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Major forms of Artificial Lift

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INFLOW AND OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE


SURFACE PRESSURE
At Wellhead

PRODUCED FLOWRATE

If Po < Pwf, the well will flow naturally


(~6% of wells by number)

If Po Pwf, the well will require Artificial Lift

(~94% of wells worldwide)


WELL OUTFLOW
RELATIONSHIP

Po
Required Po to produce desired rate

Reservoir Pressure- Pr

Pwf

WELL FACE
PRESSURE

WELL INFLOW (IPR)


Available Pwf as function of the flowrate

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INFLOW PREFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS


Straight Line (PI):
Vogel Relationship:
Qo/Qomax = 1 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8 (Pwf/Pr)2
Pwf

= flowing bottom hole pressure at sandface (psia)

Pr

= average reservoir pressure (shut in BHP psi)

= oil flow rate (BPD)

Qo

= flow rate (BPD)

Qomax

= maximum flow rate (Vogel or combination),

PI

= Productivity Index BPD/psi.

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Pwf = Pr Q / PI

Straight line vs. Vogel Graphically

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OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP


Po = Ph + Pfr + Pwh

Ph = Hydrostatic pressure

Pfr = Pressure drop due to friction losses

Pwh = Wellhead Pressure (surface pressures)

Several correlations have been developed to better model mixed flow


considering different factors such as flow-regime, water cut,
viscosity, well inclination, roughness, holdup, etc.

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Where,

Pressure to Head Conversion


To convert pressure to head:
Head (in feet )= Pressure (psi) / (SG*0.433)

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Fresh water gradient = 0.433 psi/ft

The concept of Artificial Lift

Lift process transfers energy downhole or decreases


fluid density in the wellbore to reduce hydrostatic
pressure on formations.

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Artificial Lift is needed when reservoir pressures do not


sustain acceptable flow rates or there is no fluid flow at
all.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS OVERVIEW


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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS


Gas Lift (SLB)
DuraLift
PC Pumps (SLB)

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ESPs (SLB)

HydroLift
Hydraulic Pumps (SLB)

Beam pump (not SLB)

AL Methods Applicability not one size fits all


ESP's
poor
fair
good
fair
fair
good
good
fair
good (with VSD)
fair

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Applicability of AL Methods
Condition
Rod Pumps Hydraulic Pumps PCP's
GL
Scale
fair
fair/poor
fair
fair
Sand
fair
very good/poor* good
very good
Paraffin
poor
fair
good
poor
Corrossion good
fair
fair
fair
High GOR
poor
fair
fair
very good
Deviation
poor
very good
fair/good very good
Rate
poor
fair
fair
very good
Depth
fair
very good
fair
good
Flexibility
very good very good
good
very good
Temperature very good good
poor
good

Artificial Lift Market 94% of Wells are on AL

US
541,000

Revenue
Spears 2004
Rod Pumps
Electric Submersible Pumps
PCP's
Gas Lift
Hydraulic Pumping
Russia
Others
121,000

Total Expenditures

9,000
Libya
Egypt
1,760
1,200 Oman
2,600

Venezuela
15,000
Peru
4,600

China
76,000
India
3,000

Brazil
7,400

Argentina
13,800

Indonesia 9,500

Australia
1,300

World: 845,000 wells

MM$
717
1725
369
130
30
320
3291

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Wells
Spears 2004
% WW Wells WW
Rod Pumps
79%
669,716
Electric Submersible Pumps
12%
98,065
PCP's
4%
30,144
Gas Lift
3%
26,892
Canada
Hydraulic Pumping
<1%
5,000
North
Sea
48,200
Others
2%
14,856
600
100%
844,673W.Europe
Total Systems

ARTIFICIAL LIFT Application Ranges


Typical Artificial Lift Application Range
Ft./Lift
12,000
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11,000
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
1,000

Rod Pumps

2,000

3,000

4,000

PC Pumps

5,000

6,000

7,000

Hydraulic Lift

8,000

9,000

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 BPD

Submersible Pump

Gas Lift

ARTIFICIAL LIFT System Efficiency;


includes all mechanical losses
100

80
70

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Overall System Efficiency (%)

90

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
PCP

Hydraulic Piston
Pumps

Beam Pump

ESP

Artificial Lift Type

Hydraulic Jet
Pump

Gas Lift
(Continuous)

