for
each point are displayed.

Type

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Full - Control or check points with


X, Y, and Z coordinates.

Control - Points used as control


points during triangulation. (X, Y, Z
are known.)

Horizontal - Points with X and Y


coordinates. The Z coordinate is
unknown and can be estimated
during triangulation.

Check - Points are used to independently verify the quality of a triangulation. (X, Y, Z are known.)

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Vertical - Points with Z coordinates. The X and Y coordinates are


unknown and can be estimated or
ignored during triangulation.

Tie - Points appearing in the overlapping areas of two or more


images. (The X, Y, Z coordinates
are unknown and determined during triangulation.)

None - Tie points with X, Y, and Z


coordinates that are estimated during triangulation.

X Reference, Y Reference, Z Reference Ground coordinates of each point.


The File CellArray, which is on the right, is where pixel coordinates are displayed.
These coordinates are generated when you digitize the position of your Reference
(Ground Control) points.

Image Name - Name of the image where the


ground control measurement was taken.
Active - X indicates that this measurement will
be used in the aerial triangulation.
X File, Y File - Pixel coordinates (row and column) of the measurement.

From what sources could we obtain reference coordinates?

What units are used in the File CellArray?

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Task 2: Importing
GCP Coordinates
from an ASCII File

1. From the ERDAS menu

, select View > View Text Files to open

the Text Editor.


2. Use the Open File icon

and navigate to the LPS directory.

3. Select the denver_gcp.txt file, and click OK. The GCP ASCII file displays.
4. Make note of the number of GCPs, then select File | Close in the Text
Editor.
5. In the Common Tools section of the Point Measurement dialog,
click the Import Points icon
.

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6. In the Import/Export Points dialog, click OK.

7. In the Reference ASCII File dialog, select denver_gcp.txt and


click OK.
8. In the Reference Import Parameters dialog, click OK.
9. If an Attention dialog appears, click Yes.
10. In the Import Options dialog, click the View button. This will open the
file in the Text Editor. Leave this Text Editor open.
11. From the text file, decide which is the appropriate Separator
Character.
12. In the Import Options dialog, ensure that the Separator Character is
set to WhiteSpace and that the Row Terminator Character is set to
NewLine(Unix).
In the Import Options dialog, listed under Column Mapping,
are the selected columns from the Reference CellArray.
Input Field Number is the denver_gcp.txt column number to
be imported into the Reference CellArray.

When would we need to edit the Field column?

13. Once the changes have been made, click OK in the Import Options.
The selected columns in the Reference CellArray will populate.
14. Select File | Close in the Text Editor. The GCPs we input have X, Y, Z
coordinates and will be used as control points.

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What does the 'X' in the Active column mean? (Use On-Line Help)

Now that we have the ground coordinates of these points, you will measure them
on the images.

A second way to import Reference points:

Click the Horizontal Reference icon

From the GCP Reference Source dialog, enable the ASCII


File (3D) radio button.

In the Reference ASCII File dialog, navigate to the LPS


directory.

Select denver_gcp.txt and click OK.

In the Reference Import Parameters, click OK.

In the Import Options dialog, click OK.

The Point ID values would then need to be imported.

15. Click the Viewing Properties icon

16. In the Viewing Properties dialog, enable the Advanced radio button,
and then enable the Residual checkbox. Click OK.
17. Click the Set Automatic (x,y) Drive icon
. Following the second
measured GCP, the position will automatically move to the next point.

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18. In the Reference (Ground) Coordinates section of the Point Measurement dialog, place the caret
next to the first reference point.
If the caret is not moved to the first reference point, then the
first measured GCP will be correlated to the incorrect reference point and will need to be deleted and re-measured.

19. Ensure that the Left View is set to 11_188.


20. In the overview for image 11_188, click and drag the cursor box to the
first GCP location (visual aids to find the GCPs are provided at the
end of this task for reference).
21. Use the Main View and Detail View windows to fine-tune the positioning. If the location is difficult to see, adjust the contrast and/or brightness, and then click Apply to affect the image.
22. Click Reset to set both the contrast and brightness back to their original values.
23. Once you have located the point, click the Create Point icon
move the cursor to the point in the Detail View window.

24. Click to take a measurement. After the measurement is taken, a symbol and ID will display. Notice that the Image Name, along with X and
Y File coordinates appear in the CellArray on the right.
If the GCP needs to be moved, click to select the point then
drag it to the correct location.

25. Place the caret


next to the second reference point. Use the previous procedure to digitize the remaining GCP locations, generated
from the ASCII file. When the GCP occurs in multiple images, digitize
the point in the additional image(s).
Remember to move the caret (>) to each point before digitizing.
Some GCPs will appear in all three images; you will need to
use the Right View and Left View pull-down menus to view
all the images.
26. When the points have all been measured, click the Save button.

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X and Y Image Coordinates for the Ground Control Points

Point ID

X File
11_188

Y File
11_188

X File
11_189

Y File
11_189

X File
11_190

Y File
11_190

7300.869

1040.875

NA

NA

NA

NA

7902.375

7432.905

NA

NA

NA

NA

5876.865

5736.365

NA

NA

NA

NA

3390.862

5161.596

6745.885

5107.455

NA

NA

137.612

5240.366

3581.503

5119.324

6855.289

5224.150

NA

NA

857.773

6577.114

4172.309

6653.906

NA

NA

47.344

730.768

3558.664

885.625

NA

NA

NA

NA

542.678

4238.856

NA

NA

NA

NA

2358.746

7714.545

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GCP Locations
GCP #1

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GCP #2

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GCP #3

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GCP #4

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GCP #5

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GCP #6

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GCP #7

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GCP #8

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GCP #9

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Task 3: Adding a
Reference image

All GCPs collected up to this point have been obtained from GPS coordinates.
The next point you will collect will be from a reference image.
1. Click the Reset Horizontal Reference icon

2. Ensure the Image Layer radio button is selected and click OK.

3. In the Reference Image Layer dialog, select park.img and click OK.
Under the Right View section, you will see that the Horizontal reference has been
set to park.img. This image is a subset of an orthorectified IKONOS image. The
area covered by this image can be found in all three input images.

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4. From the Left View section, enable the Use Viewer As Reference
checkbox.

The Left View has been changed to park. In the next few steps, you will obtain a
GCP from the Reference image and then find that point in all of the input images.
Currently, the input images are rotated at a 900 clockwise angle from park.img. In
order to aid the locating of a common point, park.img will be rotated to match the
input images.

5. RMB click in the Main View of park.img and select Rotate.

6. In the Rotate Image dialog, set the Rotation Angle to 90, enable the
Clockwise radio button, and click the ApplyToLeft button.
7. Click Close.
8. Change the Right View to 11_188.

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9. Click the Add button to add a tenth reference point.


10. Change the Type to Horizontal and the Usage to Control.
On the following page you will find the point to be digitized.
11. Click the Create Point icon
and measure the GCP in the reference image and in all of the input images.
12. When the point has been measured, click the Save button and then
disable the Use Viewer As Reference checkbox.

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Task 4: Adding Tie


Points

Within the overlap between 2 or more images, you might be able to identify the
same ground feature on different images. You do not need to know the coordinates (X,Y,Z) of this point. The Tie point is used during triangulation and X, Y, Z
coordinates are generated for the Tie point when the triangulation is accepted.
You will use the same tools to add a Tie point to your set of reference points.
1. Using the Link Box, locate a feature in the two viewable images. Try
and find a recognizable feature in both images using the image below
as a guide.

2. From the Common Tools section, click the Add button again, then
click the Create Point icon
.

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3. To keep this tool active, click the Keep Current Tool icon

4. In the Detail View, place the cursor over the feature you identified
and digitize the point. Immediately, move the cursor to the same feature in the other image, and digitize again.
5. Repeat the above steps to digitize the Tie Point in the third image.
The Type (None) and Usage (Tie) will default to the correct
settings.
Tie points are very useful in the triangulation process, but
they can be very time-consuming to collect. Leica Photogrammetry Suite will automatically generate tie points. It
uses a variation of Feature-Based Matching.

Auto Tie Point Collection - involves image matching as a


means to identify ground features in overlapping areas of
imagery. The various matching methods can be divided into
three categories including:
Area based matching - Similarity of the gray level values
within correlation windows based over the imagery.
Feature based matching - Point features are extracted
and identified on adjacent images. The feature pair is given
a correlation value. Points with correlation values, which are
closer to 1, are recognized as better matches.
Relation based matching - Uses image features and the
relationship between the features. Time-consuming but
very accurate.

6. Click the Automatic Tie Properties icon


following parameters are set:

and make sure that the

Images Used:

All Available

Initial Type:

Tie Points

Strategy Parameters:

Avoid Shadow

Intended number of
Points / Image:

25

7. Click OK in the Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties dialog.

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8. Click the Perform Automatic Tie Generation icon


will be generated on each of the images.

. Tie Points

Minimum Input Requirements for Automatic Tie Point Collection for a Frame Camera, digital camera, videography, or
non-metric camera:

Initial approximations of ext.orientation


(X, Y, Z, omega, phi, kappa), OR

At least two GCPs per stereo pair, OR

At least two (2) Tie Points per stereo


pair

The diagram below shows the configuration required to perform automatic collection on six overlapping images.

9. Click Close in the Auto Tie Summary dialog.

How many Tie points were generated?

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10. Visually inspect a sample of the collected tie points for accurate
placement. If you find that the Tie Points are slightly off from the correct position, adjust them.
If the Tie Points do not match, and there are gross errors,
ask your instructor for assistance.

11. Click the Select points common to both views icon


. This will
highlight all points that are found in the images currently displayed.
12. After all adjustments are completed, Save your measurements.
We have completed the ground point measurements. We are now ready to move
on to the actual triangulation process, where a relationship is mathematically built
between your coordinates.

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Exercise 7: Building the Relationship


Objective:

To perform aerial triangulation in LPS, using fewer control points.

Task 1: Setup
and Run Aerial
Triangulation

You have now completed the ground point measurement and generated tie points.
The block file is now ready to have the triangulation parameters set.
LPS uses a mathematical technique, known as Block Bundle Adjustment, for aerial triangulation. Block bundle adjustment performs three functions:

Determines the position and orientation of each image at time of exposure

Determines coordinates for the tie


points in overlapping areas

Identifies, removes, minimizes and


distributes errors associated with the
imagery, GCPs etc.

1. Ensure that the Point Measurement dialog is open, and the Reference and File coordinates are visible.
There should be Xs in the Active column beside all Control
and Tie points. If there are not, click in the Active cells
which do not have X's.

