SUMMARY
TK2203 HEAT TRANSFER OPERATION
nd
2 CHAPTER : HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION
Convection coefficient heat transfer resistance in fluids, also referred to as film coefficient because it
simply refers to thermal resistance of a stagnant thinfilm on a surface are in which heat transfer ensues.
Physical symbol for film coefficient [=]
There are two types of convection:
1. Forced convection fluids moving driven by external force, i.e. pump, fan, or such.
2. Natural convection fluids moving driven by density difference due to temperature gradient
: Forced convection case fluid is moving with certain velocity
WHILE natural convection case theres no information about fluids velocity
General equation for convection :
Heat flux occurred by convection (heat rate Q / surface area A), Q/A, is proportional to temperature
difference between fluids and complementary surface:
Special hallmark
where
= heat rate
= W ; A = heat transfer surface area (m ),
= heat flux
= Temperature difference between fluid and surface (K)
h depends on surface geometry and flow condition (regime).
MAIN OBJECTIVE IN THIS CHAPTER IS TO FIGURE OUT h !
In order to determine h, it can be conducted by experiments which finally resulted empirical models.
Dimensionless number related to h :
1. Reynold number determinant of flow regime (laminar or turbulent)
=
; for pipe, L can be substituted to
2. Nusselt number
=
; for pipe, L can be substituted to
3. Prandtl number refering to relative width of hydrodynamic layer to thermal boundary layer
=
( /
4. Grashoff number
=
Note : Redcoloured equation refers to forced convection while green one refers to natural convection.
Purple one holds for both.
FORCED CONVECTION
< 2100 )
For laminar flow in horizontal pipe (
(
) =
= 1,86
All physical properties are evaluated at BULK fluid temperature EXCEPT
> 6000 ; 0,7 <
For turbulent flow in horizontal pipe (
(
) =
= 0,027
at wall temperature
< 16000 ; < 60 )
,
All physical properties are evaluated on BULK fluid temperature EXCEPT
at wall temperature
If bulk fluid temperature is not equal to inlet and outlet temperature then evaluate it on arithmatical mean
temperature.
Sometimes we need to use trial and eror method : h TW W at wall temperature
For transitional flow in horizontal pipe ( 2100 <
< 6000 ) , use diagram below:
h value for noncircular conduits can be evaluated by using equivalent diameter (Recall what we
learnt in Fluid Mechanics course)
Annulus : DEFF = Outer diameter Inner diameter
effect of L/D
.
= 1+
; 2 < < 20
=1+6
; 20 < < 60
h is the average value for a tube of finite length L and hL is the value for a very long tube.
For liquid metal (i.e. Hg). Peclet number: NPe = NRe . NPr
(1) If the flow is turbulent and L/D > 60, 100 < NPe < 10000
=
= 0.625
(2) If the wall temperature is constant, L/D > 60 , NPe > 100
=
= 5 + 0.025
All physical properties are evaluated at bulk fluid temperature.
Outside various geometries : outside here means the heat transfer occurs on the outside of the
body
=
Properties of fluid are evaluated at the film temperature ( Tf ) :
Tw : wall temperature and Tb : bulk fluid temperature
(1) Parallel flow through flat plate with length L meter
a. Laminar flow :
> 0,7
, < 3 10 and
=
= 0,664 , ,
b. Turbulent flow :
> 3 10 and
> 0,7
=
= 0,0366 , ,
;
(2) Perpendicular flow to cylinder axis
=
with D is outside tube diameter ( can be either outter diameter if the tube is monolayer or outtest
diameter if the tube is multilayer). All physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature (Tf).
The velocity is undisturbed free stream velocity approaching the cylinder.
(3) Flow past single sphere
= 2 + 0,6
; 1 <
Fluid properties are evaluated at the film temperature ( Tf )
(4) Flow past banks of tubes and cylinders
< 70000 and 0.6 <
< 400
NATURAL CONVECTION
For various geometry
(1) Vertical planes and cylinders
For L < 1 m ( L means height of vertical surface or plate, or vertical cylinder length) , the following
equation holds
) ; and are constant given below.
=
=
= (
NGr : Grashof number
: density (kg/m3)
: viscosity (kg m1 s1)
T : TWALL TBULK (K)
k : thermal conductivity (W m1 K1)
cP : heat capacity
(J kg1 K1)
: volumetric coefficient of
expansion of fluid (K1)
FYI, for gas: =1/Tf
All physical properties are
evaluated at film temperature (Tf)
in K
+
=
2
g = 9,80665 ms2
These equations in the table below are simplified form of equations to calculate h value at 1 atm
absolute pressure BUT IT PREVAILS ONLY WHEN (T.L3) < 4.7 m3K AND 255 K < Tf <533 K
The corresponding information to the simplified equations is given in Table 4.72 on previous page.
WARNING: Notice if the absolute pressure is not 1 atm but p pascal, the h value calculated from the table above
needs to be multiplied by the following factors:

If ( 104 < NGr.NPr < 109 ) :
If ( NGr.NPr > 109 ) :
=
=
.
.
(2) In enclosed spaces
Two vertical plates of height L m containing the fluid with a gap of m
(
and
Heat flux : = (
Enclosed fluid physical properties such as , , and k are evaluated on Tf .
