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submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of


Goli Ramesh


(Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad)


This is to certify that the Seminar report titled PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY that is
being submitted by Mr. Goli Ramesh (11k81a0571) , in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in
Computer Science & Engineering is a record of bonafide work carried out by
The result of investigation enclosed in this report have been verified and found


The satisfaction and euphoria that accompanies the successful completion of any
task would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible
and whose encouragement and guidance have crowned my efforts with success.
I extend my deep sense of gratitude to Principal, Dr.C. VenkataRamana Reddy,
St.Martins Engineering College, Dhulapally for permitting me to undertake this
Iam indebted to Mr. A.PRAKASH HOD, Computer Science & engineering,









throughout our Seminar.

Finally, I express thanks to one and all who have helped us in successfully
completing this Seminar. Furthermore I would like to thank our family and friends
for their moral support and encouragement.



With the increase in technology threat to personal data and national security had also increased.
The methods that were developed to secure important information from outside intervention
were not up to safe mark .There was a need to introduce a technology that secures our data more
efficiently from unlawful intervention .
Fujitsu has developed a palm vein pattern authentication technology that uses vescular patterns
as personal identification data .Vein recognition technology is secure because the authentication
data exists inside the body and is therefore very difficult to forge. It is highly accurate. This
technology can be used in various fields like banking, hospitals, government offices, in passport
issuing etc. Business growth will be achieved with these solutions by reducing the size of the
palm vein sensor and shortening the authentication time.
This paper is about the palm vein technology, its applications, how this technology is applied in
real time applications and the advantages of using this technology. This paper presents a review
on the palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor.
The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein
authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy. Palm vein authentication uses the vascular
patterns of an individuals palm as personal identification data. Compared with a finger or the back of
a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of
differentiating features for personal identification. The importance of biometrics in the current field
of Security has been depicted in this work. We have also outlined opinions about the utility of
biometric authentication systems, comparison between different techniques and their advantages and
disadvantages in this paper. Several banks in Japan have used the palm vein authentication
technology for customer identification since July 2004. In addition, Fujitsu has integrated the
technology into the access control of electronic door lock systems. Fujitsu plans to further expand
applications for this technology by downsizing the sensor and improving the verification speed.


2. Palm vein Technology
i) Basis of Palm Vein Technology
ii) Palm Vein Registration
iii) Working of Palm Vein Systems
iv) How Secure is the Technology ?
v) What Happens if Registered Palm is damaged ?
vi) Contact less palm vein authentication device
vii)Previous Works.
viii) Palm Vein Authentication Workflow.
ix) Results and Discussions.

3. Advantages
4. Applications
i) ATM
ii) Personal Computers
iii) Hospitals and Libraries
iv) Authentication

5. Conclusion
6. References

Chapter 1
In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information any time
and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same
information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology is
used which includes Passwords, personal identification numbers and identification cards.
However, cards can be stolen and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To
solve these problems, Fujitsu developed four methods:fingerprints, faces, voice prints and palm
veins. Among these, because of its high accuracy, contact less palm vein authentication
technology is being incorporated into various financial solution products for use in public places.
This paper palm vein authentication technologies and some examples of its application to
financial solutions.
How secure are your assets?
Can your personal identification number be easily guessed? As we
increasingly rely on computers and other machines in our daily lives,
ensuring the security of personal information and assets becomes more of a
challenge. If your bank card or personal data falls into the wrong hands,
others can profit at your expense. Fujitsu's palm vein authentication
technology consists of a small palm vein scanner that's easy and natural to
use, fast and highly accurate. Simply hold your palm a few centimeters over
the scanner and within a second it reads your unique vein pattern and your
pattern is registered. Now no one else can log in under your profile. ATM
transactions are just one of the many applications of this new technology.
Fujitsu's technology capitalizes on the special features of the veins in the
palm. Vein patterns are unique even among identical twins. Indeed each
hand has a unique pattern. Try logging in with your left hand after registering
with your right, and you'll be denied access. The scanner makes use of a
special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing through the palm
veins it absorbs near-infrared light. This makes it possible to take a
snapshot of what's beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or

