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CHAPTER 1:

GAS AND
CONDENSED
MATTER

PREPARED BY:
NOR HALIZA YAAKOB,
Faculty of Applied Science
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Campus of Negeri Sembilan
72000 Kuala Pilah, Negeri
Sembilan, MALAYSIA.
PHY 351 (Materials Science)
013-9495135
norhaliza@ns.uitm.edu.my

SCOPE OF STUDY
1.1: Force between particle
1.2: Ideal Law, Real Gas, Van der Waals
of State Equation
1.3: Condensed Matter-solid and liquid
Triple Point

INTRODUCTION
Materials may be defined as substance of which
something is composed or made.
Materials Science is a scientific discipline that
is primarily concerned with the search for basic
knowledge about the internal structure,
properties and processing of materials.
Material engineering is an engineering disciple
that is primarily concerned with the use of
fundamental and applied knowledge of materials,
so that they can be converted into products
needed or desired by society.

Gas and Condensed matter physics: The branch of


physics dealing with the physical properties and to
understand the behaviour of condensed phases of
matter such as gas, liquids and solids.
The gaseous state of matter is found between the
liquid and plasma states .
Liquids and solids are the most well known forms of
condensed matter.
The atoms in condensed matter are closer together
and more closely bounded together than in a gas, as a
result condensed matter tends to be some form of
liquid or solid.

FORCE BETWEEN PARTICLE


All matter is held together by force.
Particle physicists think of forces as interactions
between particles that produce structure.
The force between atoms within a molecule is a
chemical or intramolecular force.
The force between molecules are a physical or
intermolecular force.

These physical forces are what we overcome when


a chemical changes its state (e.g. gas liquid).

Bonding model for covalent


molecular substances
Bonding for covalent molecular substances falls into
two categories
i.

ii.

The strong forces of attraction which holds atoms together


within molecules (Intramolecular).
The weak forces of attraction between molecules
(Intermolecular).

Intramolecular Forces
What would intramolecular forces be?
Forces within molecules e.g covalent,

metallic or ionic.

intra means within.


Intramolecular bonds
intermolecular forces.

are stronger

than

Intermolecular Forces
Forces that occur between molecules.

What causes intermolecular


forces?

Molecules are made up of charged particles:


positive nuclei and negative electrons.
When one molecule approaches another there is a
multitude of forces between the particles in the
two molecules.
Each electron in one molecule is attracted to the
nuclei in the other molecule but also repelled by the
electrons in the other molecule.
The same applies for nuclei.

Types of Intermolecular
forces
The three main types of intermolecular forces
are:
i. Dipole-dipole attraction - occur only btw
polar molecules.
ii. H bonding only with Hydrogen and Oxygen,
Fluorine and Nitrogen).
iii. Dispersion forces (London Dispersion
Forces).

DipoleDipole Attraction
Dipole moment molecules with polar bonds
often behave in an electric field as if they
had a center of positive charge and a center
of negative charge.
Molecules with dipole moments can attract
each other electrostatically. They line up so
that the positive and negative ends are close
to each other.
Only about 1% as strong as covalent or ionic
bonds.

Hydrogen Bonding
The electromagnetic attractive interaction
between polar molecules in which Hydrogen
is bound to a highly electronegative atom
nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine.
Strong dipole-dipole forces.

Hydrogen Bonding in Water


Blue dotted
lines are the
intermolecular
forces
between the
water
molecules.

Hydrogen Bonding
Affects physical properties:
i. Boiling point

London Dispersion Forces


The London dispersion force is a
temporary attractive force that results
when the electrons in two adjacent atoms
occupy positions that make the atoms
form temporary (Instantaneous) dipoles.
Significant in large atoms/molecules.
Occurs in all molecules, including nonpolar
ones.

London Dispersion Forces


Nonpolar Molecules

Become stronger
as the sizes
of atoms or
molecules
increase.

Strength of Intermolecular
Interactions

Hydrogen Bonding

Dipole Dipole

London Dispersion Forces

Melting and Boiling Points

In general, the stronger the


intermolecular forces, the higher
the melting and boiling points.

Kinetic Molecular Theory


The kinetic theory of matter is based on the following
postulates:
1.

The particles are in constant random motion- They

possess kinetic energy due to their motion


2. There is no interaction between molecules,
molecules obey laws of classical mechanics and
interact only when colliding.(There are repulsive and
attractive forces (PE) between particles but a weak
force).
3. No energy is lost when the particles collide, called

elastic collision.
4. Average particle speed increases with temperature.
5. The molecules are separated by great distances
relative to their size.

Kinetic Energy
The kinetic energy of a particle is given by
the equation:
Where:

KE

1
mv 2
2

m = particle mass in kg
v = particle velocity in m/s
KE = kgm2/s2 = J (joule)
According to postulate 4 of our kinetic theory
particle velocity increases with temperature.
This means as temperature increases then
kinetic energy increases.

Potential Energy
Potential energy is the sum of the attractive
and repulsive forces between particles.
Alternatively we can say forces between
particles may be either cohesive or disruptive.
Cohesive
forces
include
dipole-dipole
interactions, dispersion forces, attraction
between oppositely charged ions. Cohesive
forces are largely temperature independent.

Disruptive forces are those forces that


make particles move away from each other.
These forces result predominately from the
particle motion.
Disruptive forces increase with temperature
in agreement with postulate 4.
We can conclude that as we increase the
temperature particles will become further
apart from each other.

