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Systems - Newtons

Method

H.P. LEE

Department of Mechanical Engineering

EA-05-20

Email: mpeleehp@nus.edu.sg

Semester 2 2014/2015

ME4213

Degrees of freedom

rigid body is defined as the number of

independent movements it has.

The figure shows a rigid body in a

plane.

The bar (rigid body) can be translated

along the x axis, translated along the

y axis, and rotated about its centroid

(centre of mass). (or change of the

orientation of the bar)

Therefore, for this rigid body in planar

motion, there are 3 DOF.

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Example

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degree of freedom.

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Example

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Example

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Example

There are two four bar mechanisms links 1234 and

links 1456. 1234 is a crank rocker mechanism. 1456 is a

double rocker mechanism,, also a parallel mechanism.

It only has one degree of freedom.

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used for analyzing complex motions

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Another example

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Vibrating System

Spring Force

k is the spring constant

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Mechanical Components

Damping force

c is the damping coefficient

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Mechanical Components

Inertia force

(or kinetic force)

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something more fundamental

In general, the number of degrees

of freedom of a dynamical system

is the number of independent

parameters (or coordinates)

required to describe the motion of

the dynamical system.

For a spring mass system, it has

one degree of freedom. The

variable x is the independent

coordinate required to describe

the motion of the mass.

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x0

x

An elastic shaft and a rigid

rotor.

A one degree of freedom

system.

J is the moment of inertia of

the rotor.

K is the torsional stiffness of

the shaft.

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Shaft

Disc

1 DOF

A two-degree-of-freedom Torsional

Vibration System

system.

K1

J1

1

K2

J2

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Equation of motion

The equation of motion for

the 2DOF system can be

derived either by the

Newtons method (a vector

approach) or the Lagranges

equation (a scalar approach).

The Newtons method is to

construct the force diagram

and then apply the Newtons

second law.

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For a mass m acted upon by the resultant F of

external forces, the acceleration a is

F=ma

In graphical form, or so called the force diagram, or

the free body diagram:

F

ma

=

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The kinetic force can be moved to the

left hand side of the equation by

changing the sign: (changing the

direction)

ma

F

=

left hand side, it is known as the

inertia force. The inertia force

and the external force are in

static equilibrium.

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Force Diagram

Governing equations

Newtons method

K11

J1

1

1

Disc-1

K 2 (2 1 )

J2

2

2

Disc-2

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Equation of Motion

K K ( ) 0

J1

1

1 1

2

2

1

(K K ) K 0

J1

1

1

2

1

2 2

K ( ) 0

J2

2

2

2

1

K K 0

J2

2

2 1

2 2

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m1a

m2a2

k2(x2 -x1)

k 1 x1

m2

m1

x2

x1

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m1 x1 (t ) k1 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) x1 (t )

m2 x2 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) x1 (t )

(4.1)

Rearranging terms:

m1 x1 (t ) (k1 k2 ) x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0

m2 x2 (t ) k2 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0

ME4213

(4.2)

General observations

Two equations of motion.

equations.

Equations are coupled:

If only one mass moves, the other follows

If k2 = 0, no coupling occurs and can be solved as two

independent SDOF systems.

ME4213

Initial Conditions

For a 2 DOF systems, the two equations are

linear second order differential equations with

constant coefficients.

The two equations will result in four unknown

constants from the integration process.

Four initial conditions are therefore required for

the solutions.

The initial conditions are typically in terms of

initial positions and velocities.

ME4213

Initial conditions

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Matrix form

matrix equation

x1 (t )

x1 (t )

x1 (t )

x(t )

, x(t )

, x(t )

x

(

t

)

x

(

t

)

x

(

t

)

2

2

2

m1

M

0

0

,

m2

k1 k2

K

k2

Mx Kx 0

ME4213

k2

k2

Matrix form

system of two ordinary differential equations

m1x1 (t ) (k1 k2 ) x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0

m2 x2 (t ) k2 x1 (t ) k2 x2 (t ) 0

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Initial conditions

x10

x10

x(0) , and x(0)

x20

x20

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Solution process

Let x(t ) ue

jt

j 1, u 0, , u unknown

- M K ue

2

jt

- M K u 0

2

ME4213

Observation

differential equations into an algebraic vector equation.