2. Click the Triangulation Properties icon


tion dialog displays.

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General Options
Maximum Iterations: Used in processing the aerial triangulation.
Convergence Value: The limit for the correction of ground
coordinates in each iteration.
Point Options
Used to set the standard deviations (error estimates) associated with the image and ground coordinates.
Image Point Standard Deviation (pixels): During the triangulation process the image coordinate positions are allowed to
fluctuate within the limits of these values. Larger values
indicate poor image measurements.
Interior Options
Used to set the standard deviations for the interior orientation parameters (millimeters).
Fixed for all Images: Self-calibration will not take place (i.e.,
the original focal length and principle point are maintained).
Exterior Options
Used to set the standard deviations for the exterior orientation parameters, in meters and degrees.
Advanced Options
Additional Parameters Model: Used in the aerial triangulation for the compensation of systematic image errors.
Use Image Observations of Check Points in Triangulation:
Can improve the precision of the solution.

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3. In the General tab, leave the Maximum Iterations at 10 and the


Convergence Value as 0.001.
This form of Triangulation (Bundle Block Adjustment) utilizes an iterative least squares solution. The iterations will
continue until the Maximum Iterations have been reached
or the Convergence Value is less than 0.001.
As the iterations continue, the original coordinates are reevaluated. If every difference between the re-evaluated and
original values is less than the convergence value, the iterations will stop.

How is the Convergence Value derived? (Use On-line Help.)

4. Click the Advanced Options tab and ensure that the Use Image
Observations of Check Points in Triangulation checkbox is disabled.
5. Click Run to proceed with the triangulation process. When complete,
a Triangulation Summary displays.

What is your Total Image Unit Weight RMSE?

During the triangulation process what is happening to the tie point


reference coordinates?

6. Record the RMSE values in the space below. You will be comparing
these values as you run through this exercise.
Total Image Unit-Weight RMSE: ______________

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Control Point RMSE: ________________________


________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
Following are two examples of Triangulation Summaries. Both RMSEs are
expressed in pixels.

7. Look at the differences: While one has a good RMSE, the other has a
poorer RMSE; however, both reached convergence.
8. Click the Review button.

This records the overall accuracy of each measured point.

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9. Make a note of the points with a high Total RMSE (for both Ground
Points and Image Points):
__________________

__________________

__________________

__________________

__________________

__________________

We will look at these in greater detail in the next exercise.


10. Close the Review Triangulation Results dialog.
11. Click Close in the Triangulation Summary dialog.
12. Click OK in the Aerial Triangulation dialog.

Task 2: Changing
Triangulation
Parameters

1. In the Point Measurement dialog, disable all of the Tie points and
render them inactive by:

Highlight only the GCPs (i.e. Usage is set to Control) on the


list by clicking the Point # with the Shift + LMB

RMB click on the highlighted Point # and select Invert


Selection

Click on the Active column heading

RMB click over the Active column heading and select Formula

Input a value of 0 in the Formula window and click Apply


and Close

You will now see all of the selected rows, which are highlighted in yellow, become
inactive.
2. Click the Perform Triangulation icon
gulation.

to re-run the aerial trian-

How have the triangulation results been modified?

3. Close the Triangulation Summary.


4. In the Point Measurement dialog, replace the 'X's beside the Tie
points, making them active in the triangulation process. Use the process given above and add a 1 into the Formula text box.

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5. Open the Triangulation Properties dialog and select the Point tab,
then set the GCP Type to Same Weighted Values. This will allow the
triangulation process to vary the GCP locations.
6. In the Aerial Triangulation dialog, click Run.
7. Close the Triangulation Summary, then click Cancel in the Aerial
Triangulation dialog.
We have looked at the triangulation process, and some of the parameters that can
be changed to improve the output results. We have not yet considered the possibility of poor GCPs.
The next exercise will examine the triangulation results in more detail, and search
for poor GCP values.

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Exercise 8: The Triangulation Results


Objective:

Study the Triangulation Report results and make adjustments to improve the triangulation results.

Task 1: Analyze
the Triangulation Report

The aerial triangulation report lists all of the input and output values used during
the triangulation process. The report can be divided into several categories, but for
a standard block the most significant are probably:
Control Point residuals
Check Point residuals
Image Coordinate results

By analyzing the Triangulation Report and finding the points


with the most error (relatively large residuals) you can start
to improve your triangulation.

1. Click the Report of Triangulation Results icon


tion Report displays in the Text Editor.

. The Triangula-

Make note of the Output Units, mentioned at the top of the


report.
2. In the Text Editor, select Find | Find, and in the edit box, type iteration, then click Find.

How many iterations did it take to reach the convergence value?

3. Look at the Standard Error for the last iteration. This value is important since it accumulates the effect of each image coordinate residual,
to provide a global indicator of quality.

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What is the Standard Error following the last iteration and what are its
units?

During the triangulation process GCP values (X,Y,Z) are


recalculated during each iteration. The newly calculated
GCP coordinates are compared to the original reference
GCP coordinates, and the differences (residuals) are listed.

4. In the Search and Replace dialog, input rX in the top, then click
Find.
This should take you to the portion of the report which contains the residuals of the control points.
5. Below, list the Point ID of the GCP with the largest residuals:
Point ID

rX

rY

rZ

6. This point may fall on more than one image. To see residuals for each
measurement, move to the residuals of image points section at the
bottom of the Text Editor. Look for the Point ID listed above.

What Image were the poor residuals recorded on?

In what units are the residuals of image points?

7. Click Close in the Search and Replace dialog.


8. Select File | Close in the Text Editor.

Task 2: Removing
GCPs and Re-running the Triangulation

1. In the Reference CellArray of the Point Measurement dialog, click on


the 'X' in the Active column for the row with the GCP mentioned
above.
This point becomes inactive, and is no longer used in the triangulation.

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2. Click the Triangulation icon


plays.

. The Triangulation Summary dis-

What is the new Total Image Unit-Weight RMSE?

3. Click the Report button. Use the scroll bar to move down through the
triangulation report.
4. Take a look at the iteration and the residuals of the control points sections.

Did it take fewer iterations to reach the convergence? How many?

5. Close the Text Editor.

Task 3: Accept and


Update the Triangulation Results

In a production environment, you could go back and forth between removing,


adjusting, or adding GCP's, and re-running the triangulation.
For this task, we will move on to accept the triangulation.
1. Click Update and Accept, then click Close in the Triangulation
Summary.
Update to bring up-to-date the block file with the values calculated during the aerial triangulation. This will update the
exterior orientation parameters (if set to Unknown or Initial),
and interior orientation parameters (if they were estimated).
Accept to confirm the triangulation results and update the
X, Y and Z tie point reference values.

What characteristics of the Tie points changed after Accepting?

2. Save then Close the Point Measurement dialog.

Why have the cells under Ext. changed from red to green?

3. From the LPS dialog, select File | Save.


LPS updated the X, Y, Z, Omega, Phi, and Kappa of each exposure, and the X, Y,
and Z for the Tie Points. It also distributed the error around the images, thereby
giving us better positional accuracy for the ortho-photo creation process.

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Section 2: DTM Extraction

Section Objective
This section will examine the fundamental principles and science of extracting elevation data from stereo
photographs.
Various tools and techniques will be introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the elevation data, and verify
the resulting Digital Terrain Models (DTM).

Tools Used
DTM Extraction
Tool

A component of LPS used to extract elevation mass points from a digital block.

Contour
Generation

Used to create shapefile contours of the DTM.

Change
Detection Tool

Tool used for comparing images for determining differences in pixel values.

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Exercise 1: In Search of Z
Objective:

Focus on automatic DTM extraction, which is a capability added through LPS, and
used prior to orthorectification.

Task 1: DEM
Extraction
Parameters

With the triangulation results accepted and the exterior orientation parameters
updated, aerial triangulation is complete. The next step is often ortho-generation,
which requires the use of a constant Z value, or the procurement of a DTM.

1. In the eWorkspace, click the ERDAS button


ences. The Preference Editor displays.

and select Prefer-

2. Change the Category to Viewer.


3. Scroll to Background Transparent and disable this option. This will
ensure imagery displays properly in the Terrain Editor viewers.
4. Next, change the Category to LPS.
5. Scroll to DTM Minimum Overlap Percentage.

6. Change the DTM Minimum Overlap Percentage to 30.

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7. Click User Save and Close.


8. From the LPS icon panel, click the DTM Extraction icon
. The
DTM Extraction dialog displays. You will be creating a DEM image
file.

9. Click the Single DTM Mosaic radio button. This creates one output
image.
10. For the Output DTM File name, type dem_20m_default.img.
11. Change the DTM Cell Size for X to a value of 20, and enable the
Make Pixels Square checkbox. The setting for Units should remain
as Meters.
The cell size defaults to a value, which is approximately 10
times the spatial resolution of your image.
12. Leave the DEM Background Value set at Default.
Generating exclusion areas in which DEM points
would be generated, a default value would be
assigned as the exclusion area elevation value.
Default Background Values will be 0 if all elevations are
positive. If there are negative elevations, a DEM Background value will be five (5) units [meters] lower than the
minimum negative value.

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13. Click the Run button to generate your DTM.


Following are the steps involved in the generation of a DEM.
Interest Point Determination - Each image in the block is processed to obtain a
series of interest points. An interest point is a pixel which exhibits sufficient gray
level variation when compared to a neighboring set of pixels.

After the LPS block has been triangulated, a triangle (epipolar plane) can be formed between two perspective centers
(X, Y, and Z), and a ground feature. This plane is used to
constrain the point search area on the adjacent image.

Epipolar Plane

An interest point located on the reference image may have


more than one possible match on the adjacent image. For
each set of possible image points identified by LPS, a correlation coefficient is computed.

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Ground Point Determination - A Space Forward Intersection technique is used


to compute the 3D coordinate associated with the mass points. This technique
requires known exterior orientation parameters.
Collinearity Equations - Used to determine initial X Y Z ground point coordinates.
The result is accurate ground coordinate X Y Z values for all ground points.
DTM Construction - When creating an output DEM, a temporary TIN is generated, using the ground points from the above determination. A grid (X, Y spacing)
user specified, is generated and interpolated over this temporary TIN.

Task 2: Viewing a
DEM

A Z value (elevation value) is assigned to each grid point.

An output DEM image is generated.

You have created a default DEM. Later, you will compare the DEM to one that has
been generated using the Advanced Properties.
1. In a Viewer, display your DEM, and start the Inquire Cursor.
2. Review the elevation values, then identify and make note of any
anomalous areas that may have incorrect elevation values.
3. Close the Viewer.