Chapter 2
Palm Vein Technology Reviews
2.1 The Basis of Palm Vein Technology
An individual first rests his wrist, and on some devices, the middle of his fingers, on the sensor's
supports such that the palm is held centimeters above the device's scanner, which flashes a nearinfrared ray on the palm. Unlike the skin, through which near-infrared light passes, veins in palm
deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins absorbs near-infrared rays,
illuminating the hemoglobin, causing it to be visible to the scanner. Arteries and capillaries,
whose blood contains oxygenated hemoglobin, which does not absorb near-infrared light, are
invisible to the sensor. The still image captured by the camera, which photographs in the nearinfrared range, appears as a black network, reflecting the palm's vein pattern against the lighter
background of the palm.

Veins in Palm

An individual's palm vein image is converted by algorithms into data points, which is then
compressed, encrypted, and stored by the software and registered along with the other details in
his profile as a reference for future comparison. Then, each time a person logs in attempting to
gain access by a palm scan to a particular bank account or secured entryway, etc., the newly
captured image is likewise processed and compared to the registered one or to the bank of stored
files for verification, all in a period of seconds. Numbers and positions of veins and their
crossing points are all compared and, depending on verification, the person is either granted or
denied access.


Step 1:
Palm vein authentication technology consists of a small Palm vein scanner that's easy and natural
to use, fast and highly accurate. Simply hold your palm a few centimeters Over the scanner and
within a second it reads your unique vein pattern. A vein picture is taken and palm pattern is

Scanner Display
Step 2:
The registered palm pattern is stored into the database along with the personal details of the
Original palm

Scanned palm

Registered palm

2.3 Working of palm vein security systems

1. One should place his/her palm near to scanner.

2. The scanner makes use of a special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing
through the palm veins it absorbs near-infrared light. This makes it possible to take a
snapshot of what's beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or steal.

Infra Red on Palm

3. The integrated optical system in the palm vein sensor uses this phenomenon to generate an
image of the palm vein pattern and the generated image is digitized, encrypted and finally stored
as a registered template in the database.

Short Region on Palm

2.4 How Secure is the Technology ?

On the basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals , Fujitsu declared that the
new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01% (i.e., only one out of 10,000 scans were incorrect
denials for access), and a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% (i.e., incorrect approval for
access in one in over a million scans). Also, if your profile is registered with your right hand,
don't log in with your left - the patterns of an individual's two hands differ. And if you registered
your profile as a child , it'll still be recognized as you grow, as an individual's patterns of veins
are established in utero (before birth). No two people in the world share a palm vein pattern even those of identical twins differ . In addition the devices ability to perform personal
authentication was verified using the following:
1. Data from people ranging from 6 to 85 years old including people in various occupations
in accordance with the demographics realized by the Statistics Center of the Statistics
2. Data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics
released by the united nations.
3. Data taken in various situations in daily life including after drinking alcohol, taking a
going outside and waking up.

2.5.What happens if the registered palm gets damaged?

There may be a chance that the palm we had registered may get damaged then we cannot use this
technology,so during the time of registration we take the veins of both the hands so that if one
gets damaged we can access through the second hand. When hand get damaged upto large extent
we can get veins because deeper into the hand veins are obtained.

When we apply this method we can maintain complete privacy .

2.6. Contact less palm vein authentication device (HYGIENE CONCERN):

The completely contactless feature of this Device makes it suitable for use where high levels of
hygiene are required .It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into
contact with something that other people have already touched.

Contact less Sensor

In addition to being contactless and thereby hygienic and user-friendly in that the user does not
need to physically touch a surface and is free of such hygiene concerns, palm vein authentication
is highly secure in that the veins are internal to the body and carry a wealth of information,
thereby being extremely difficult to forge.