+
=
2
If the fluid is gas, the plate is vertical as shown in Figure 1, and L/ > 3
Calculate the NGr.NPr and then choose one of these satified conditions:
If
< 2 10 :
Figure 1. Enclosed vertical spaces
Adapted from Figure 4.72 Geankoplis
=1
If 6 10 <
< 2 10 :
= 0.2
If 2 10 <
< 2 10 :
= 0.073
=1
If the fluid is liquid, the plate is vertical as shown in Figure 1, theres no specific restriction for value of L/.
Calculate the NGr.NPr and then choose one of these satifying conditions:
If
If 10 <
< 10 :
,
< 10 :
=1
,
= 0.28
How about liquids or gases in vertical annulus? The same equation holds for case of vertical plates.
How about the plates are horizontal plates? If the lower plate is hotter than the upper:
 If the fluid is gas, calculate the NGr.NPr and then choose one of these satified conditions:
If 7 10 <
< 3 10 :
= 0.21
If
> 3 10 :
,
, = 0.061
,
If the fluid is liquid, this equation below holds if 1.5 10 <
,
= 0.069
< 10
,
.
(3) Horizontal cylinders
Just have a look at equation for vertical cylinder (number 1) before. Change L in the equation with D (outside
diameter of the horizontal cylinder. BE CAREFUL, D IS DIAMETER, NOT RADIUS! Behold table 4.71 for
horizontal cylinders too!
(4) Horizontal plates
The same as (3), but L depends on what sort of plates it is.
 Square plate with side length X : L = X
 Two dimensional rectangle with side length X and Y : L = 0.5( X + Y )
 Circular disk with diameter D : L = 0.9D
For the nucleate boiling:
(1) Horizontal plate, the equation used to calculate h can be found below:
( btu h ft
) < 5000 ( btu h ft
( kW m ) < 16 (W m
5000 <
( btu h ft
16 <
) = 151(T())
) = 1043 (T(K))
) < 7,5 10 ( btu h ft
( kW m ) < 240 (W m
) = 0.168(T())
) = 5.56(T(K))
(2) Vertical plate
( btu h ft
) < 1000 ( btu h ft
( kW m ) < 3 (W m
1000 <
( btu h ft
3<
) = 87(T())
) = 537(T(K))
) < 2 10 ( btu h ft
( kW m ) < 63 (W m
) = 0.24(T())
) = 7.95(T(K))
in K or
If the pressure is p atm abs, the vaolue of h at 1 atm calculated above are multiplied py (p/1)0.4. The red box
equations are in the natural convection region. What about forced convection boiling inside tubes?
= 2.55 ( )
= 0.077( ())
where p is in kPa or psia (English units).
(Wm K
(btu h
)
)
Condensation of thin film
1. LAMINAR FLOW
For a vertical surface in laminar flow (Re < 1800)
=
= 1,13
(1)
T=TSAT  TWALL
L : vertical height of surface or tube
hfg : latent heat of condensation in J/kg at TSAT
All phyisical properties except hfg are evaluated at Tf = 0,5(TSAT + TWALL)
2. TURBULENT FLOW
Turbulent flow occurs when Re > 1800
=
= 0,0077
. (2)
The solution of that equation is obtained bt Trial and Error method. Use this
following equation:
Figure 2. Film condensation on a vertical plate
= =
(3)
Adapted from Figure 4.83 Geankoplis
GENERAL FOR BOTH:
Reynold number can be calculated by these following equations:
4
4
=
=
; vertical tube, diamater D
=
; vertical plate, width W
m is mass flow rate with unit of kg/s
hfg is latent heat of condensation, mathematically defined as: =
= /
WARNING: Beware of unit of hfg and notice it carefully! Its casually given in kJ/kg, do not forget to convert
it to J/kg by multiplication with 1000.
How to do the trial and error that was just mentioned before?
1. Evaluate TSAT, TWALL, and TFILM
2. Evaluate latent heat at TSAT and then evaluate LIQUID, VAPOR, kLIQUID, LIQUID at TFILM
3. Assuming the regime whether its laminar or turbulent.
4. Calculate h by using either equation (1) (if the initial assumption is laminar flow) or (2) (for the contrary)
5. Calculate area of convection. For instance: in the case of cylinder with outer diameter D with length L and steam
condensing outside its shell, the A is therefore: A=LD
6. Calculate q by using equation (3), T=TSAT  TWALL
7. Calculate m.
8. Calculate Reynold number.
9. See if the regime is correct as assumed. (critical number=1800)
10. If the regime is not correct as assumed, repeat step 4 for the another one regime.
1. Knowing the case whether the fluid is one phase or two phases
2. If it appears to be one phase: check whether its natural or forced
convection
3. If it appears to be two phases: check whether its boiling or
condensation
4. Knowing the geometry of body where heat transfer occurs
5. Notice the restriction of conditions (when it prevails) of all equations
(Reynold num., L/D)
6. Notice at what temperature will the properties of fluid be evaluated
then.
7. Notice if the pressure may affect.
8. BE METICULOUS on putting UNIT of any variables involved in all
related equations.
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