Gas Lift
(Intermittent)

Artificial Lift
Selection
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Making artificial lift decisions is


primarily a process of choosing
the lift method most applicable to
expected surface, reservoir, fluid
and operational conditions

AL Methods Applicability not one size fits all


Rod Pumps
fair
fair
poor
good
poor
poor
poor
fair
very good
very good
good

Hydraulic PumpsPCP's
Gas Lift
PumpsPCP's
fair/good*
fair
good
very good/poor* good
very good
fair/good*
good
poor
fair
fair
fair
fair
fair
excellent
excellent
poor/good very good
good
fair
very good
very good
fair
good
very good
good
very good
very good
poor
good
poor/very good* very good*fair

ESP's
poor
fair
good
fair
fair/good*
good
good
good
good (with VSD)
fair/good*
fair

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Condition
Scale
Sand
Paraffin
Corrossion
High GOR
Deviation
Rate
Depth
Flexibility
Temperature
Efficiency

Reciprocating Displacement
Rod Pumps

Rod Pumps combine a cylinder (barrel) and


piston (plunger) with valves to transfer well fluids
into the tubing and lift the fluid to the surface.

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Transfer of mechanical energy from surface


via rod string to downhole pump

Rod Pumps
Disadvantages:

Most widely used AL method

Restricted flow and depth

Best understood by field personnel

Susceptible to free gas

Usually the cheapest (where suitable)

Frequent maintenance

Low intervention cost

Remote locations without electricity

Deviated wellbores are difficult (rod and


tubing wear)

Readily accommodates volume changes

Reduced tubing bore

Reliable diagnostic tools available

Susceptible to corrosion

Can often pump below perforations

Potential wellhead leaks

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Advantages:

Progressing Cavity
Displacement Pumps

Mechanical
Mechanica energy transfer via rotation
sucker rods (top drive) or electricity
(bottom drive).

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Progressing cavity pumps are based on


rotary fluid displacement. This spiral
system consists of a rotor turning inside a
stationary stator.

PC Pumps Applications
Heavy & viscous oils.
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Production of solids-laden
fluids.
Medium to sweet crude.
Coal bed methane / gas well
de-watering.
Urban areas.
Agricultural areas.

Lower surface footprint than Beam Pumps

Progressing Cavity Pumps


Disadvantages

Simple two piece design.

Sensitive to overpressure

Excellent for viscous crude

Sensitive to pump off

Resistant to abrasives and solids

Restricted flow rate (< 5000 bpd)

Non-pulsating. Does not gas lock or


emulsify fluid.

Restricted setting depths (< 6500 ft)

Limited operating temp (< 250 F


absolute max)

Not compatible with some chemicals,


H2S and high API Gravity Oils

Oil Gravities from 5 to 42 API

Fairly flexible application method

Efficient power usage

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Advantages

Gas Lift
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Gas Lift uses additional high


pressure gas to supplement
formation gas. Produced
fluids are lifted by reducing
fluid density in wellbore to
lighted the hydrostatic
column, or back pressure,
load on formations.

Gas Lift as an Artificial Lift Method

By injecting relatively high pressure gas from the surface to a


predetermined depth in the wellbore, the average specific
gravity of the fluid decreases which causes a drop in the well
face pressure (Pwf) generating additional draw-down which
according to Darcys Law- turns on increased fluid production.

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Gas lift injection decreases fluid average density, thus the


hydrostatic load on formations is reduced so that available
reservoir energy can cause inflow, and commercial
hydrocarbon volumes can be boosted or displaced to the
surface.

GL Typical System

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INFLOW

Gas Lift
Advantages

Disadvantages

Fairly low operational cost

Flexibility - can change rates by

If gas is corrosive it will require treatment

pressures. Also, easy to change gas lift

Possible high installation costs

valves without pulling tubing

Top sides modifications to existing


platforms

High volume lift method 35,000 bpd

typical

Very good for sand / deviated wells

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adjusting injection rates and/or

Must have a source of gas

Compressor installation & maintenance

Limited by available reservoir pressure

Hydraulic-Lift Pumping
Systems
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Hydraulic systems transfer energy


downhole by pressurizing special
power fluid,
fluid usually water or a light
refined oil or pumped through well
tubing or annulus to a subsurface
pump, which transmits the potential
energy to produced fluids. Common
pumps consist of jets (venturi and
orifice nozzles), reciprocating pistons,
or less widely used rotating turbines.