2.7 Previous Works:

Biometrics authentication is a growing and controversial field in which civil
liberties groups express concern over privacy and identity issues. Today,
biometric laws and regulations are in process and biometric industry
standards are being tested. Automatic recognition based on who you are
as opposed to what you know (PIN) or what you have (ID card).
Recognition of a person by his body & then linking that body to an externally
established identity forms a very powerful tool for identity management
Biometric Recognition. Figure 1 shows the different type of biometric
Canadian airports started using iris scan in 2005 to screen pilots and airport
Pilots were initially worried about the possibility that repeated scans would
negatively affect their vision but the technology has improved to the point
where that is no longer an issue. Canada Customs uses an iris scan system
called CANPASS-Air for low-risk travelers at Pearson airport. Junichi
Hashimoto, 2006, has introduced finger vein authentication, a new biometric
method utilizing the vein patterns inside ones fingers for personal
identification. Vein patterns are different for each finger and for each person,
and as they are hidden underneath the skins surface, forgery is extremely
difficult. These unique aspects of finger vein pattern recognition set it apart
from previous forms of biometrics and have led to its adoption by the major
Japanese financial institutions as their newest security technology.

Yuhang Ding, Dayan Zhuang and Kejun Wang, July 2005[2], have shown the
theoretical foundation and difficulties of hand vein recognition, at first. Then,
the threshold segmentation method and thinning method of hand vein image
are deeply studied and a new threshold segmentation method and an
improved conditional thinning method are proposed. The method of hand
vein image feature extraction based on end points and crossing points is
studied initially, and the matching method based on distances is used to
match vein images.
Shi Zhao, Yiding Wang and Yunhong Wang, proposed [3] a biometric
technique using hand-dorsa, extracting vein structures. For conventional
algorithm, it is necessary to use high-quality images, which demand highpriced collection devices. The proposed method makes using low-cost
devices possible. The results shown that they could extract the vein
networks as successfully as using high-quality images enabling a high level
of security. Additionally, the sensor of the palm vein device can only
recognize the pattern if the hemoglobin is actively flowing within the
individuals veins.

Palm Vein Authentication Workflow:

An individual inserts a smart card into the sensor device and holds her hand
over the reader. The vein pattern is instantly captured using a completely

safe near-infrared light. The reader converts the image into an encrypted
biometric template and compares it against the template on the smart card
(1 to 1 matching) or those in the database (1 to N matching). Using a built-in
speaker, the device instructs the user to place his hand over the device and
informs the user when the scan is complete. In the example below, the
template is stored in a smart card. This enhances security since the template
never leaves the card. Alternatively, the reference templates can be stored in
a database on a server (1 to N matching). The first step in all palm vein
authentication applications is the enrollment process, which scans the users
palm and records the unique pattern as an encrypted biometric template in
the database or on the smart card itself. In banking applications, for
example, once a new customer has been issued a smart card, he/she is
asked to visit the bank in order to enroll her vein data.

Whereas Mohamed Shahin, Ahmed Badawi, and Mohamed Kamel proposed

[5], biometric authentication using hand vein patterns, they designed a
system a near IR cold source to provide back-of-hand illumination. The IR
cold source is a solid-state array of 24 LEDs (light emitting diodes). The
diodes are mounted in a square shape, 6 LEDs in each side, on a designed
and assembled PCB (printed circuit board) and made housing and an
attachment for fixing the LEDs around the CCD lens. Our experiments
showed that the cold source provides better contrast than the ordinary
tungsten filament bulbs. A commercially available, low cost, monochrome
CCD fitted with an IR filter is used to image the back of hand. As shown in
figure 2 and figure 3 show the system designed in [5], it gives the stages
through which the image processed. Figure 4 shows the vein processing


Results and Discussions:

For palm veins, and according to Fig, it is clear that the Moment
Invariants method gives the best recognition rate for all types of noise.
However, for face; and both GLCM and Moment Invariants give
comparable recognition rates. As the GLCM requires more
computations, we adopted Moment Invariants feature vectors for both

Chapter 3
In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the
back of a hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers
the widest area, Because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern .
The palm also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or back of the
hand, where the color can darken in certain areas. Hidden characteristics are used as
biometric features.
It is difficult to forge for intruders. It is not affected by dryness or roughness of skin or by
physical injury on surface of the hand. It has an FRR of 0.01% and FAR of less than
0.00008%. This is based on experiments conducted on 70,000 individuals in Japan. This
technology is non-intrusive. Contactless authentication is hygienic and non-invasive.