Task 3: Advanced
Options

The use of Advanced Options will more accurately, represent the Earth's surface
when creating a DEM.
1. Repeat the steps of Task 1, but DO NOT DELETE the DEM you just
created. Instead, type dem_20m_advanced.img as the name for the
Output DTM File.
2. To open the DTM Extraction Properties dialog, click the Advanced
Properties button.

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The Advanced Properties are divided into five categories using the following
tabs:

General

Image Pair

Area Selection

Accuracy

Seed Data

3. First, review the options in the General tab, and verify the projection.
It should be the same as the projection of your LPS block.
4. The Horizontal Units and Vertical Units value should each be set to
Meters.
5. Enable the Create Contour Map checkbox and use a Contour Interval of 5.00 (meters). The file created will be an ESRI 3D Shapefile.
By default, the interval is three times that of the Output DTM
size.
6. Enable the Remove Contours Shorter Than checkbox, and input a
value of 100. Any contour lines that are shorter than 100m will be
removed.
By default, this is five times that of the image cell size.

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7. Enable the Create DTM Point Status Output Image checkbox. This
image is a visual representation of an accuracy report, which we will
create in a later exercise. Based on correlation values obtained during Interest Point Matching, points will be color-coded:

Excellent = Light Green

Good = Medium Green

Fair = Yellow

Isolated = Orange

Suspicious = Red

8. Enable Reduce DTM Correlation Area by checkbox. Enter a value


of 5%. .
Correlation Area represents the output area of the DEM. A
reduction will reduce the DEM area from the full stereo
overlap.
9. Enable Trim DTM Border by checkbox. Enter a value of 5%. The
DTM extraction area will be the full defined overlap, but will be
reduced by 2.5% on all sides.
Typically the outer edge of the stereo pair contains the
larger errors. By this reduction, questionable areas and
fiducial areas can be eliminated from the DEM..

Task 4: Choosing
Image Pairs

DEMs can be generated by using all or some Stereo Pairs.


1. Select the Image Pair tab. This CellArray shows all image pairs with
an overlap of 50% or greater.
2. View your pairs by clicking the Open Viewer for Image Pair Selection icon
.

3. Click the caret

to view the different Stereo Pairs.

4. Select both pairs by clicking in the Row column.


5. In the Image Detail column, RMB click a cell that has 100%. The
options for this field display.

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6. For the Image Detail, select As Is to keep it at 100%. These values


indicate the last pyramid layer to be used during the DTM mass point
extraction.

On which pyramid layer does the correlation stop, if you input the
value of 25% for Image Detail?

Task 5: Area Selection and Identification

1. Select the Area Selection tab.


2. The Current Pair can be changed by using the drop down menu or
the arrows. Currently the information relates to the first
pair: 11_188_11_189
3. Click the Open the Viewer for Region Digitizing icon
. A red
outline displays, indicating the extent of your output DEM. This region
has a Default search stragegy defined.
Since your image contains more developed urban areas, you will add another
region with a different Region Strategy. For this pair, you will import an existing
AOI.
4. Click the Load Regions from File icon
then click OK.

, input denver-core.aoi,

The DTM Correlation Area may alter the AOI shape.

5. In the Area Selection CellArray, click in the Row column, and select
Row 2, then RMB click on the Row number and choose Delete
Selection.
6. In the Area Selection CellArray, click in the Row column, and select
Row 2.
7. In the Region Strategy column, RMB click on the Default value and
select High Urban.
8. Click the Edit Strategies icon
. Compare and make note of the
Search Size differences in both Default and High Urban.
9. Once finished examining the values, click the Cancel button to return
to the DTM Extraction Properties window.

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10. Highlight Row 1 and set the Region Strategy to Low Urban.
Changes to the Correlation size and Search size are implemented by the strategy you choose.
The default Strategy parameters for a Low Urban can be modified.
11. Click the Edit Strategies icon
log displays.

. The Set Strategy Parameters dia-

12. Click the pull-down arrow for Strategy Name and select Low Urban,
then review the Strategy parameters.
Search Size - Window size is pixels searching along the
epipolar line.
Correlation Size - A window, which moves inside the
search area and is used to calculate a correlation coefficient for interest points.
Correlation Coefficient - A threshold under which interest
points are not used in LPS. The range is 0 to 1.
Topographic Type - Sets up internal parameters based on
topography.
Object Type - DTM extraction algorithm will function more
or less aggressively when selecting interest points. Flatter
areas requires fewer interest points than mountainous
areas.
Allow Adaptive Change - LPS can make changes to the
various parameters as the DTM is computed. This may
improve the results of the strategy application. Adaptive
changes take place between iterative pyramid layer processing.
Use Image Band - Select the layer you want the correlation
to use.
DTM Filtering - High - Filters out elevation spikes and pits.
Low - Quicker, but possibly leaves more elevation spikes.

Is the Low Urban Search Size larger or smaller than the Default
Search Size? Why?

13. Select the Low Urban strategy, and change the Search Size X value
to 19.

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14. Click the pull-down arrow for DTM Filtering and select Moderate.
15. Click OK. When prompted whether to modify Strategy Parameters,
select Yes.
16. RMB click in the Row column and choose Select None.
17. Click the Goto Next Pair arrow
(down) to display the second
stereo pair. As you did previously, set the Default Region Strategy to
Low Urban.
You will now digitize the second strategy area in this pair.
18. In the Overview window, move the cursor to the bottom-right part of
your image and resize the box, if needed.
19. Click the Create Polygon Regions icon
and digitize around the
downtown core area in the Viewer. The image will scroll as the mouse
is moved outside of the Viewer.

20. Double-click to close the polygon.


21. Click to select/highlight the polygon. If editing is required, click the
Reshape icon
and edit as needed.
22. Change the Region Strategy of your new polygon to High Urban.

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23. Move the caret


icon
.

to Row 2, and then click the Edit Strategies

24. Change the Strategy Name to High Urban.


25. Change the Search Size X to 33, change the Filtering to Moderate,
and then click OK.
26. When prompted whether to modify Strategy Parameters, select Yes.

Task 6: The Region


Z

The next few steps will step through how to use the Region Z column.
1. Digitize another polygon. It doesn't have to represent anything, since
you will soon delete it.
By default, the Region Strategy is set to Exclude Area.

2. In the Exclude Area row, click on the word Undefined, then select
Custom.

Custom is only available if the Region Strategy is set to


Exclude Area.

For what could the Region Z Value dialog be used?

3. Click OK in the Region Z Value dialog.


4. Highlight this polygon, and then use the Cut Selected Regions
icon
to delete it.
5. Click OK in the DTM Extraction Properties dialog.

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6. Click Run in the DTM Extraction dialog to create your second DEM.
The Accuracy options will be examined in a subsequent
exercise.

Why was the X Search Size increased in the Low Urban Strategy
parameters?

7. When the DTM Extraction is finished, go to the LPS menu and select
File | Save then select File | Close.

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Exercise 2: Visualizing Your DEM


Objective:

LPS tools will be used to compare DEMs and identify areas with questionable elevation values.

Task 1: Evaluate
Using a Contour
File

Two DTMs have been generated. The first, dem_20m_default.img, has only
default properties. The second, dem_20m_advanced.img, has modified,
advanced properties.
1. In separate Viewers, open each DTM, and list below, any differences
you see.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

In your opinion, which image looks more reliable?

2. In the Viewer containing dem_20m_advanced.img, open the shapefile, dem_20m_advanced.shp. (You will need to change the Files of
type to Shapefile.)
This is a 3D shapefile, containing X, Y, and Z values. The contour may be difficult
to see, so you will modify the colors.
3. Make sure that dem_20m_advanced.shp is the topmost layer in the
Contents pane. Then, in the Symbology group on the Drawing tab,
select Vector Symbology
, then select Automatic | Unique Values. This allows colors to be added, based on unique attributes.
4. In the Unique Value dialog, ensure that the Unique Value is set to Z,
then click OK.

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What is the range of contour values?

5. RMB click in the Row column and click Select All to select all the
rows.
6. RMB click on any of the Symbol cells, then click Other.
7. Change the Outer Color to Green and the Outer Width to 1, click
Apply, then click OK.
8. From the Symbology dialog, click Apply.
You will now change the color of individual contours.
9. Select the rows containing Z values ending in 00, 25, 50, and 75, then
RMB click in the Row column and select Invert Selection.
10. RMB click in one of the selected cells, and from the pull-down list,
change the color to Solid Red.
11. In the Symbology dialog, click Apply then Close. Select Yes to save
the changes and name the Symbology: contour.evs

How might the contours help to identify potential problem areas?

Task 2: Evaluate
Using a Relief Image

1. Open two more 2D Views. Select one Viewer, and from the Quick
Access menu, click the Open Layer icon
.
2. Select dem_20m_default.img, then click the Raster Options tab.
3. Click the pull-down arrow for Display As, select Relief, then click
OK.
4. In the other 2D View, click the Open Layer icon
, select
dem_20m_advanced.img, and use the same Relief option as above,
to display the image.

In comparing the two relief images, are there differences you had not
yet noticed when viewing the DEM images earlier?

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Task 3: Evaluate
Using Change Detection Tools

Until now, most of the identifiable change has been in the downtown area, as it
was more difficult to identify change in the flatter terrain. To help better identify
change, the Change Detection tool is used.
1. From the eWorkspace, select the Raster tab, and select Change
Detection

> Zonal Change > Image Difference.

2. Input dem_20m_default.img as the Before Image, and


dem_20m_advanced.img as the After Image.
3. For the Image Difference file, type dem_diff.img, and for the Highlight Change file, type dem_high.img.
4. Change the Increase and Decrease values from the default to a
value of 1%. This will highlight within the images, any elevation
increase or decrease of 1% or greater.
5. Click OK, and in a new Viewer, open the dem_high.img thematic
image.

What do the green and red colors represent?

6. Select the Table tab and display the Raster Attributes by clicking
Show Attributes

You can also visualize areas with small elevation differences by changing the cell color next to Some Decrease
and Some Increase, and by changing Opacity to a value
of 1.

What is causing the creation of a green area in the bottom right of the
imagery?

7. Close both Viewers and the Change Detection dialog.


Using the visual tools in ERDAS IMAGINE, you have identified questionable DEM
areas, and displayed the benefits of using advanced DEM extraction properties.

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Exercise 3: Statistical DTM Evaluation


Objective:

Evaluate your DEM using LPS Statistical tools.

Task 1: Create
and Evaluate the
Accuracy Report

To create a report, you will have to recreate the DEM.