Advantages of Jet Pumping


No moving parts, can tolerate solids & deviated wellbores

Simplifies completions significantly


Chemicals can be injected with power fluid
No rig required to change zones (tandem well)
Low capital cost per unit production

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No rig required to replace pump (due to wear or


productivity changes)

Disadvantages of Jet Pumps


Low system mechanical efficiencies (30%)
High surface maintenance costs if using piston power fluid
pumps
Industry not familiar with system due to past monopoly
supply & poor marketing/product knowledge

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High fuel/energy running costs

Hydraulic Piston Pumps


Offered as an alternative to jet pumps
Higher efficiencies (up to 95%)
Reciprocating piston to lift product to surface
Hydraulically retrievable
Similar flexibility in design and application

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Ideal Hydraulic Pumping System


RedaHPS + Surface System + Downhole Equipment = A Complete System
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Multi-well Installation Driven by RedaHPS

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Portable Testing Units

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Principles of Operation
Jet pumps can be used as an alternate to Piston pumps

Jet pump assemblies can be shorter and higher flow

Referred to as far back as 1852


First patents for oil wells usage in 1930

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They can fit interchangeably into BHAs


Shorter BHAs can be used

Jet Pump Overview


Pumping action achieved with energy transfer
Potential energy (pressure) is converted to kinetic energy in
form of high velocity jet stream

Well fluids intermix at the exit (in throat)


Momentum entrains well fluid

Mixture passes through expanding area (diffuser) slows


down the liquid
Pressure of the mixture must be sufficient to reach the
surface

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High pressure fluid passed through the nozzle

Pressure
Head

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Velocity
Head

Nozzle and Throat Sections

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Jet Pump Overview Contd


No moving parts
Heavy oils, paraffin, gas, sand and corrosives

Reservoir needs relatively strong drive


100 psi / 1000 ft as a guideline

Has to be sufficient tubular space in well


To avoid excessive friction loss

Offer ruggedness, reliability and volume

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Flow passages can use exotic materials for:

Jet Pump Overview Contd


Guidelines:

Higher lifts = higher pressure

Production capacities from 50 10,000 bpd


Abrasion resistant nozzles in ceramic, SS or Tungsten
Carbide
Total length of jet pump section can be ~1.5 ft
Gas can lead to reduced return flowing gradient = less HP

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PF pressure 2000 4000 psi (5000 psi max)


Maximum well depths 3000 12,000 ft

Performance - Nozzle to Throat Area


Ranges from 20 60% ratio

Selection defines defines:


Effectiveness of power fluid injected
Power fluid to lift
Input horsepower

Higher lift = more pressure = more efficiency (up to


5000 psi max)

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Different N to T combinations provide range of lift


capacity

Area Ratio
Fad= An/At

E.G. Large throat to nozzle ratios have higher flow capacities

OBJECTIVE IS TO MINIMIZE HP TO MAXIMIZE EFFICIENCY

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Where:
Fad= dimensionless area ratio
An= area of nozzle, sq. in.
At= area of throat, sq. in.

N/T Characteristics Examples


High head, low flow pump

When nozzle is 20% of the area of


the throat

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When nozzle is 60% of the area of


the throat

Low head, high flow pump

LESS flow area around nozzle for


well fluids to enter

MORE flow area around the nozzle


for well fluids to enter

Low production rate capacity


compared to power fluid rate

High production rate capacity


compared to power fluid rate

Higher injection pressures


required to meet defined lift

Deep wells with high lift may need


this configuration

Shallow wells with low lift

Velocities are typically 200 - 300 fps in throat area!

Equipment Selection
Balancing the Following:
Jet pump components
Will only circulate PF
PF pressure could be too high for required lift

If the throat area is too small = cavitation


Defining minimum annular area is a key part of the design

Power fluid supplied


Goal = minimal HP and maximum production

Friction considerations
Goal = keep losses to a minimum for application

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Nozzle too small

Jet Pump Application Range


Tubing

Max Lift

Size

Max Production (B/D)

1-1/4
2-3/8
2-7/8
3-1/2

1,000 B/D
2,500 B/D
8,000 B/D
10,000 B/D

Capacity (Ft.)

10,000 Ft.
15,000 Ft.
15,000 Ft.
15,000 Ft.