The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature


The relationship between the volume, pressure,
temperature, and mass of a gas is called an equation
of state.
We will deal here with gases that are not too dense.

Boyles Law: the volume of a given


amount of gas is inversely proportional
to the pressure as long as the
temperature is constant.

The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature


The volume is linearly proportional to the
temperature, as long as the temperature is
somewhat above the condensation point and the
pressure is constant:
Extrapolating, the volume becomes zero at
273.15C; this temperature is called absolute zero.

The Gas Laws and Absolute


Temperature
The concept of absolute zero allows us to define
a third temperature scale the absolute, or
Kelvin, scale.
This scale starts with 0 K at absolute zero, but
otherwise is the same as the Celsius scale.
Therefore, the freezing point of water is
273.15 K, and the boiling point is 373.15 K.
Finally, when the volume is constant, the
pressure is directly proportional to the
temperature:

The Ideal Gas Law


We can combine the three relations just derived into
a single relation:
What about the amount of gas present? If the
temperature and pressure are constant, the volume
is proportional to the amount of gas:

The Ideal Gas Law


A mole (mol) is defined as the number of grams
of a substance that is numerically equal to the
molecular mass of the substance:
1 mol H2 has a mass of 2 g

1 mol CO2 has a mass of 44 g


The number of moles in a certain mass of
material:

The Ideal Gas Equation

1
Boyles Law: V (constant n, T )
P
Charless Law: V T (constant n, P)
Avogadros Law: V n (constant P,T )
We can combine these into a general gas law:
nT
V
P

The Ideal Gas Equation


R = gas constant, then
nT
V R

The ideal gas equation is:

PV nRT
Real Gases behave ideally at low P and high
T.

The Ideal Gas Law


We can now write the ideal gas law:

PV nRT
P, pressure = Pa
V, volume = m3
n, number of moles = moles
R, universal gas constant = J mol-1 K-1
T, temperature = K

At sea level the atmospheric pressure is about ;

= . /
This is called one atmosphere (atm).
1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2

Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules:


Avogadros Number
Since the gas constant is universal, the number of
molecules in one mole is the same for all gases.
That number is called Avogadros number:

The number of molecules in a gas is the number of


moles times Avogadros number:

Therefore we can write:

=
where k is called Boltzmanns constant.

The Ideal Gas Equation


Calculate the pressure exerted by 84.0 g of
ammonia, NH3, in a 5.00 L container at 200. oC
using the ideal gas law.
PV = nRT
P = nRT/V
n = 84.0g * 1mol/17 g
T = 200 + 273
P = (4.94mol)(0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1)(473K)
(5 L)
P = 38.3 atm

Real Gases:
Deviations from Ideality
Real gases behave ideally at
ordinary temperatures and
pressures.
At low temperatures and high
pressures real gases do not behave
ideally.
The reasons for the deviations
from ideality are:
The molecules are very close to
one another, thus their volume is
important.
The molecular interactions also
become important.

J. van der Waals, 1837-1923,


Professor of Physics,
Amsterdam. Nobel Prize 1910.

The dashed curve A and B represents the


behavior of a gas as predicted by the ideal gas
law (Boyles Law) for several different values of
the temperature.

van der Waals equation accounts for the behavior


of real gases at low temperatures and high
pressures.

n 2a
V nb nRT
P +
2
V

The van der Waals constants a and b take into account two
things (correction van der Waals made):
1) a accounts for intermolecular attraction
i. For nonpolar gases the attractive forces are
London Forces
ii.For polar gases the attractive forces are dipoledipole attractions or hydrogen bonds.

2) b accounts for volume of gas molecules

At large volumes a and b are relatively small and van der


Waals equation reduces to ideal gas law at high
temperatures and low pressures.

Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal


Behavior

The van der Waals Equation


2
nRT
n a
P
2
V nb V
Corrects for
molecular
attraction

Corrects for
molecular
volume
General form of the van der Waals equation:
2

n
P a V nb nRT
2

Condensed matter
The three states of matter.

Some Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic


Explanation for the Behavior
gas

liquid

solid

assumes the shape and


volume of its container.
particles can move past
one another

assumes the shape of


the part of the
container which it
occupies
particles can
move/slide past one
another

retains a fixed volume


and shape
rigid - particles locked
into place

Compressible.
lots of free space
between particles

not easily compressible


little free space
between particles

not easily compressible


little free space
between particles

flows easily.
particles can move past
one another

flows easily
particles can
move/slide past one
another

does not flow easily


rigid - particles cannot
move/slide past one
another

Clearly, a theory used to describe the


condensed states of matter must include an
attraction between the particles in the
substance

Condensed States of
Matter:
.

Liquids

Solids

Kinetic Theory Description of the Liquid State.

Like
gases,
the
condensed states of
matter can consist of
atoms,
ions,
or
molecules.
What separates the
three states of matter
is the proximity of the
particles
in
the
substance.
For the condensed
states of matter the
particles are close
enough to interact.

Phase Changes

Triple Point Diagram of Water


Regions: Each region corresponds to
one phase which is stable for any
combination of P and T within its
region
Lines Between Region: Lines
separating the regions representing
phase-transition curves
Triple Point: The triple point
represents the P and T at which all 3
phases coexist in equilibrium
Critical Point: At the critical point
the vapor pressure cannot be
condensed to liquid no matter what
pressure is applied.