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Vibration of Multi-Degreeof-Freedom (MDOF)

Systems - Newtons
Method
H.P. LEE
Department of Mechanical Engineering
EA-05-20
Email: mpeleehp@nus.edu.sg
Semester 2 2014/2015

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Degrees of freedom

The degrees of freedom (DOF) of a


rigid body is defined as the number of
independent movements it has.
The figure shows a rigid body in a
plane.
The bar (rigid body) can be translated
along the x axis, translated along the
y axis, and rotated about its centroid
(centre of mass). (or change of the
orientation of the bar)
Therefore, for this rigid body in planar
motion, there are 3 DOF.

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Example

A door has one degree of freedom

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Some are not that obvious

The following mechanisms only have one


degree of freedom.

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Example

A three DOF robotic arm

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Example

A slider crank in an engine

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Example

Windshield wiper mechanism


There are two four bar mechanisms links 1234 and
links 1456. 1234 is a crank rocker mechanism. 1456 is a
double rocker mechanism,, also a parallel mechanism.
It only has one degree of freedom.

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Example of spring mass damper system

A one degree of freedom system

A two degree of freedom system

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Some of these simple models are


used for analyzing complex motions

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Another example

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Review on Mechanical Components for a


Vibrating System

Spring Force
k is the spring constant

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Mechanical Components

Damping force
c is the damping coefficient

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Mechanical Components
Inertia force
(or kinetic force)

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One degree of freedom systems

A spring mass system

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One degree of freedom system

A spring mass damper system

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Degrees of freedom back to


something more fundamental
In general, the number of degrees
of freedom of a dynamical system
is the number of independent
parameters (or coordinates)
required to describe the motion of
the dynamical system.
For a spring mass system, it has
one degree of freedom. The
variable x is the independent
coordinate required to describe
the motion of the mass.

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x0
x

Example : A Torsional Vibration System


An elastic shaft and a rigid
rotor.
A one degree of freedom
system.
J is the moment of inertia of
the rotor.
K is the torsional stiffness of
the shaft.

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Shaft
Disc

1 DOF

A two-degree-of-freedom Torsional
Vibration System

The following is an example of a 2 DOF vibration


system.
K1
J1

1
K2

J2

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Example for a two DOF spring-massdamper system

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Equation of motion
The equation of motion for
the 2DOF system can be
derived either by the
Newtons method (a vector
approach) or the Lagranges
equation (a scalar approach).
The Newtons method is to
construct the force diagram
and then apply the Newtons
second law.

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Newtons Law (Revision)


For a mass m acted upon by the resultant F of
external forces, the acceleration a is
F=ma
In graphical form, or so called the force diagram, or
the free body diagram:
F
ma
=

ma is known as the kinetic force. It is a vector quantity.

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DAlemberts Principle (Revision)


The kinetic force can be moved to the
left hand side of the equation by
changing the sign: (changing the
direction)
ma

F
=

If the kinetic force is moved to the


left hand side, it is known as the
inertia force. The inertia force
and the external force are in
static equilibrium.
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Force Diagram

For the 2 DOF rotor system.


Governing equations
Newtons method
K11

J1
1
1

Disc-1

K 2 (2 1 )

J2
2
2

Disc-2

Force equilibrium diagram


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Equation of Motion

From force equilibrium diagram of disc 1.

K K ( ) 0
J1
1
1 1
2
2
1
(K K ) K 0
J1
1
1
2
1
2 2

From force equilibrium diagram of disc 2.

K ( ) 0
J2
2
2
2
1

K K 0
J2
2
2 1
2 2

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Example spring mass systems

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2 DOF spring mass systems

Free body force diagram

m1a

m2a2

k2(x2 -x1)
k 1 x1

m2

m1

x2

x1
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2 DOF spring mass systems


m1 x1 (t ) k1 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) x1 (t )
m2 x2 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) x1 (t )

(4.1)

Rearranging terms:
m1 x1 (t ) (k1 k2 ) x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0
m2 x2 (t ) k2 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0
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(4.2)

General observations

A 2 Degree-of-Freedom system has

Two natural frequencies (we will discuss this later).


Two equations of motion.

Free vibrations, so the forms are homogeneous


equations.
Equations are coupled:

Both have x1 and x2.


If only one mass moves, the other follows

In this case the coupling is due to k2.

Mathematically and Physically.


If k2 = 0, no coupling occurs and can be solved as two
independent SDOF systems.
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Initial Conditions
For a 2 DOF systems, the two equations are
linear second order differential equations with
constant coefficients.
The two equations will result in four unknown
constants from the integration process.
Four initial conditions are therefore required for
the solutions.
The initial conditions are typically in terms of
initial positions and velocities.

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Initial conditions

The initial conditions for the previous examples are

x1 (0) x10 , x1 (0) x10 , x2 (0) x20 , x2 (0) x20

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Matrix form

The two equations can be written in the form of a single


matrix equation

x1 (t )
x1 (t )
x1 (t )
x(t )
, x(t )
, x(t )

x
(
t
)
x
(
t
)
x
(
t
)
2
2
2
m1
M
0

0
,

m2

k1 k2
K
k2

Mx Kx 0
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k2
k2

Matrix form

The matrix equation, if expanded, is the same as the


system of two ordinary differential equations

m1x1 (t ) (k1 k2 ) x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0
m2 x2 (t ) k2 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0

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Initial conditions

The initial conditions in vector form are

x10
x10
x(0) , and x(0)
x20
x20

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Solution process

Let x(t ) ue

jt

j 1, u 0, , u unknown
- M K ue
2

jt

- M K u 0
2

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Observation

This process changes the system of two ordinary


differential equations into an algebraic vector equation.
2

M K u 0

(4.17)