 Reverse flow retrievable

 Flexible production capacity

Deviated & crooked wells

 Deep wells

Multiple wells

 Offshore platforms

 Remote & urban locations

 Environmentally friendly

 Multiple zones

 Economical

 Unitized & transportable

 Complex well completions

 Low Profile

 Field repairable

 No-moving parts

 Sand & solids

 Gas & water

 Paraffin & heavy oil

 Corrosive fluids

 DST, well cleaning & testing

 Low maintenance

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Advantages of Hydraulic Jet Pumps

Piston Pumps
Free Piston Pump Application Range
Max Production (B/D)
at Depth

Max Lift
Capacity (B/D)

2-3/8
2-7/8
3-1/2
4

1317 B/D at 8700 ft.


2400 B/D at 8700 ft.
4007 B/D at 8700 ft.
5005 B/D at 5005 ft.

18,000 Ft.
18,000 Ft.
18,000 Ft.
18,000 Ft.

Advantages of Piston Pumps




Hydraulic retrievable

 Flexible production capacity

 Deviated & crooked wells

Deep wells

 Multiple wells

 Offshore platforms

Remote & urban locations  Environmentally friendly

Economical

 Unitized & transportable

 Complex well completions

Low profile

 High Efficiency (95%)

 Low fluid levels

 Multiple zones

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Tubing
Size

Typical Hydraulic System

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Open Power Fluid System


Power fluid is produced

Casing free installation

Simplest design

Most economical design

Ideal for chemical treatment

Allows circulation of heated fluids

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Closed Power Fluid System

Excellent in abrasive, corrosive, and viscous fluids


Excellent in offshore and urban applications
Higher initial capital expense

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Minimize power fluid treatment

Piston Pump
Same reciprocating action as rod pump

Ideal for low flow rates

Low intake pressure

Higher efficiency

Maximum drawdown

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Standard Wellhead and Downhole


Pump
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Electric Submersible
Centrifugal Pump
Systems
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Electric submersible systems use


multiple pump stages mounted in
series within a housing, mated
closely to submersible electric
motor on the end of tubing and
connected to surface controls
and electric power by an armor
protected cable.
Transfers electrical energy that
is converted to torque..

ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE
PUMPS
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ESP

The ESP was introduced as a means of Artificial lift by REDA


in the late 1920s.
There are a wide variety of pump sizes, capacities, motor
horsepower, and voltage ranges for different applications

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The Electric Submersible Pumping (ESP) System transfers


electrical energy from the surface to a down hole motor that
converts it into a mechanical force (torque). This rotational
movement turns the pumps impellers and lifts the well fluids
to the surface.

ESP - Motor

Its the heart of the


system since it provides
the torque required by the
downhole pump.

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The motor is a three


phase, squirrel cage, two
pole induction design.

Motor - Components

The housing material forms the cover


for the motor and is threaded at both
ends for head and base components.

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The stator is composed of the the


housing material for a desired
diameter, the stator core, and the
stator windings (copper
copper wire)
wire .

Stator Laminations

562

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540

Motor - Components

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The rotor is made up of rotor


laminations that are smaller in
diameter from the stator
laminations and these create
the iron core. Inside each slot
are copper bars with
supporting copper end rings.

Rotor laminations with copper bars

562

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540

ESP - Motor Selection

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Motors are available in a


number of different Sizes,
Voltages, and Horsepower
ranges depending on the
application

ESP Protector
The protector is located
directly above the motor.
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ESP - Functions of the Protector

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Couples the torque developed in the motor to


the pump via the protector shaft.
Prevents entry of well fluid into the motor.
Provides pressure equalization.
Houses the bearing to carry the thrust
developed by the pump(s) and keeps it off of
the motor.
Provides a reservoir for the thermal
expansion of the motors oil

ESP Gas Separators


In some applications, there may
be gas produced along with the
oil and water liquids.
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If gas is present, then a gas


separator can be installed and
becomes the pumps intake. This
assists in eliminating some of the
gas that might be produced
through the pump.

ESP Pump

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The multistage centrifugal pump


consists of numerous impellers
and diffusers (application
dependent) to provide the lift
(pressure) required. The pump
has a discharge head that the
tubing screws into.

