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Assignment 2

Answer all questions in the space provided

1Define the following:

a) Inferential statistics

(1)

Mathematical methods that employ probability theory for deducing the properties of a population

from the analysis of the properties of a data sample drawn from it.

b) Factor

(1)

A constituent or element that brings about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple,

number, or quantity

c) Stratified random sampling

(1)

It is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into

different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the

different strata.

d) Type 1 error

(1)

A type of error that occurs when a null hypothesis is rejected although it is true.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Latin squire

(4)

Advantages

a) Allows the experimenter to control two sources of variation.

Disadvantages

a) The experiment becomes very large if the number of treatments is large

b) The statistical analysis is complicated by missing plots and mis-assigned treatments

c) Error of degrees of freedom is small if there are only a few treatments

d) Only allows a small number of treatments to be analysed at a time

3. Give the model for the completely randomised design with two factors

(2)

????????????????????????

4a) A ceramic engineer wanted to test the strength of high tension made from four new clay mixtures,

A, B, C, D and E (control-original mixture). She made five insulators from each mixture. She

suspected that there was a temperature gradient from front to back and from top to bottom in her

oven. She decides to use Latin squire design with shelves (top to bottom-5) as rows and positions on

the shelves (front to back- 5) as columns. After firing, the strength of each insulator was measured.

The experimental layout and strength measurements were as shown below. Test to see if there is a

difference in the strengths between each clay mixture.

25)

FRONT

TOP

A 33.8

D 37.0

C 35.8

E 33.2

B 34.8

BOTTOM

Row

number

1

2

3

4

5

Column

total

Grand

total

BACK

B 33.7

E 28.8

D 35.6

A 37.1

C 39.1

D 30.4

B 33.5

A 36.9

C 37.4

E 32.7

C 32.7

A 26.7

E 26.7

B 38.1

D 37.4

E 24.4

C 33.4

B 35.1

D 34.1

A 36.4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

A 33.8

D 37.0

C 35.8

E 33.2

B 34.8

174.6

B 33.7

E 28.8

D 35.6

A 37.1

C 39.1

174.3

D 30.4

B 33.5

A 36.9

C 37.4

E 32.7

170.9

C 32.7

A 26.7

E 26.7

B 38.1

D 37.4

161.6

E 24.4

C 33.4

B 35.1

D 34.1

A 36.4

163.4

Row

total

155

159.4

170.1

179.9

180.4

844.8

MEAN OF TREATMENTS

Treatment

A

B

C

D

E

Total

170.9

175.2

178.4

174.5

145.8

Mean

34.18

35.04

35.68

34.9

29.16

Total degrees of freedom= t2-1=25-1=24

Row degrees of freedom =column degrees of freedom=treatment degrees of freedom=t-1=5-1=4

Error degrees of freedom= (t-1)(t-2) =(5-1)(5-2)=12

Correction factor and sums of squares

C.F= G2

=844.82

=28 547.4816

2

t

25

Total SS = X2 C.F

=(33.8)2+(37.0)2+(35.8)2+(33.2)2+(34.8)2+(33.7)2+(28.8)2+(35.6)2+(37.1)2+(39.1)2+ (30.4)

2

+(33.5)2+(36.9)2+(37.4)2+(32.7 )2+(32.7 )2 + (26.7)2+ (26.7)2+(38.1)2+ (37.4)2+(24.4)2+(33.4)2+

(35.1)2+(34.1)2+(36.4)2 =28896.28

=28896.2828547.4816=348.7984

t

=(155)2+(159.4)2+(170.1)2+(179.9)2+(180.4)2=143275.5428547.4816=107.6264

5

5

ColumnSS =C2C.F=(174.6)2+(174.3)2+(170.9)2+(161.6)2+(163.4)2=142853.9128547.4816

t

5

5

Row SS=29.8344

Treatment SS= T2C.F

t

=(170.9)2+(175.2)2+(178.4)2+(174.5)2+(145.8)2=143436.328547.4816=139.7784

5

5

Error SS=Total SS-Row SS-Column SS-Treatment SS

=348.7984107.626429.8344139.7784=71.5592

THE MEAN OF SQUARES FOR EACH SOURCE OF VARIATION

Row MS=Row SS=107.6264=26.9066

t1

4

Column MS=Colum SS=29.8344=7.4586

t1

4

Treatment MS= Treatment SS=139.7784=34.9446

t1

4

Error MS=Error SS= 71.5592=5.963266667

(t1)(t2)

12

F Value =Treatment MS=34.9446= 5.859976075

Error MS 5.963266667

The tabular F values, from appendix E,with F1=4 and F2=12 degrees of freedom are 3.26 at the 5%

level of significance and 5.41 at 1% level. Because the computed F value is higher than the tabular F

value at the 5% and 1% levels of significance, the treatment difference is significant at both levels of

significance.

Coefficient of variation=Error MS100=5.963266667100=0.072265035100=7.2%

Grand mean

33.792

Source of

variation

Degrees of

freedom

Sum of

squares

Mean

square

Computed

F

Tabular F

5%

1%

Row

Column

4

4

107.6264

29.8344

26.9066

7.4586

5.859976075

5.41

3.26

Treatment

Error

Total

4

12

24

139.7784

71.5592

348.7984

34.9446

5.963266667

b) What are the assumptions required for an analysis of variance? Do you think that the

assumptions for analysis of variance (ANOVA) were met in 4(a)?

1)

2)

3)

4)

(5)

The variance in each cell should be similar

Sample size per cell is less than 20

Scores on one variable or for one group should not be dependent on another variable or

group. There should be independent observations.

5) The main effects (block and treatment) are additive.

The assumptions for analysis of variance were met because the data was normally distributed.

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