2

M K u 0

(4.17)

( 1 vector of two elements and 1 scalar):

u1

u = , and

u2

ME4213

Solution

static equilibrium position. For motion to occur

u 0 - M K

2

or det - 2 M K 0

(4.19)

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known as the characteristic equation

det- 2 M K 0

2 m1 k1 k2

k2

det

0

2

k2

m2 k2

m1m2 4 (m1k2 m2 k1 m2 k2 ) 2 k1 k2 0

ME4213

and 1 and 2

2

1

2

2

( M K )u1 0

(4.22)

( M K )u 2 0

(4.23)

2

1

and

2

2

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Solution

Each of these matrix equations represents 2

equations in the 2 unknown components of the

vector, but the coefficient matrix is singular so

each matrix equation results in only 1

independent equation

The following examples will clarify this

ME4213

Example

m1=9 kg,m2=1kg, k1=24 N/m and k2=3 N/m

The characteristic equation becomes

4-62+8=(2-2)(2-4)=0

2 = 2 and 2 =4 or

ME4213

Solution

u11

For =2, denote u1 then we have

u12

(-12 M K )u1 0

2

1

3 u11 0

27 9(2)

3

3 (2) u12 0

2 equations, 2 unknowns but DEPENDENT!

(the 2nd equation is -3 times the first)

ME4213

Solution

the magnitude as it remains arbitrary

u11 1

1

u11 u12 results from both equations:

u12 3

3

only the direction, not the magnitude can be determined!

This is because: det(12 M K ) 0.

The magnitude of the vector is arbitrary. To see this suppose

that u1 satisfies

(12 M K )u1 0, so does au1 , a arbitrary. So

( 12 M K ) au1 0 ( 12 M K )u1 0

ME4213

Solution

u21

For = 4, let u 2 then we have

u22

2

(-1 M K )u 0

2

2

3 u21 0

27 9(4)

3

3 (4) u22 0

1

9u21 3u22 0 or u21 u22

3

ME4213

Solution

relative magnitudes at this stage

3

u12 1 u1

1

1

3

u22 1 u2

1

1

ME4213

Mode shapes

1,3

13

2, has mode shape u1

1

2,4

1 3

2, has mode shape u2

1

ME4213

x(t ) au1e j1t bu1e j1t cu 2e j2t du 2e j2t

x(t ) ae

j1t

be

j1t

u ce

1

j2t

de

j2t

where A1 , A2 , 1 , and 2 are constants of integration

ME4213

Each of the TWO masses is oscillating at TWO

natural frequencies 1 and 2

The relative magnitude of each sine term, and

hence of the magnitude of oscillation of m1 and

m2 is determined by the value of A1u1 and A2u2

The vectors u1 and u2 are called mode shapes

because the describe the relative magnitude of

oscillation between the two masses

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initial conditions

Choose them so that A2 = 1 = 2 =0

x1 (t)

u11

x(t)

A1 sin 1t A1u1 sin 1t

x2 (t)

u12

frequency 1 with magnitudes proportional to u1 the 1st

mode shape

ME4213

shapes

x1

x2

k1

m1

Mode 1:

m2

1 3

u2

1

x2=A

x1=A/3

x1

x2

k1

Mode 2:

m2

13

u1

1

k2

k2

m1

x2=A

x1=-A/3

ME4213

conditions

conditions

1

0

consider x(0) = mm, x (0)

0

0

A1

A2

x

(

t

)

1

sin 2t 1 sin 2t 2

3

x (t ) 3

2 A sin 2t A sin 2t

1

1

2

2

A1

A2

x

(

t

)

1

2 cos 2t 1 2 cos2t 2

3

x (t ) 3

2 A 2 cos 2t A 2 cos2t

1

1

2

2

ME4213

Time response

At t = 0

A

A

1

2

1 mm

sin

sin

1

2

3

3

0

A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2

A1

A2

0

2 cos 1 2 cos 2

3

0 3

A1 2 cos 1 2 A2 cos 2

ME4213

Time response

3 A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2

0 A1 sin 1 A2 sin 2

0 A1 2 cos1 A2 2 cos2

0 A1 2 cos1 A2 2 cos2

A1 1.5 mm, A2 1.5 mm, 1 2

ME4213

rad

Time response

x2 (t) 1.5 cos 2t 1.5 cos 2t

ME4213

Graphical solutions

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ME4213

Conclusion

frequencies.

These two frequencies are present in the general

response.

Frequencies are not those of two component systems

k1

k2

1 2

1.63, 2 2

1.732

m1

m2

problem.

ME4213

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