ESP - Pumps

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A Centrifugal Pump is a machine that moves


fluid by spinning it with a rotating impeller
inside a stationary diffuser that has a central
inlet and a tangential outlet.
The pressure (head) develops against the
inside wall of the diffuser as the curved wall
forces fluid to move in a circular path
upwards and into the impeller and diffuser
above.
One impeller and diffuser make one pump
stage.
stage

Maximum HeadHead-Capacity for Pumps

4.5" Casing
5.5" Casing
7" Casing

15000

10000

5000

0
0

10000

20000

Flow Rate - BPD (60 Hz)

30000

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Total Dynamic Head -Feet

20000

Pump
Performance
Curves
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ESP's operate at
3,500 rpm on a
60-cycle power
supply or 2,900
rpm on a 50cycle power
supply.

ESP - Power Cable


And Motor Lead Extension

MLE Cable

Power Cable

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Electric power is transferred


to the motor through an
electrical cable banded to the
tubing.

ESP - Power Cable


Power Cable consists of three copper
conductor wires extending from the top of the
motor flat cable lead to the wellhead.

Bottom Hole Temp and fluid properties are


critical for the selection of cable.
The electrical cable has been refined
over the years to be used specifically for
oilwell applications.

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The size of the cable selected is based


on amperage and voltage drop.

ESP Power Cable


Components

Insulation material - protects and covers the conductor wire


Barrier Jacket - protects and covers the insulation.
Jacket Material - rubber compound designed for temperature,
chemical, and gas considerations.

The exterior armor - the outer shield that holds it all together

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The conductor - electrical properties

ESP - Surface Equipment

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Transformers
VSDs

J-Boxes

Wellhead Connectors

ESP - Surface Equipment


The Wellhead is the device that is
installed at the surface on the
wellbore casing.

Special wellheads are required to


allow for cable and/or connector
passage.

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Purposes: to support the tubing string,


cable & ESP and contain high
pressures conditions often present
within the casing.

ESP - Surface Equipment


Electrical transformers are required
to deliver the correct voltages at the
motor terminals.

Transformers can be either single


phase or three phase.

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- Step-down transformers:
- Step-up transformers:

Wellhead
Production

Casing
Drain valve
Check valve
1 joint Tubing

Motor flat cable


Pump
Pump intake
Protector
Pothead
Motor

Perforations.

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Primary cable

Motor
controller
Junction
box

Transformers

ESP J Box
A Junction box or vent box:

Allows for any gas to vent that may have migrated


through to the power cable.
Provides easy/safe accessible test point for
electrically checking downhole equipment.

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Provides a connection point for the surface cable


from the motor control panel or VSD to the power
cable in the wellbore.

ESP Switchboards
The switchboard is used to energize the motor

The controller also provides the capability to


monitor the REDA Production system with the
use of a recording instrument.

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It contains a motor controller which monitors


running parameters and provides protection to
the system.

VSDs

It provides a constant ratio of


between voltage and frequency for
proper operation.

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The variable speed controller allows for


flexibility of the downhole system for
flow control capabilities.

ESP s Advantages

Can operate under conditions such as higher bottom hole temperate


with the use of alternative materials.
Can be utilized to test wells by using a portable VSD

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Can achieve high production rates


When VSD operated, can offer flexibility to accommodate changing
conditions in time (PI, water cut, Pwf, Pr, etc.)
Can be used at low bottom hole pressures.
Can operate reliably in deviated and offshore wells.
Can sometimes operate below perforations.

ESP s Disadvantages
A pulling unit is required to retrieve the failed ESP, regardless of

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failed component.-expensive intervention costs.


High temperatures affect cable and motor insulation.
High dog leg severities are a problem.
Available electrical power for required horsepower.
Use of Switchboards (constant speed) limits the flexibility of
production rates.
Higher gas content can limit system capabilities.
High solids may cause rapid wear and premature failure.

ESP - Summary
Electric submersible systems use multiple pump stages
mounted in series within a housing, mated closely to
submersible electric motor on the end of tubing and
connected to surface controls and electric power by an
armor protected cable.
Wide performance range and versatility (VSD only)

Can operate in deviated wells and off shore

Most efficient and economical lift method on a costper-barrel basis

Tubing must be pulled to change or repair the


downhole components

Depth and Gas Oil Ratio restrict capacity and


operating efficiency

Large volumes of gas can lock up the pump

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END

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End of Module