1. Ensure your main LPS dialog is open and displays your block.

2. Click the DTM Extraction icon


. When prompted whether to
delete dem_20m_advanced.img, select Yes.
The DTM Extraction dialog that displays should have the
same parameters as you input previously. If the parameters
are not present, you will find them in this Section, Exercise
1, Task 1.
3. Click the Advanced Properties button, then click the Accuracy tab.
Generated DEMs can be verified against different reference
sources:

Block GCPs

Block Tie Points

External DEM

User-defined Points collected from


various sources

Next, compare your DEM to an external DEM.


4. Enable the Use External DEM checkbox.

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5. Click the Select Reference DEM File icon


, navigate to your data
directory, then select denver-5m-dem.img, and click OK.
6. Enable on the Use Block GCPs checkbox. This will include the
ground control in the accuracy assessment.
7. You have finished the input of Accuracy Assessment tools. Click OK
in the DTM Extraction Properties dialog.
8. Click Run in the DTM Extraction dialog to start the extraction process.
9. When the process completes, select File | Save from the LPS dialog.
Your DEM has been regenerated and a separate ASCII report file
(dem_20m_advanced.rpt) has been created.

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Exercise 4: Verifying Results


Objective:

Task 1: Examining the Results


Report

Evaluate the DTM extraction process by examining the accuracy and statistics of
the resulting DEM.

1. In a Viewer, open dem_20m_advanced.img, and in the Text Editor,


open dem_20m_advanced.rpt. (To access this file, navigate to your
Outputs directory and change the Files of type to All Files.)
2. Search through the various sections of the report, and make note of
the following:
DTM Generation Time:

__________________

Min Mass Point Elevation:

__________________

Max Mass Point Elevation:

__________________

Projection Information:

__________________

3. Review the section of the report which lists the Strategy Parameters.
The Low Urban regions should have a Low Urban strategy, and the
downtown core should have a High Urban strategy.
The next section in the report contains the Accuracy Information.
General Mass Point Quality - Excellent, Good, and Fair Mass Points are grouped
by their individual correlation coefficient.

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immediate neighbors.

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Suspicious DTM Points are calculated using the following


four steps:
1.

A 3x3 window is used to interpolate an elevation value, using the neighboring DTM postings.

2.

The extracted elevation is subtracted from the


interpolated value to compute the difference.

3.

The standard deviation of neighboring DTM


postings is captured.

4.

If the difference between the extracted and


interpolated value is larger than three times
the standard deviation, the interpolated elevation value is used, and the point is considered
Suspicious.

Global Accuracy - Vertical and horizontal Global Accuracies are created by combining all the 3D references together, in order to compute the various statistical
accuracies.

Minimum / Maximum Error - Describes the range of DTM


Mass point errors. A smaller range may indicate a higher
DTM accuracy.

Mean Error - The average error of a number of observations


found by taking the mean value of the positive and negative
errors without regard to sign. Computed using 3D reference
points.

Mean Absolute Error - The average error when ignoring


signs. Computed using 3D reference points.

RMSE - Determined by calculating the deviations of points


from their true position, summing up the measurements, and
then taking the square root of the sum. Computed using 3D
reference points.
Indicates the magnitude of error associated with all of the
DTM based on the 3D reference points used.

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Absolute LE90 - Describes the error associated with 90% of


the DTM based on 3D reference points.
LPS sorts the 3D reference points in ascending order,
based on error values. The total number of 3D reference
points is multiplied by 0.9 (90%), and that result is rounded
down.
The final figure is used to select the row(s) containing a 3D
reference point, i.e. if the number was 5, the fifth row would
be selected. The error value for that row would be the
Absolute LE90 value. Therefore, 90% of the DTM has an
error, less than the Absolute LE90 value.

NGA Absolute LE90 - Based on the assumption that a normal distribution exists with the set of observations. In this
case, the set of observations is the DTM errors computed
using 3D reference points.

Circularity Errors - Circular Errors can be computed when using another DTM as
a reference. Correlation techniques are used to identify and measure the same
ground X and Y position on both DTMs.

Absolute CE90 - Using image-matching techniques, each


pixel in the extracted DEM is matched with the reference
DEM. The pixel distance (D) is computed for each pixel. The
errors are stored in a column sorted in ascending value. The
error value that is above 90% of error distances is the final
result.

NGA CE90 - Based on the assumption that a normal distribution exists with the set of observations. Using image-matching techniques, each pixel in the extracted DEM is matched
with the reference DEM. The pixel distance (D) is computed
for each pixel.
NGA CE90 = 1.073 (

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xi = X-Shift value computed by differencing the X reference


yi = Y-Shift value computed by differencing the Y reference
n = total number of observations.
x = standard deviation values associated with X shift.
y = standard deviation values associated with Y shift.

A value of 1.073 represents 90% confidence interval


derived from statistical tables. To obtain ground units, the
NGA CE90 value is multiplied by the cell size of the reference image.

Detailed Point Accuracy Information - This section displays Z residuals between field points (3D reference) and the
extracted DEM.

How would you correct for disparate Z values and your DEM values?

4. Close the Text Editor, and the Viewer containing


dem_20m_advanced.img.

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Section 3: Creating and Working with


Ortho Images

Section Objective
To learn the basic principles of the orthorectification process and briefly learn how to mosaic the resulting
imagery and then display it in 3D.

Tools Used
Mosaic Tool

Provides a method to stitch separate images together to produce a


single, continuous output.

Image Drape

Display DEMs and associated images in 3D with relief and perspective.

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Section 3: Creating and Working with Ortho Images

Exercise 1: Orthorectification
Objective:

Generate geometrically and planimetrically correct orthophotos, using LPS Triangulation results.

Task 1: Setup
and Run the
Orthorectification

After the DEM has been created, the next step will be to create the ortho images.
The orthographic projection generated has been corrected for camera distortions,
interior orientation parameters, exterior orientation parameters, and relief displacement.
1. The LPS dialog containing your block with three active photographs
should be open. Click in the Active column, next to image 11_189
and 11_190 to render them inactive.
The Ortho Resampling Process will not be performed on
these images. The first ortho image will be used to help
identify areas of the DEM requiring modification.
Notice also, that all the color patches in the Ortho column
are red.
2. To open the Ortho Resampling dialog, click on a red color cell, or
click the Ortho Resampling Process icon
.
3. Click the pull-down arrow for DTM Source and select DEM.
4. Using the pull-down arrow for the DEM File Name, navigate to your
Outputs directory, and select dem_20m_advanced.img.
If no DEMs are available, you could use an average elevation (above sea level) as a constant value. Based on the
elevation changes in the project area, the results produced
will vary.

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5. Change the Active Area to a value of 80%, and change the Output
Cell Size for X and Y to a value of 2.
6. Click the Advanced tab, enable the Ignore Value checkbox, and
ensure that the value is set to 0.

What are the units of the output cell size?

What are you setting when you change the Active Area value?

7. To start the orthorectification process, click OK, and when the orthophoto is complete, save the changes to the LPS block by selecting
File | Save.

Task 2: Viewing
Ortho Images

1. In a Viewer, display ortho11_188.img, and pan through the image


and look for roadways where the DEM has caused bending. The
downtown core of Denver is the most likely location to find these artifacts.
2. In a new Viewer, display dem_20m_advanced.img, and geo-link the
DEM with the ortho image.
3. Close any open Viewers.

Task 3: Create the


Remaining Ortho
Images

1. Click in the Active column, next to image 11_189 and 11_190 in order
to re-activate them.
2. Ensure that all images are active, then click the Ortho Resampling
Process icon
.
3. When prompted whether to Overwrite Existing Orthos, select Yes.

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4. Adjust the following parameters in the Ortho Resampling dialog:


Active area:

80%

DTM Source:

DEM

DEM Filename:

dem_20m_advanced.img

Output Cellsize:

2m

Ignore Value:

5. From the General tab, click the Add Multiple button.

6. Ensure that the Output File Prefix is set to ortho.img (if not, change
it now), enable the Use Current Cell Size checkbox, and then click
OK.
7. If you receive a dialog to Confirm Existing Ortho, then click OK.
8. In the Ortho Resampling dialog, click OK to start the creation of your
orthos.
9. Open a Viewer and display your newly created ortho images.

How well do the overlap areas line up?

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Exercise 2: Working with DigitalGlobe Data


Objective:

Task 1: QuickBird Geometric


Model

To create an additional block based on a model using a sensor type which scans
an area along parallel lines, perpendicular to the direction of movement. This is
otherwise known as a QuickBird model.

1. Click the Create new block file icon


dialog displays.

. The Create New Block file

2. From the Create New Block file dialog, click the Goto button and
navigate to the Outputs directory.
3. Type denver_quickbird for the block file name, press Enter, then
click OK. The Model Setup dialog displays.

4. From the Model Setup dialog, select Rational Functions from the
Geometric Model Category list, then for the Geometric Model,
select QuickBird RPC, and click OK.
5. Click the Set button. The Projection Chooser dialog displays.
6. From the Standard tab, within the UTM WGS 84 North category,
select the Denver projection (created earlier), and click OK.

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7. Once the projection reference has been set, click OK.


The block is created and is listed in the LPS Project Manager.
8. To save the block, select File | Save.

Task 2: Importing
QuickBird Imagery

You will now import some QuickBird imagery into your new block file. You will then
create pyramid layers and import the sensor information into the project.
1. Click the Add frame to the list icon
. When the Image File
Name dialog displays, navigate to the QuickBird directory, located
within the LPS training data folder.
2. Open the QuickBird directory, and then open the scene_1 directory.

3. Change the Files of type setting to TIFF, then select QB_stereo1.tif


then click OK.
4. Click the Add frame to the list icon
QuickBird directory.

again, and return to the

5. Open the scene_2 directory, and select QB_stereo2.tif, then click


OK.
You should now see two listings in the CellArray, for these images. Now that the
imagery has been added to the block file, we will attach the RPC file to the raster
QuickBird image.

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Task 3: Attaching
RPC Files to Satellite Imagery

To ensure that we have the correct exterior orientation data present, we need to
attach the RPC files to the imagery.
1. In the CellArray, select Row # 1 to highlight the first image.
2. In the LPS Project Manager window, click the Show and edit frame
properties icon
.

3. Ensure that the RPC Coefficients file is set to qb_stereo1.rpb.


4. Click the Next button.

5. Ensure that the RPC Coefficients file is set to qb_stereo2.rpb.


6. Click OK in the QuickBird RPC Frame Editor dialog.

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The correct orientation data has now been associated with each QuickBird image
and the display window should refresh to show this.