This is two algebraic equation in 3 uknowns


( 1 vector of two elements and 1 scalar):
u1
u = , and
u2
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Solution

For a non trivial solution, the inverse cannot exist

If the inv - 2 M K exists u 0 : which is the


static equilibrium position. For motion to occur
u 0 - M K
2

does not exist

or det - 2 M K 0

(4.19)

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Solution characteristic equation

The determinant results in 1 equation in one unknown


known as the characteristic equation

det- 2 M K 0
2 m1 k1 k2

k2
det
0
2
k2
m2 k2

m1m2 4 (m1k2 m2 k1 m2 k2 ) 2 k1 k2 0

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Solution characteristic equation

The equation is quadratic and will result in two solutions

and 1 and 2
2
1

2
2

( M K )u1 0

(4.22)

( M K )u 2 0

(4.23)

2
1

and
2
2

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Solution
Each of these matrix equations represents 2
equations in the 2 unknown components of the
vector, but the coefficient matrix is singular so
each matrix equation results in only 1
independent equation
The following examples will clarify this

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Example
m1=9 kg,m2=1kg, k1=24 N/m and k2=3 N/m
The characteristic equation becomes
4-62+8=(2-2)(2-4)=0
2 = 2 and 2 =4 or

1,3 2 rad/s, 2,4 2 rad/s

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Solution
u11
For =2, denote u1 then we have
u12
(-12 M K )u1 0
2
1

3 u11 0
27 9(2)

3

3 (2) u12 0

9u11 3u12 0 and 3u11 u12 0


2 equations, 2 unknowns but DEPENDENT!
(the 2nd equation is -3 times the first)
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Solution

Only the direction of vectors u can be determined, not


the magnitude as it remains arbitrary

u11 1
1
u11 u12 results from both equations:
u12 3
3
only the direction, not the magnitude can be determined!
This is because: det(12 M K ) 0.
The magnitude of the vector is arbitrary. To see this suppose
that u1 satisfies
(12 M K )u1 0, so does au1 , a arbitrary. So
( 12 M K ) au1 0 ( 12 M K )u1 0
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Solution
u21
For = 4, let u 2 then we have
u22
2
(-1 M K )u 0
2
2

3 u21 0
27 9(4)

3

3 (4) u22 0

1
9u21 3u22 0 or u21 u22
3
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Solution

How about the magnitudes? We can only determine the


relative magnitudes at this stage

3
u12 1 u1
1
1

3
u22 1 u2
1
1

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Mode shapes

u1 and u2 are known as the mode shapes

1,3

13
2, has mode shape u1
1

2,4

1 3
2, has mode shape u2
1

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The complete solution

As the system is linear, the solution is

x(t ) u1e j1t , u1e j1t , u 2 e j2t , u 2 e j2t


x(t ) au1e j1t bu1e j1t cu 2e j2t du 2e j2t

x(t ) ae

j1t

be

j1t

u ce
1

j2t

de

j2t

A1 sin(1t 1 )u1 A2 sin(2t 2 )u 2


where A1 , A2 , 1 , and 2 are constants of integration
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Physical interpretation of the results


Each of the TWO masses is oscillating at TWO
natural frequencies 1 and 2
The relative magnitude of each sine term, and
hence of the magnitude of oscillation of m1 and
m2 is determined by the value of A1u1 and A2u2
The vectors u1 and u2 are called mode shapes
because the describe the relative magnitude of
oscillation between the two masses

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What is a mode shape?

First note that A1, A2, 1 and 2 are determined by the


initial conditions
Choose them so that A2 = 1 = 2 =0

x1 (t)
u11
x(t)
A1 sin 1t A1u1 sin 1t

x2 (t)
u12

Thus each mass oscillates at (one) (the same)


frequency 1 with magnitudes proportional to u1 the 1st
mode shape

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Graphical representation of mode


shapes
x1

x2

k1

m1

Mode 1:

m2

1 3
u2
1

x2=A

x1=A/3
x1

x2

k1

Mode 2:

m2

13
u1
1

k2

k2

m1
x2=A

x1=-A/3
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Time response with given initial


conditions

To compute the time response with the given initial


conditions

1
0
consider x(0) = mm, x (0)
0
0
A1
A2

x
(
t
)
1
sin 2t 1 sin 2t 2

3
x (t ) 3
2 A sin 2t A sin 2t
1
1
2
2
A1
A2

x
(
t
)

1
2 cos 2t 1 2 cos2t 2

3
x (t ) 3
2 A 2 cos 2t A 2 cos2t
1
1
2
2
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Time response

At t = 0

A
A

1
2
1 mm

sin

sin

1
2

3
3
0

A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2
A1
A2

0
2 cos 1 2 cos 2
3
0 3


A1 2 cos 1 2 A2 cos 2
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Time response

There are four equations with four unknowns

3 A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2
0 A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2
0 A1 2 cos1 A2 2 cos2
0 A1 2 cos1 A2 2 cos2
A1 1.5 mm, A2 1.5 mm, 1 2
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rad

Time response

The final solution is

x1 (t) 0.5 cos 2t 0.5 cos 2t


x2 (t) 1.5 cos 2t 1.5 cos 2t

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Graphical solutions

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The final solution

It is a combination of the two mode shapes

x(t) a1u1 cos 1t a2u2 cos2t

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Conclusion

A two degree-of-freedom system will have two natural


frequencies.
These two frequencies are present in the general
response.
Frequencies are not those of two component systems

k1
k2
1 2
1.63, 2 2
1.732
m1
m2

There are simpler approach for solving the same


problem.

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