Fast and easy enrolment (under one minute). Fast, easy, and secure authentication (under one
second). No Residual Trace Technology No biometric footprint left behind after
authentication. Encrypted repository for template storage. Enterprise level event logging
capability. Compatible with Microsoft Active Directory.

Chapter 4
There are numerous factors that can affect the quality of the captured image such as body
temperature, humidity, heat radiation, nearness of vein to surface, camera calibration and
focus. It is still relatively expensive and not available for mass production yet.

Chapter 5
This palm vein authentication technology is used in various areas for more security. The
following are some of the important areas where it is used:
In July 2004, to ensure customer security, Suruga bank launched itsBio Security Deposit the
worlds first financial service to use Palm Secure . This service features high security for
customers using vein authentication , does not require a bank card or pass book and prevents
withdrawals from branches other than the registered branch and ATMs thereby minimizing the
risk of fraudulent withdrawals. To open a Bio-Security Deposit account, customers go to a bank
and have their palm veins photographed at the counter in order to guarantee secure data
management, the palm vein data is stored only on the vein data base server at the branch office
where the account is opened. In October 2004, The Bank of Tokyo launched its Super IC

Card. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money and palm
vein authentication. This Super IC Card contains the customers palm Vein data and vein
authentication algorithms and performs vein
authentication by itself . This system is advantageous because the customers information is not
stored at the bank. When a customer applies for a Super IC Card, the bank sends the card to the
customers home . To activate the palm vein authentication function, the customer brings the card
and his passbook and seal to the bank Fig:5.1 ATM Sensor counter where the customers vein
information is registered on the card . After registration the customer can make transactions at
that branch counter and ATM using palm vein authentication and a matching PIN number.

ATM Sensor

In personal computers palm vein technology can applied by inserting the vein sensor inside
mouse. when power is supplied to system the mouse also gets power and the sensor in the mouse
will be ready to sense palm veins. When one place his/her palm the sensor sense the veins and if
they are matched with the registered ones the system allows the person to use it. One can use this
technology even to lock folders , that should be maintained as private information.

PC Sensor

A public library in Japan is set to become the first in the world to use palm-vein biometrics as a
substitute for conventional library cards. The University of Tokyo hospital has taken delivery of

a contactless palm vein authentication system to secure physical access to its Department of
Planning, Information and Management.

Using Sensor
5.4 Authentication:

In front of our homes we can apply this Palm vein technology so that by registering the veins
of our family members and relatives we can maintain high range security which is not possible
through other technologies . Japanese recently used these technologies before front doors and
getting high range security.

Near Front Doors

Chapter 6

Palm vein pattern authentication technology developed by Fujitsu was being used in a wide
range in Japan . If this technology is introduced in our country we can solve many problems such
as password protection in ATM , security in various fields and if we implement this technology
in government offices we can make the employees to work according the government timings.
Surely this technology will bring a revolution in the field of science and technology in the near
future. Reliable personal recognition is critical to many applications in our day
to day life.
Biometrics refers to automatic recognition of an individual based on her
behavioraland/or physiological characteristics. It is obvious that any system
assuring reliablepersonal recognition must necessarily involve a biometric
component. This is not,however, to state that biometrics alone can deliver
reliable personal recognitioncomponent.Biometric-based systems also have
some limitations that may have adverseimplications for the security of a
system. While some of the limitations of biometricscan be overcome with the
evolution of biometric technology and a careful systemdesign, it is important
to understand that foolproof personal recognition systems simplydo not exist
and perhaps, never will. Security is a risk management strategy thatidentifies controls, eliminates, or minimizes uncertain events that may adversely
affectsystem resources and information assets. The security level of a
system depends on therequirements (threat model) of an application and the
cost-benefit analysis.As biometric technology matures, there will be an
increasing interaction among the market, technology, and the applications.
This interaction will be influenced by the added value of the technology, user
acceptance, and the credibility of the service provider. It is too early to
predict where and how biometric technology would evolve and get
embedded in which applications. But it is certain that biometric-based
recognition will have a profound influence on the way we conduct our daily

Chapter 7