Task 4: Importing
GCPs to a QuickBird
Image Block

Ground control points (GCPs) may be added to a QuickBird block file to


strengthen the relationship between images by refining the rational polynomial
model. However with RPCs (Rational Polynomial Corrections) you do not have to
have GCPs for orthorectification.
1. Click the Start Point Measurement icon
izontal Reference icon
.

, then click the Set Hor-

2. From the list of GCP Reference Source options, enable the ASCII
File (3D) radio button, then click OK.
3. Navigate to the QuickBird directory and select QuickBird-gcp.txt
and click OK. The Reference Import Parameters dialog displays.

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4. Ensure that the Map Projection and Units are set as follows:
Projection:

UTM

Spheroid:

WGS 84

Zone Number:

13

Datum:

WGS 84

Horizontal Units:

Meters

5. Once the settings are verified as correct, click OK. The Import
Options dialog displays. If an Attention dialog appears, then click Yes.
This dialog configures preferences for import of data into the LPS Point
Measurement tool.

6. Since the QuickBird-gcp.txt is already in the default file format,


simply click OK to import the data.
7. Using the images on the following pages as a guide, locate the four
(4) active GCPs in the screen images, and place points on their location.
For your reference, the correct X and Y file coordinates
(image coordinates) for both images are provided, following
the GCP location images on the next few pages.

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GCP#1

134

X Reference: 496154.954

qb_stereo1

X File: 9506.571

Y File: 8555.539

Y Reference: 4400522.662

qb_stereo2

X File: 15389.666

Y File: 21066.471

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GCP#2

X Reference: 494839.642

qb_stereo1

X File: 7714.917

Y File: 2913.066

Y Reference: 4404128.574

qb_stereo2

X File: 13226.125

Y File: 15198.125

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GCP#3

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X Reference: 500989.864

qb_stereo1

X File: 16669.502

Y File: 11262.417

Y Reference: 4398837.024

qb_stereo2

X File: 23237.625

Y File: 23835.625

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GCP#4

X Reference: 490913.572

qb_stereo1

X File: 1457.125

Y File: 12981.125

Y Reference: 4397630.735

qb_stereo2

X File: 6906.448

Y File: 25723.822

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Now that points have been measured on the imagery, you will refine the polynomial corrections for the imagery.
With the addition of ground control points (XYZ), polynomial
corrections may be applied to the original rational function
model. This option corrects the remaining error and refines
the mathematical solution.
This optional refinement of the rational polynomial allows
you to select the polynomial order with which to correct the
original function model. You can type a value between 0
and 3 into the field, or use the increment nudgers to the
right of the field. The 0th order results in a simple shift to
both image X and Y coordinates.
The 1st order is an affine transformation. The 2nd order
results in a second order transformation; the 3rd order a
third order transformation. In general, a 0 or 1st polynomial
order is sufficient to reduce error not addressed by the rational function model (RPC file).

Task 5: Refine the


Rational Polynomial
Coefficient Corrections

Having measured some Ground Control Points in the imagery, we now have the
data necessary to further refine the RPC corrections.
1. In the Point Measurement window, click the Triangulation Properties icon

2. Enable the Refinement With Polynomials checkbox, and set the Polynomial Order to 1, then click Run.
3. Review the Total Image RMSE value and ensure that it is at 1.0 pixels or less.
If the RMSE is above 1.0 pixels, you should review your
placement of the GCPs to verify that they have been placed
in the correct location.
Click through the points in the CellArray and examine their
location to ensure that they are situated in the same position for both images. If this fails to resolve the problem, consult your instructor for further assistance.
4. When the RMSE is less than 1 pixel, click Accept, then click OK.
5. In the Point Measurement window, click Save, then click Close to
return to the main Project Manager screen.

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Task 6: Extract a
DTM from a QuickBird Stereo Pair

We now have a block file with QuickBird imagery and their associated RPC files
attached and are ready to extract a DTM.
1. From the icon menu, click the DTM Extraction icon
Extraction dialog displays.

. The DTM

2. Change the Output Form to Single DTM Mosaic.


3. In the text box for Output DTM File, type qb_denver_50meter, then
press Enter.
4. Enable the Make Pixels Square checkbox, then in the DTM Cell Size
input a value of 50 for X, then press Enter. You should see the Y
value change to 50, which will create a DTM with a square elevation
post spacing.
5. Enable the Reduce DTM Correlation Area checkbox and set the
value to 5%.
6. Click the Advanced Properties button to open an expanded list of
DTM extraction options. If an Attention dialog appears, click Yes.
By default, LPS will only consider stereo pairs with overlap
between them greater than a user-defined threshold. The
default setting is 50% and this QuickBird data possesses
approximately 48% overlap.
7. In the DTM Extraction Properties window, click the Image Pair tab.

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8. To include the QuickBird imagery in this list of active stereo pairs,


change the Overlap Percent Threshold to a value of 45%. Click
Recalculate and then OK. .
A listing for the qb_stereo1_qb_stereo2 displays, under the
Image Pair Name column. It should list an Overlap % of
about 48%.
9. In the DTM Extraction dialog, click Run.
When the process completes, a DTM will have been created from the QuickBird
imagery using an elevation post spacing of 50 meters.
The 50-meter DTM was simply extracted to provide experience at generating elevation data with QuickBird imagery.
A 10-meter resolution DTM is provided with the training
data to be used in the following Tasks.
10. To add a 10-meter DTM to the file list in the LPS Project Manager
window, click on the DTMs folder in the TreeView frame.

11. Click the Add frame to the list icon


, and navigate to the QuickBird folder, which is in the LPS directory.
12. Double-click on qb_dem-10m.img. The 10-meter resolution DTM is
now available for use in this project.

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Task 7: Orthorectifying QuickBird


Imagery

Now that the DTM has been extracted, we can use the elevation data to orthorectify the QuickBird imagery.

1. Click on the Images folder in the TreeView frame.

2. In the CellArray, highlight qb_stereo1.tif.


3. Click the Start ortho resampling process icon
Resampling dialog displays.

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4. The DTM Source should be defined as DEM, and the DEM File
Name should be set to qb_dem-10m.img.
5. In both the X and Y Output CellSize fields, input a value of 15, then
press Enter.
6. In the Ortho Resampling window, click the Advanced tab, then
enable the Ignore Value Checkbox and ensure that it is set to a
value of 0.00000.
7. The Overlap Threshold should be set to 30.0% and the Resampling
Method selected should be Bilinear Interpolation.
8. To add the second image to the file list, click the Add button.
9. In the Add Single Output window, click the pull-down arrow for Input
File Name, and select qb_stereo2.tif, then enable the Use Current
Cell Sizes checkbox.
10. Click OK to add this image to the list, then click OK in the Ortho Resampling window to begin the orthorectification of the two images.
11. When finished, click File | Save, then click File | Close.

Task 8: Orthorectify Frame Images


Using a 10-meter
DEM

Earlier, a DEM was extracted from frame imagery in order to orthorectify conventional aerial photographs. Since the DEM coverage is limited to the overlap areas
of the air photos, we have not been able to orthorectify or mosaic the full extent of
the imagery.
In this task, we will make use of the 10-meter resolution DEM, previously used to
orthorectify the QuickBird images.
1. In the Project Manager window, click the Open Existing block file
icon
.
2. From the Outputs folder, select denver_frame.blk as the File Name,
then click OK.
3. To make the 10-meter DEM available, highlight the DTMs listing in
the Block Project Tree View, then click the Add frame to the list
icon
, and navigate to the QuickBird directory.

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4. For the File Name, select qb_dem-10m.img then click OK. The DEM
has now been added to the Denver frame imagery block and may be
used to orthorectify the aerial photographs.
Since this DEM covers a greater area than the DEMs generated from the air photos, we will be able to orthorectify a
larger region of the photographs.
5. Click on the Images folder in the TreeView frame.

6. Click the Start ortho resampling process icon

7. Click NO to the Attention dialog.


8. In the Ortho Resampling dialog, change the Output File Name to
qb_ortho11_188.img, and change the value for Active Area to
75.0%.
9. Set the DTM Source to DEM and select qb_dem-10m.img as the
DEM File Name.
10. Set a value of 2 for both the X and Y Output Cell Size, press Enter
after each entry to accept the value.
11. Click the Advanced tab and set the Overlap Threshold to 30.0%.
12. Enable the Ignore Value checkbox and ensure that the value is set
to 0.
13. Click the Add Multiple button to add the remaining two images.
14. When the Add Multiple Outputs dialog displays, change the Output
File Prefix to qb_ortho.img.
15. Enable the Use Current Cell Sizes checkbox, then click OK.

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16. Click OK to Confirm Existing Orthos.


You may now see four (4) entries in the Ortho Resampling
CellArray - the first initial listing for frame 11_188.img and
the three subsequently added.
If you see four entries, then you should remove the first listing to prevent this first image from being orthorectified
twice.
If you only see three listings in the CellArray, skip the next
few steps.
17. Click OK to orthorectify the three images.

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Class Notes

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Exercise 3: Mosaic Images


Objective:

Use the LPS Mosaic Tool to create a single mosaic image from multiple ortho
image results.
It is common that a study area may be larger in size than any one image or photo.
It may straddle the overlap region of two images, or an entire block of imagery may
occupy only part of the study area. In situations such as these, it is often necessary to create single, large images by stitching the smaller photos together.
What are the benefits of creating a mosaic from a set of orthorectified images,
which have been processed in LPS, compared to a set which has been processed
individually?

Task 1: MosaicPro

1. From the LPS icon panel, click the Mosaic icon

2. Ensure that the DTM File radio button is selected.


3. Select denver-5m-dem.img as the DTM File and click OK.

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4. Select the Crop Area radio button and enter 5% as the Crop Percentage.
5. Click OK in the Add Images dialog.

6. Enable the Vis. cells for each of the images

7. Click the Display raster images icon

8. Click the Automatically Generate Seamlines icon

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9. Enable the Weighted Seamline option and click OK.


10. Zoom in on one of the seamlines.
MosaicPro provides the capability to draw and edit a new seam polygon in an
embedded Viewer. The seam polygon is applied to the image in which the first
vertex is digitized, then the embedded viewer is updated and the input images are
stitched along the seam polygon boundaries.
11. Click the Edit seams polygon icon

12. Digitize a polygon around a portion of the seamline. See below. The
side of the seamline from which the polygon originated is the one that
will increase in size when the polygon is completed.

13. Move along the seamline and make any additional changes where
necessary.
14. To remove color differences within and between the images, click the
Display Color Correction Options icon
.

