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Name: Alban Mugoti

Assignment 2
Answer all questions in the space provided
1Define the following:
a) Inferential statistics

(1)

Mathematical methods that employ probability theory for deducing the properties of a population
from the analysis of the properties of a data sample drawn from it.
b) Factor
(1)
A constituent or element that brings about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple,
number, or quantity
c) Stratified random sampling

(1)

It is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into
different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the
different strata.
d) Type 1 error

(1)

A type of error that occurs when a null hypothesis is rejected although it is true.
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Latin squire

(4)

Advantages
a) Allows the experimenter to control two sources of variation.
Disadvantages
a) The experiment becomes very large if the number of treatments is large
b) The statistical analysis is complicated by missing plots and mis-assigned treatments
c) Error of degrees of freedom is small if there are only a few treatments
d) Only allows a small number of treatments to be analysed at a time

3. Give the model for the completely randomised design with two factors

(2)

The model for the response is


????????????????????????
4a) A ceramic engineer wanted to test the strength of high tension made from four new clay mixtures,
A, B, C, D and E (control-original mixture). She made five insulators from each mixture. She
suspected that there was a temperature gradient from front to back and from top to bottom in her
oven. She decides to use Latin squire design with shelves (top to bottom-5) as rows and positions on
the shelves (front to back- 5) as columns. After firing, the strength of each insulator was measured.
The experimental layout and strength measurements were as shown below. Test to see if there is a
difference in the strengths between each clay mixture.
25)

FRONT
TOP
A 33.8
D 37.0
C 35.8
E 33.2
B 34.8
BOTTOM
Row
number
1
2
3
4
5
Column
total
Grand
total

BACK
B 33.7
E 28.8
D 35.6
A 37.1
C 39.1

D 30.4
B 33.5
A 36.9
C 37.4
E 32.7

C 32.7
A 26.7
E 26.7
B 38.1
D 37.4

E 24.4
C 33.4
B 35.1
D 34.1
A 36.4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

A 33.8
D 37.0
C 35.8
E 33.2
B 34.8
174.6

B 33.7
E 28.8
D 35.6
A 37.1
C 39.1
174.3

D 30.4
B 33.5
A 36.9
C 37.4
E 32.7
170.9

C 32.7
A 26.7
E 26.7
B 38.1
D 37.4
161.6

E 24.4
C 33.4
B 35.1
D 34.1
A 36.4
163.4

Row
total
155
159.4
170.1
179.9
180.4
844.8

MEAN OF TREATMENTS
Treatment
A
B
C
D
E

Total
170.9
175.2
178.4
174.5
145.8

Mean
34.18
35.04
35.68
34.9
29.16

DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR EACH SOURCE OF VARIATION


Total degrees of freedom= t2-1=25-1=24
Row degrees of freedom =column degrees of freedom=treatment degrees of freedom=t-1=5-1=4
Error degrees of freedom= (t-1)(t-2) =(5-1)(5-2)=12
Correction factor and sums of squares
C.F= G2
=844.82
=28 547.4816
2
t
25

Total SS = X2 C.F
=(33.8)2+(37.0)2+(35.8)2+(33.2)2+(34.8)2+(33.7)2+(28.8)2+(35.6)2+(37.1)2+(39.1)2+ (30.4)
2
+(33.5)2+(36.9)2+(37.4)2+(32.7 )2+(32.7 )2 + (26.7)2+ (26.7)2+(38.1)2+ (37.4)2+(24.4)2+(33.4)2+
(35.1)2+(34.1)2+(36.4)2 =28896.28
=28896.2828547.4816=348.7984

Row SS =R2 C.F


t
=(155)2+(159.4)2+(170.1)2+(179.9)2+(180.4)2=143275.5428547.4816=107.6264
5
5
ColumnSS =C2C.F=(174.6)2+(174.3)2+(170.9)2+(161.6)2+(163.4)2=142853.9128547.4816
t
5
5
Row SS=29.8344
Treatment SS= T2C.F
t
=(170.9)2+(175.2)2+(178.4)2+(174.5)2+(145.8)2=143436.328547.4816=139.7784
5
5
Error SS=Total SS-Row SS-Column SS-Treatment SS
=348.7984107.626429.8344139.7784=71.5592
THE MEAN OF SQUARES FOR EACH SOURCE OF VARIATION
Row MS=Row SS=107.6264=26.9066
t1
4
Column MS=Colum SS=29.8344=7.4586
t1
4
Treatment MS= Treatment SS=139.7784=34.9446
t1
4
Error MS=Error SS= 71.5592=5.963266667
(t1)(t2)
12
F Value =Treatment MS=34.9446= 5.859976075
Error MS 5.963266667
The tabular F values, from appendix E,with F1=4 and F2=12 degrees of freedom are 3.26 at the 5%
level of significance and 5.41 at 1% level. Because the computed F value is higher than the tabular F
value at the 5% and 1% levels of significance, the treatment difference is significant at both levels of
significance.
Coefficient of variation=Error MS100=5.963266667100=0.072265035100=7.2%
Grand mean
33.792

Source of
variation

Degrees of
freedom

Sum of
squares

Mean
square

Computed
F

Tabular F
5%
1%

Row
Column

4
4

107.6264
29.8344

26.9066
7.4586

5.859976075

5.41

3.26

Treatment
Error
Total

4
12
24

139.7784
71.5592
348.7984

34.9446
5.963266667

b) What are the assumptions required for an analysis of variance? Do you think that the
assumptions for analysis of variance (ANOVA) were met in 4(a)?
1)
2)
3)
4)

(5)

The data in each cell should be approximately normally distributed


The variance in each cell should be similar
Sample size per cell is less than 20
Scores on one variable or for one group should not be dependent on another variable or
group. There should be independent observations.
5) The main effects (block and treatment) are additive.
The assumptions for analysis of variance were met because the data was normally distributed.