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15. Enable the checkboxes for Use Image Dodging and Use Histogram
Matching.
16. Click the Set button for Image Dodging.
The Image Dodging feature applies a filter and global statistics across each image
you are mosaicking in order to smooth out light imbalance over the image. The
outcome of Image Dodging is very similar to that of Color Balancing, but if you
wish to perform both functions on your images before mosaicking, you need to do
Image Dodging first. Unlike Color Balancing, Image Dodging uses blocks instead
of pixels to balance the image.
17. Click the Compute For All button.
18. Click the Preview button and then click the Accept for All button.
19. Click Close.
20. Click OK in the Color Corrections dialog.
21. Click the Output Options icon

22. Set the Output Cell Size to 2. Click OK.


23. To run the mosaic, select Process | Run Mosaic.
24. Type denver_mosaic.img as the Output File name.
25. From the Output Options tab, enable the Stats Ignore Value: 0
checkbox, then click OK.
26. Save your Mosaic project as denver_mosaic.mop
27. Display denver_mosaic.img in a Viewer.
28. Close the MosaicPro tool.

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Class Notes

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Exercise 4: Visualizing Your Images


Objective:

Task 1: Create
Ortho of Stadium

Display and visualize an ortho-image on top of a DEM in 3D.

1. Click on the DTMs folder in the TreeView frame.

2. Click the Add frame to the list icon

3. In the Image File Name dialog, select sub_5m.img and click OK.
4. Click on the Images folder in the TreeView frame.
5. Deactivate 11_188.img and 11_190.img by clicking on the
the Active column.

s in

6. Click the Start ortho resampling process icon


. The Ortho
Resampling dialog displays. If prompted, do not delete the previously
created ortho-image.

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7. Change the following parameters:


Output File Name:

stadium.img

DTM Source:

DEM

DEM File Name:

sub_5m.img

Output Cell Size:

1 meter

Overlap Threshold: 0.5%


Ignore Value:

0.00000

8. In the Ortho Resampling dialog, click OK.

Task 2: Open Layers into the Image


Drape Tool

1. From the main ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel, select Tools | Image
Drape.
2. From the Image Drape menu, click the Open File icon
. Your
DEM layer must be opened first, so select sub_5m.img, then click
OK. Your DEM displays.
3. To drape the stadium ortho-image onto the DEM, click the Open File
icon again and choose stadium.img, then click OK.
A perspective view of the Denver Broncos stadium displays. The view will be
saved later as a standard image for use in a report or map.
4. From the Image Drape menu, select Utility | Options.

5. Enable the Viewing Range checkbox and change the value to


50000. Click Apply.

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6. Click the Background tab, and from the pop-up menu, choose
Image.

7. In the Image File Name option, select the sky.img file, then click OK.
8. From the Options dialog, click Apply and Close. The sky image displays in the Image Drape Viewer.
9. From the Image Drape tools, click the Dump Contents to Viewer
icon
.
This will allow us to visualize the eye point and target locations.
10. From the Image Drape menu, select View | Link/Unlink with
Viewer. Following the prompt, click in the 2D Viewer containing the
imagery.

11. Your Eye and Target locators


display. To adjust the perspective view, you can reposition the Eye and/or Target locators.
Click and drag either icon to a new location.
When you release the mouse, the Image Drape Viewer will
update with the new view.

The Eye and Target locators cannot change the height of


the viewpoint or target.
To further define your viewing dimensions you will use the Positioning Tool.
12. Click the Show the Observer Positioning Tool icon

You may input new position parameters within the number


fields, or you may adjust the Profile graphic line. The eye
and target represented by either end of the Profile graphic
line (red line) can be dragged to new locations.

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13. Using the Eye and Target points (the ends of the red line), you should
be able to generate suitable views, and then click Apply to see any
changes made.
14. Once you are satisfied with your view, close the Position Parameters dialog.
15. From the Image Drape tools, click the Show Sun Positioning Tool
icon
. The black dot represents the position of the sun.

The black dot represents the position of the sun.


Towards the outer
circles, the sun is
closer to the horizon.

With the dot in the


inner circle, the sun
is directly overhead.

16. Drag the black dot to different locations and click Apply to change
the shadowing.
17. Image Drape also allows the saving of positions to a file. From the
Image Drape menu, select Position | Positions Editor. Resize the
Positions Editor so that you can see all the columns.
18. From the Positions Editor Tool Bar, click the Add Position icon
and your current position will be populated into the CellArray.
19. Repeat this for two (2) other appropriate views. As you add views,
you can input notes to describe the significance of the view.
20. In order to recreate certain views, click the caret
next to the
desired view, then select Motion | Go to Current. A positions file can
be used in IMAGINE VirtualGIS to generate flight sequences.
The final step is to convert your 3D view into an LPS .img file, which could then be
used in a report, map composition, or exported to another graphics format such as
a .tif.

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21. To save your current view, select File | View to Image File and for the
Output filename, input 3dview.img, then click OK.
This process is simply making a screenshot of the perspective view in the Image Drape. If you have any dialogs on top
of the Image Drape Viewer, then they will be included in the
output image.
22. Select File | Close Image Drape to exit the Image Drape utility.
23. In a standard Viewer, display your 3dview.img file, ensuring that the
band combinations used are RGB=1,2,3.
You have completed the orthorectification process. This procedure may be
adapted to your own projects.
24. Close all open Viewers and dialogs.

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Section 4: LPS Terrain Editor

Section Objective
This section will examine the point, area, and geomorphic-based tools which assist in the editing of DTMs
in several formats.

Tools Used
DTM Extraction
Tool

A component of LPS used to extract elevation mass points from a digital block.

Contour
Generation

Used to create shapefile contours of the DTM.

Change
Detection Tool

Tool used for comparing images for determining differences in pixel values.

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Exercise 1: Introduction
Objective:

To utilize the Terrain Editor window and review the available tools and functions of
that window.

Task 1: Launch
the Terrain Editor

Once DTMs have been automatically extracted using LPS Automatic Terrain
Extraction (ATE), the quality of the output DTM can be verified by viewing the surface overlaid on top of the stereo model from which it was generated.
The stereo model serves as a reference source for ensuring that the DTM is, in
fact, correct. If the mass points associated with a TIN or a raster terrain dataset do
not sit on the surface of the earth, you can use specific DTM editing tools available in Terrain Editor to ensure that the terrain dataset conforms to the earth's surface.
The automated DTM extraction process commonly has difficulty in urban areasspecifically, around buildings, bridges, trees, and other extruding features on the
earth's surface. In these instances, you have to edit the initial mass points and
reshape them so that they fit, reflect, and represent the earth's surface.
Because accurate DTMs are required for the ortho mosaicking process, the DTM
must accurately reflect the ground. Failing this may result in less reliable ortho
mosaics.
DTMs are also edited to add more detail to the terrain
dataset. For example, you may get a coarse-resolution
DTM and want to increase the density of detail in specific
areas.

1. From the LPS Project Manager window, open


denver_frame.blk block file.

the

2. In the LPS icon panel, click the DTM Editing icon


Terrain Editor window displays.

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Menu Bar

Lists headings for all of the options and tools available

Toolbar

Provides icons as shortcuts for commonly used tools

Task Panels

Divides tools, options, and file management into categorized sub-headings

Status Bar

Lists the current referencing selected and provides the


X,Y, and Z coordinates of the cursor location

Stereo Window

Used to display imagery when loaded into the Viewplex

3. Click the Maximize icon


to maximize the display of Terrain Editor.
The Terrain Editor displays and is ready for use.

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Task 2: Setting up
Devices

Devices for interaction with imagery and terrain data must be configured for use in
Terrain Editor. These settings can be saved and then configuration is only required
once unless new devices are added.
1. From the main menu, click Edit, and then select Devices, then highlight the System Mouse option.

2. In the Devices dialog, click Button Mappings.


3. In the Customize Button Assignment section of the System Mouse
Button Mapping dialog, click the pull-down list and select Left.

To what is the LMB currently assigned?

4. Change the pull-down selection from Left to Right.


5. In the same interface, enable the CTRL checkbox.

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Next, you will assign the Snap to Ground function to a combination of holding the
CTRL key and clicking the RMB.
6. In the Categories window, make sure Image Display is selected.
7. In the Commands/Buttons window, scroll down the list and select
Snap To Ground.

8. In the Customize Button Assignment section, click Assign.


The Snap To Ground command displays in the Currently
assigned to field. Saving the current settings by user name
will allow multiple operators on the same workstation to
retrieve their preferred setup very easily.
9. Click the Save button.
10. Navigate to your Outputs directory and in the File Name field, input
your last name, then click Save to save your current settings to a file
called [lastname].dxt.
11. Click Close to close the System Mouse Button Mapping dialog.
12. In the Devices dialog, with System Mouse still highlighted, click
Properties. The System Mouse Properties dialog displays.

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You can adjust the sensitivity of the Z coordinate adjustment by setting the appropriate value in the Axis-To-Ground
Settings section.

13. In the Z column and the ScrollWheel row, input a value of 0.05.

This means that every time you adjust the Z-wheel of the
system mouse, the elevation of the cursor is adjusted 0.05
units. This value may be adjusted to suit your preference
and the type of terrain you will be editing. Areas with large
variation in elevation may benefit from setting this value
higher to allow you to move the cursor through the range of
elevations more quickly. The value may also be set to a
negative number to reverse the Z-axis directional movement of the cursor.

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14. Click OK in the System Mouse Properties dialog, then click Close to
exit the Devices dialog.
The Snap To Ground command works best when you set
the correlator properties to match the type of terrain you are
working with. The Denver dataset contains areas of low elevation change but the downtown core has very rapid z-axis
changes.
15. From the Terrain Edit menu, select Edit | Settings. Select the Terrain
Correlator tab.

16. In the Quality Threshold section of the dialog, ensure the slider bar
is set to a value close to 70%.
17. In the Terrain Slope section of the dialog, move the slider bar to the
Steep setting.

18. Click Apply then OK to close the Terrain Correlator Properties dialog.

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Task 3: Loading an
Image Pair

With the program settings now defined, we will load a stereo pair of imagery and
explore the display options and tools available.
1. In the Project Explorer task panel, click and drag the image pair
11_188.img - 11_189.img into the Stereo window
.

2. Select View | Layout | Split. The Split view shows the left and right
images that make up the image pair in separate windows.
3. Next, select View | Layout | Tri-View.

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This view shows the left and right images in the bottom portion of the window and
a stereo view of the two images together in the top portion of the window.
If you do not have the appropriate hardware for stereo viewing, the display will be in anaglyph mode.

Task 4: Exploring
the Cursor and View
modes

There are several methods of navigating through the imagery using the cursor and
these will be explored below.
1. From the Terrain Editor Toolbar, click the Manually Toggle Cursor
icon
.

2. In order to manipulate the position of the cursor in this mode, you


must first activate the Stereo Window by clicking inside of it.
3. Press the F3 key on your keyboard; this enables you to manipulate
the position of the cursor in the Stereo window.

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4. While in the Stereo window, move the cursor in the X and Y directions
by moving the mouse from left to right then up and down.
Notice the coordinates in the Status Bar at the lower-left
corner of interface update as you move the cursor in the
Stereo window.
5. Adjust the elevation of the cursor by rolling the mouse wheel up and
down until it rests on the surface of the earth.
Note that the Vertical Z coordinates updates in the Status
Bar.
6. Click the CTRL key on your keyboard plus the RMB, and then move
the cursor slightly.
Because you mapped this combination to Snap To Ground,
this function automatically places the cursor on the ground
or feature of interest if it is within the correlation setting you
specify.
7. Click the F3 key on your keyboard again to exit this mode and practice the following image handling options.
8. On the Terrain Editor toolbar, click the Auto-Recenter Cursor
icon
.
9. Click in the Stereo Window to activate it, then press F3 and move the
cursor to the edge of the window. Notice how the imagery automatically re-centers in the middle of the display based on the cursor location.
10. Exit the Stereo window by pressing F3.
11. From the Terrain Editor Toolbar, click the Moving Image/Fixed Cursor icon
.

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12. Click in the Stereo Window to activate it, and then select F3 on your
keyboard.
Notice that as you move the mouse, the cursor is fixed and
the images appear to move. You'll notice in the Status Bar
that the XY coordinates are being updated as you move the
mouse.
In this mode, you can use the scroll wheel of the mouse to
adjust the separation (parallax) of the images so that like
features rest on top of each other in the Stereo window.
13. Exit the window by pressing F3.
Now, practice zooming in and out.
14. From the Terrain Editor Toolbar, click the Zoom In icon

15. In the Stereo Window, click in the window once.


Notice that the software zooms in to the display by two. The
Zoom Level on the toolbar also reflects this.

There is also a Continuous Zoom function available in the


Stereo Window. To activate, select either the Zoom In or
Zoom Out tool then simply click and hold the MMB and
zoom in by moving the cursor to the top of the screen. To
zoom out, drag the cursor to the bottom of the window.

How does this behavior differ from Auto-Recenter Imagery?

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Terrain Editor has several task panels located on the interface. These task panels can be minimized by selecting the
Thumbtack icon
located in the upper-right corner of
each task panel. This minimizes the task panel to the left
wall of the interface.
Once minimized, you can view a task panel by placing the
cursor over the task panel tab and clicking, or by simply
hovering the cursor over the title and the task panel will be
displayed.
To place the task panel back in the interface, select the horizontal Thumbtack icon
in the title bar of the task panel
and it is embedded in the window. To maximize a task
panel, LMB click on the task panel title and it completely
expands to reveal all options.

Task 5: Adjusting
Image Brightness
and Contrast

The next step involves adjusting the brightness and contrast of the imagery for display purposes. While editing a terrain dataset, the imagery used as a reference
backdrop may need to be adjusted for image brightness and contrast. This can be
done in Terrain Editor using the tools available in the Image Adjustments task
panel.
1. Place the cursor over the Image Adjustments task panel and click
on it to expand the interface.
Terrain Editor lets you adjust both images simultaneously,
or you can adjust the left or right images separately.
2. Click the Both radio button to apply brightness and contrast to both
images.
3. Adjust the brightness by moving the scrollwheel left and/or right.
Adjust contrast slightly by moving the scrollwheel left and right.

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4. To reset the brightness and contrast to the original settings, click the
Reset Brightness and Reset Contrast icons
.
5. To prepare for the next portion of the tour guide, click the Zoom Level
pull-down list and choose 16:1.

If necessary, reposition the image pair in the center of the


Stereo Window.

Task 6: Loading a
Terrain Dataset

1. In order to load a terrain dataset, click on the Terrain Files and Display task panel which will expand the dialog.

2. in the Filename pull-down list, select the file


dem_20m_advanced.img, then click Load..
This may take a moment, depending on your system
resources.

If the display is rotated from what is displayed here, select


the Image Adjustment tab and turn off the Epipolar Correction.

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Since this is a grid DTM file, you will now see a regular network of blue squares at every point for which an elevation
value has been calculated.

3. To display the terrain contours over the imagery, first click the Display
Points icon
to turn off the point display.

4. Next, click on the Display Contours icon


and wait for the
screen to refresh with the graphics drawn. When finished, your
screen should look like the image below.

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5. Click the Reset Zoom icon


to return to the 1:1 image level, and
view a smaller area of the DTM file in greater detail.

6. Click the Roam icon


tours.

and navigate around the image to see con-

The display settings associated with how the terrain dataset


displays in the Stereo window can be reviewed and modified by selecting the Settings option in the Terrain Files and
Display task panel.
7. Click Settings in the Terrain Files and Display task panel.
8. Click the Contours tab and set the line Weight for the Index Contours to 4.
9. Set the Index Color of the contour to a bright green.

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If you would like to increase or decrease the contour interval used to display the contour lines, you can do so in this
tab by adjusting the Contour Interval value.

What is meant by the terms Index Contours and Intermediate Contours?

10. Click Apply then OK in the Terrain Display Settings dialog.


11. Spend some time roaming around the imagery using the Roam tool
to evaluate how the contour lines fit the topography.
12. Adjust the Zoom Level to examine the imagery from overviews, as
well as at the full resolution level.
13. When you are finished, select File | Exit from the Terrain Editor.

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Exercise 2: DTM Editing Tools


Objective:

To examine DTM editing tools which focus upon TIN based elevation surfaces
only. Since the Terrain Editor has different sets of tools for grid based DTMs and
TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) based surfaces, we should have samples of
both to fully explore our DTM editing options.

Task 1: Generate a TIN Format


DTM

Our experience with generating DTMs in LPS has so far been limited to extracting
grid based elevation surfaces, however, extracting TINs is very similar in process.
1. Ensure that all three images are Active.
2. In the main LPS Project Manager window, click the DTM Extraction
icon
. If prompted, do not delete the previously created DEM.

3. When the DTM extraction window displays, adjust the settings as


follows:

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Output DTM Type = TerraModel TIN

Output Form = Individual DTM Files

Output DTM Prefix = tin

DTM Cell Size X = 10

DTM Cell Size Y = 10

4. Click the Run button.


5. When finished, click the Save icon

Task 2: Editing a
TIN using Terrain
Editor

1. From the LPS Project Manager window, click the DTM Editing
icon
.
2. Maximize the display of Terrain Editor by clicking the Maximize
icon
at the top right of the dialog.
3. Select View | Layout | Tri-View.
4. In the Terrain Editor workspace, click on the Project Explorer task
panel.
5. In the Image Pairs folder, click on and hold the image pair
11_188.img - 11_189.img then drag it into the Terrain Editor Stereo
window.
6. Click the Manually Toggle Cursor icon
Moving Image Fixed Cursor icon
.

and then click the

7. Click inside the Stereo window, then press F3.


8. Roll the mouse wheel until the same features overlap in the left and
right images. This process is called Removing Parallax.
9. Press F3 again to return to system mouse control.
10. In the Terrain Editor workspace, click on the Terrain Files and
Display task panel.
11. From the Terrain Files pull-down menu, select
tin11_188_11_189.pro, and then click the Load button.

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12. Click the Roam icon


and move around the dataset in the Stereo
Window to see how the TIN conforms to the ground shape.

13. Disable the Display Triangles icon


icon

and the Display Breaklines

so that only the mass points for editing display.

14. In the Terrain Files and Display task panel, click the Display Contours icon
so that contours display in the Stereo window.

During the editing of a DTM, the contour lines are updated


so they reflect any edits you make.
15. Click the Move Cursor task panel:

In the X field, input 498726.215

In the Y field, input 4400146.23

In the Z field, input 1584

16. Click Move To. This moves the cursor to a location on building rooftop. You will edit points in this area.
17. Click the View | Layout menu, select Tri-View, then change the
Zoom Level to 4X.
The split-panel display of the left and right images of the
image pair helps you position the cursor on the same feature in each image, thus ensuring that it is on the feature of
interest or the ground.

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Task 3: Deleting
Individual Mass
Points

1. From the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Delete icon
to
select it. This tool is used to delete individual mass points in the DTM.
2. Click in the Stereo Window then press F3 on your keyboard.
3. Move to a one of the mass point locations on the roof of this building,
and adjust the position of the cursor to the same approximate elevation as the mass points of interest by rolling the scroll wheel.
4. Position the cursor over a specific mass point you would like to delete
then click on it.
Notice how the contour is updated to reflect this change.

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5. Repeat the procedure several times to delete all mass points on the
rooftop of this building.
6. When you are finished, press F3 to exit the Stereo window.
In the Terrain Editing task panel, clicking the Undo icon
will undo the last deletion. Clicking the icon again will undo
the second to last event. Selecting the Redo icon
has
the reverse effect.

Task 4: Adding Mass


Points to a Terrain
File

Now that we've removed all of the original mass points from this building rooftop,
we will add points to define it again.
1. In the Terrain Editing task panel, under Terrain Edit Tools, click the
Point Tool icon

This tool is used to add individual mass points in the DTM.


2. Under the Move Cursor task panel, enter the following values:

In the X field, input 498726.215

In the Y field, input 4400146.23

In the Z field, input 1584

3. Click the Move To button, then click in the Stereo Window, then press
F3 on your keyboard, then click to add a mass point in the window.
Since the cursor was not adjusted to the correct elevation
(that is, the elevation of the terrain in this area), an elevation
spike is created. This is also reflected by the updated contour lines.
4. Press F3 then in the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Undo
icon
and this will undo the last event.
5. Click in the Stereo window, and then press F3 on your keyboard.
6. Adjust the elevation of the cursor so that it rests at the corner of the
building.

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7. Click to add additional mass points along the edges of the building in
the DTM.
Points are commonly added in areas where the terrain
dataset does not accurately reflect the terrain as visualized
in stereo. Placing additional points in specific areas provides for a better and more accurate representation of the
terrain.

8. For each mass point that is added, ensure that the cursor is resting
on the terrain. Once you have added a number of points, press F3 to
exit the Stereo window.

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Task 5: Editing
Using the Delete
Option

1. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Area Select icon

2. In the Terrain Edit Operators section, click the Operator pull-down list
and select Delete Selected Points.

3. In the Move Cursor task panel, enter the following values:

In the X field, input 498487.41

In the Y field, input 4399732.64

In the Z field, input 1588

4. Click the Move To button, then press F3.

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5. Click and digitize a polygon around the cluster of trees so that the
trees and the shadows are enclosed by the polygon.

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For each location on which you place a vertex, the cursor


should be positioned so that it rests on the terrain.
6. RMB click to close the polygon.

To create a perfectly square or rectangular selection area,


simply click and drag it to your desired size.

7. Once the polygon has been created, you should see all of the mass
points within the polygon highlighted in yellow. Press F3 to exit the
Stereo window.
8. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Apply button.
Notice that all of the previously selected points have now
been deleted.

Task 6: Edit DTM


Using Fit to Surface
Tool

1. Under Terrain Files and Display task panel, click the Settings button.
2. Click on the Contours tab and set the Contour Interval to a value of
2, click Apply then click OK.

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3. In the Move Cursor task panel, input the following coordinates:

In the X field, input 498979.068

In the Y field, input 4400436.06

In the Z field, input 1581

4. Click the Move To button.


This will place the cursor at the edge of a grassy area. We
will now draw a polygon around this and the two immediately adjacent grassy areas and modify the elevation values
of the contained points.

5. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Area Select icon

6. In the same task panel, in the Terrain Edit Operators section, click
the Operator pull-down list and select Fit Surface to Points.

7. In the Parameters section, click the Selection Boundary radio button.

8. Click in the Stereo Window and press F3.


9. In the Stereo window, digitize around the extent of the grassy area.
Keep the elevation of the cursor consistent with the terrain
in the area.

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10. RMB click to close the polygon then press F3 to exit the Stereo window.
11. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click Apply while continuing to
watch the display in stereo.
The contours change accordingly. Terrain Editor updates
the Z coordinate for each posting within the polygon by
computing a new Z value. The new Z value is computed by
using the elevation value at each digitized point along the
selection boundary as reference to interpolate a new Z
coordinate for each mass point.
12. Click Deselect All in the Terrain Editing task panel to deselect the
points within the polygon.

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Exercise 3: Setting a Constant Elevation


Task 1: Applying
a Single Elevation Value

The Set Constant Elevation tool may be used to apply a single elevation value to
an area selected by a polygon. This is useful in areas such as; lakes, rooftops or
sporting fields.
1. In the Terrain Files and Display task panel, click Save to save the
changes you have previously made to the DTM, then click Close.

When using the Save button, the original file is overwritten


with any edits made in then Terrain Editor.
2. In the Project Explorer task panel, click and hold the LMB on the listing for 11_190.img - 11_189.img then drag it to the Stereo Window
and release the mouse button.
3. In the Filename section of the Terrain Files and Display task panel,
click the pull-down list and select tin11_189_11_190.pro, then click
Load.
4. In the Terrain Display section, ensure that only the Mass Points icon
and the Contour Lines icon
are selected.

5. Activate the Move Cursor task panel and input the following coordinates:

ERDAS Customer Education

In the X field, input 498137.93

In the Y field, input 4399557.64

In the Z field, input 1588

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6. Click the Move To button.


7. In the toolbar, set the Zoom Level to 2x.

You will now see the cursor placed approximately in the


center of the football stadium.
8. Examine the contour lines in this area and notice how there are spurious mass points which do not fall on the true ground surface.

Task 2: Collecting
Polygons

In the following steps, you will collect a polygon around the boundary of the football field and make all elevation postings a constant value.
1. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click the Area Select icon

2. In the Terrain Edit Operators section, click the Operator pull-down


list and choose Set Constant Z.

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3. In the Elevation Source section of the Parameters settings, enable


the Current cursor radio button.
4. Click in the Stereo Window and press F3.
5. Digitize a polygon around the field.

6. RMB click to close the polygon.


7. Position the cursor in the middle of the field and adjust the elevation
until it rests on the playing field.
8. Press F3 to exit the Stereo window.
9. In the Terrain Editing task panel, click Apply.

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All of the mass points selected are updated with a new elevation value based on the current elevation of the cursor in
the Stereo window. This edit is also reflected in the contour
lines in the display.
10. In the Terrain Files and Display task panel, click Save then Close.
11. In the Terrain Editor menu, select File, then Exit. You have now
returned to the LPS Project Manager.

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Appendix A - Geometric Models in LPS


CAMERA

Frame Camera - Frame cameras typically referred to as aerial cameras with a


152mm (6") focal length and a 9 x 9 inch format size. Fiducial marks are burned
into each exposure and the cameras are calibrated in a lab every X number of
years.
Digital Camera - Digital cameras use an array of pixels on a Charge Coupled
Device (CCD), not film, to capture data. There are no fiducial marks and the cameras are not calibrated.
Video Cameras - Video cameras use either film or CCD's to record data. There
are no fiducials and the cameras are not calibrated.
Non-Metric - A 35mm camera is typically referred to as a non-metric camera. Primary component that are not calibrated include focal length, principal point and
lens distortion. The minimum interior orientation input requirements include an
approximate focal length and the scanning resolution.

RATIONAL
FUNCTIONS

DPPDB - DPPDB data, which was developed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), is classified data and cannot be obtained by everyone. The
data consists of support data, compressed reference graphics, and high-resolution
imagery in image pairs. The image pairs usually cover a range of 60 nautical miles
(Federation of American Scientists, Digital Point Positioning Data Base (DPPDB),
2000)
IKONOS - The IKONOS sensor model supports imagery collected from the
IKONOS satellite. Sensor model properties associated with the satellite are automatically derived from the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) and metadata
files of the imagery, and subsequently used in LPS.
NITF RPC - NITF, National Imagery Transmission Format, data is collected from
the IKONOS sensor. It can be used in LPS when it includes rational polynomial
coefficient (RPC) data. The RPC data is included inside the NITF file: it is not contained in a separate file. Information about the projection associated with the NITF
data is contained in an external metadata file. The metadata file is usually in a text
(*.txt) file.

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To use the NITF RPC option in LPS, you must have ERDAS IMAGINE NITF support installed on your system.
QuickBird RPC - QuickBird imagery is accompanied by image support data (ISD).
One element of the ISD data is the RPC file, which has information used to transfer object space coordinates to image space coordinates (Digital Globe, QuickBird
Imagery Products, Product Guide, 2003).
ORBIMAGE RPC - ORBIMAGE imagery is accompanied by image support data
(ISD). One element of the ISD data is the RPC file, which has information used to
transfer object space coordinates to image space coordinates.

POLYNOMIALBASED
PUSHBROOM

Generic Pushbroom - Pushbroom data is collected along a scan line, with each
scan line having its own perspective center. Other than SPOT or IRS-1C. Sensor
model parameters associated with internal geometry must be provided.
SPOT - Sensor model properties are automatically derived from the header file.
IRS-1C - Sensor model properties are automatically derived from the header file.

ORBITAL
PUSHBROOM

Orbital - The orbital pushbroom model can be used for sensors such as EROS A1
and ASTER.

MIXED SENSOR

Mixed Sensor - With the Mixed Sensor model, calibrated images, oriented
images, and/or SOCET SET support (*.sup) files can be added into a block file.
Images without sensor models cannot be used in the Mixed Sensor model. Using
the Mixed Sensor, the same block may have various projections, and the same
block may have images with different vertical datums and units.

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Appendix B - Terrain Editor Operators


There are a number of other editing operators in Terrain Editor not covered in this general introduction. All
operators have been listed below to provide you with further examples of the features available. You are
encouraged to practice with them if time permits.

Bias Elevation:

This task applies a constant offset to all elevations in the selection. A positive bias
increases each elevation by the specified amount; a negative bias decreases each
elevation by the specified amount. Enter the offset amount in the Parameters section.
Offset - Enter the amount of offset you want to apply to all selected points.

Delete Selected
Points:

Select this option to delete all currently selected points. You must click the Apply
button, below, to execute the deletion.

Smooth
Elevations:

This task adjusts existing elevations in the selection to reduce noise (high-frequency variations) in the surface. Updated elevations are computed using a
weighted average of the elevations of neighboring points; elevations are weighted
by horizontal distance from the point being updated.

Set Constant Z:

This task sets all selected elevations to a constant value, thereby forcing a horizontal surface. This is useful for modeling lakes, for example, in the terrain
dataset.
Selection - Constant elevation value is derived from the terrain data contained in
the selection, in conjunction with the specified
Selection Boundary - Constant elevation value is derived from the polygonal
boundary delineating the selection, in conjunction with the specified Elevation
Value (Maximum, Average, or Minimum).

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Current Cursor - Constant elevation value is derived from the current cursor elevation.
Custom value - Custom elevation value is specified by the user.
Maximum Z - Use the maximum elevation value in the specified elevation source
Average Z - Use the average elevation value in the specified elevation source.
Minimum Z - Use the minimum elevation value in the specified elevation source.

Fit Surface to
Points:

The Fit to Surface task computes new elevations for existing points in the selection
based on a mathematical surface. The surface is defined by a set of data points.
Source for Surface Parameters - Select the source of the data points that
defines the surface.
Selected Points - All polynomial parameters are derived from the selected points.
A Least Squares adjustment is made to produce the best fitting plane.
Selection Boundary - In this case, the selection polygon is used to determine the
plane into which the selected points will be placed. A least squares method is used
to find the best fitting plane.
Surface Type - There must be a minimum number of points required for a given
order, 3 points for 1st order, 6 for 2nd order, and 10 for 3rd order. In the following
equations, X and Y are ground coordinates; z is elevation; c, c1, and c2 are values
solved by least squares.

1st Order Polynomial (Plane Fit)

z = ( c + c1 x X ) + ( c2 x Y )

2nd Order Polynomial

z = ( c + c1 x X ) + ( c2 x Y ) + ( c3 x X2 ) + ( c4 x ( X x Y )) + ( c5 x Y2 )

3rd Order Polynomial

z = ( c + c1 x X ) + ( c2 x Y ) + ( c3 x X2 ) + ( c4 x ( X x Y )) + ( c5 x Y2 ) + ( c6 x X3 )
+ ( c7 x ( X2 x Y )) + ( c8 x ( X x Y2 ) + ( c9 x Y )
When using the Selection Boundary as the source for the surface fitting, the only
fit type available is a 1st Order Polynomial.

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Copyright2010, ERDAS, Inc.


First 10.0 Edition, Published Jan 2010
Printed in the United States of America

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